Weapons of World War I

Explain the new weapons that changed warfare in World War I.

 Poison gas was a deadly new weapon used in World War I. France was the first country to start using gas, but Germany is the one who perfected its use. The killing capacity of gas was limited – only 3% of combat deaths were due to gas – however, the proportion of non-fatal casualties was high, and gas remained one of the soldiers’ greatest fears. Because it was impossible to develop effective countermeasures to gas attacks, it was unlike most other weapons of the period. The first gas that was used in 1914 was called tear gas. This gas contained the chemical lachrymatory. The French put tear gas in their grenades. The tear gas made the soldiers eyes itch continuously which made them less valuable. Then Germany started using chlorine in their artillery. The gas was a greenish cloud and had a strong odor which made it very easy to detect fast. The effect would destroy tissue of the lungs, which is why the soldiers often coughed a lot. Then in late 1915, Victor Grinard made a new chemical gas called phosgene. It was difficult to detect, making it a very effective weapon. It killed a lot faster and was a lot better than chlorine. The most widely reported and perhaps, the most effective gas of the First World War was mustard gas. It often didn’t kill the person instantly, but made the victim cough up his lungs in the last two months of his life. This was the worst gas used in the war. It killed or wounded an estimated 1 million people. The only counter action that could be taken against any gas was a gas mask. The gas mask had to be on before the gas was breathed in full force. This means that someone would have to detect it very fast. Gas was a very deadly weapon used in World War I. It made people suffer very badly. Luckily countries chose not to use gas in other future wars.

The Airplane

Airplanes were only invented about 10 years before the war started, so they weren’t very advanced yet. The top speed was only about 100 mph. The planes was mostly made of wood and consisted of two wings with the cockpit and engine in the middle. These planes often were very small and only had room for a pilot and a gunner. The gunner had a machine gun at the back of the plane. Bombers were also used. They had a little door at the bottom of the plane that could be opened and very small bombs would fall out. First, planes were only used for spying purposes and weren’t strong enough for battle. Then, the countries started to make planes with machine guns and make bomb doors. The plane really went far in this war. It started out with a one-engine spy plane that went about 70 mph to four-engine bombers. After World War I the plane upgraded a lot and used a great deal in World War II.

Halberstadt D 11 – it replaced the fading Fokker Eindekker from early 1916 and held the ring till the superior Albatros fighter started entering service late that year. Richthofen flew one in early 1917 when his Albatros suffered a cracked wing spar.

The Tank

Tanks were created because of the trench war. The Allies wanted a vehicle to break through the lines easier. They also wanted something that could cross the trenches and troops on the ground. From these ideas were born the new weapon of tanks. The first tanks were built from armored cars. They first protected the driver by adding a great deal of armor on the outside of the tank. Then they removed the tires and started adding tracks. Tracks made them able to go over trenches, which meant that they could pass the trenches and capture key territory. After they had armor and the tracks, they added weapons. Most of them had machine guns, but a few of them had flame throwers. The tank is the one weapon that ended trench warfare. If the tank hadn’t been invented, the war would have lasted a lot longer with no winner. The Allies broke through the lines in the Second Battle of the Mame because of the French tanks.

Anarchism: The First Great Terror

The Propaganda of the Deed.

At a time when we are often warned of the heightened threat of global terrorism and of the drastic measures required to combat it, it is worth remembering that the use of terror to achieve political ends is not a recent phenomena. At the turn of the 19th century there was a political ideology that perceived murder and assassination, not as the means to an end, but as a path to salvation. Anarchists would make their mark on political history through propaganda by deed. Here I highlight just a few of the most notorious deeds, of what was to be the first great terror.

1)  I March, 1881, Tsar Alexander II of Russia is blown apart by a bomb thrown by Ignacy Hrnywiecki (see related article) of Narodnya i Volya (The People’s Will).

2) 11March, 1892, the French anarchist Ravachol (related article) bombs the Lobau Barracks in Paris.

3) 10 December, 1893, Auguste Vailant throws a bomb into the French Chamber of Deputies injuring 20 in revenge for the execution of Ravachol.

4) 12 February, 1894, Emile Henry (related article) blows up the the Cafe Terminus in Paris killing 2 and maiming many others in revenge for the execution of Vailant.

5) 24 June, 1894, the Italian anarchist Sante Jeronimo Caserio, assassinates the French President Marie-Francoise Sade Carnot.

6) 8 August, 1897, Michele Angiolillo assassinates the Spanish Prime Minister Antonio Canovas.

7) 10 September, 1898, Luigi Lucheni stabs to death with a needle file the Empress Elisabeth of Austria-Hungary.

Anarchism: The First Great Terror
Gaetano Bresci

Gaetano Bresci

29 July, 1900, Gaetano Bresci shoots dead King Umberto I of Italy.

9) 6 September, 1901, Leon Czolgosc shoots the United States President William H McKinlay, he dies later.

10) 2 September, 1902, Gennaro Rubino attempts to murder King Leopold II of Belgium.

11) Between 25 July and 2 August, 1909, during La Tragica Semana (The Tragic Week) 120 people are killed and many hundreds of others wounded as anarchists battle the police and army on the streets of Barcelona.

12) 14 September, 1911, Dmitri Bogrov shoots dead the Russian Prime Minister Piotr Stolypin at the theatre, as the Tsar sits nearby.

13) 12 November, 1912, Manuel Padrinas kills the Spanish Prime Minister Jose Canalejas.

14) 10 March, 1913, Alexander Schinas assassinates King George I of Greece.

15) 22 July, 1916, a bomb explodes during the San Francisco Preparadeness Day Parade killing 10 And injuring 40.

16) March, 1918, the anarchist revoutionary Nestor Makhno (related article) leads his Insurrectionary Army of the Ukraine to victory over the forces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Tsarist White Russian Army.

17) 16 September, 1920, the Wall Street bombing leaves 38 dead and injures more than 400 others.

The often uncoordinated, spontaneous nature of anarchist attacks made them particularly difficult to combat. The fact they seemed to be committed by individuals on their own initiative to right perceived wrongs as they saw them terrified the political elite of Europe and beyond. The quite astonishing number of the ruling class who fell victim to this propaganda by deed explains why. As a ratio of their intended targets the anarchists can claim to be the most successful terror campaign in history, but the absence of an organisation, a strategy, or indeed murder with an end in mind, doomed it to ultimate failure.

The ACT vs SAT

Taking the SAT or ACT is a rite of passage for high school students who are preparing for college. Students may take one or the other—or both, depending on their college prospects. But what are the major differences between the SAT and the ACT? What are the advantages to taking one over another? And which test might be a better fit for you?

Staying on subject

“Well-rounded” is one of those terms that gets tossed around in admissions brochures and by college recruiters; it essentially means that they’re looking for students with broad interests and strengths in more than one subject. But for students who’ve already chosen a major, a test that showcases their talent in a particular subject might be best. The SAT has three major sections: math, critical reasoning, and writing. The ACT, on the other hand, has five sections: math, English, reading, science and writing. Because the ACT includes science and English sections, future science and liberal arts students might want to take the ACT, although the SAT’s math and critical reasoning sections can serve the same purpose.

Beating the clock

It seems a little unfair that the SAT has three sections and a three-hour, forty-five minute time limit, while the ACT gives you just under three hours to complete five sections. But the devil is in the details: guessing is discouraged for SAT takers, with a penalty of a quarter-point for wrong answers. There is no penalty, however, for wrong answers on the ACT. And while both tests have an essay section, it’s optional—which means students can save time by simply skipping the essay section. Finally, the math section—feared by future English majors everywhere—generally has easier problems on the SAT, but there are fewer, more difficult problems on the ACT.

So, which test should you take, and how do you get your best score? First, find out which tests are preferred by the colleges and universities to which you are applying. Some students take both tests more than once because they hope to improve their chances for a higher score.

No matter which test you decide to take, using study guides, trying new ways to study, and using a vocabulary list can help you with both tests. Both the ACT and the SAT are just exams to demonstrate your readiness for college subjects; doing your best can improve your chances of getting into your dream school.

Written on behalf of American InterContinental University.

How to Have a Sex Life When You are a Virgin

You might be thinking that it is impossible to have a sex life if you are a virgin, but think again! Just because you are not having sex- either by choice or not, does not mean that you cannot experience the wonders of love making and all that surrounds it.

There is more to sex than just… well sex!

    • If you have a partner and you are either choosing to wait for the right time- such as marriage, or you are both too scared then it is time to experiment with each other. Just because you are not ready for sex, does not mean that you cannot enjoy yourselves and learn what each other enjoys. The power of touch is an amazing thing, try touching each other at the same time- run your hands all over your partner’s body to make the skin tingle and excite the senses. Use your lips to accentuate the pleasure by planting tiny kisses on your partner’s lips, neck, chest and inner thighs and if you are feeling really brave then why not try oral? This can be very pleasurable for both men and women and it is a great way for getting intimate with your partner, without actually having penetrative sex.

 

    • If you are single, then now is the time to learn just what you like and need- this is the perfect opportunity to get to know your own body. If you don’t know how to pleasure yourself, then how are you going to pleasure a future partner? Explore yourself- run your hands all over your body, get to know how your body feels to you and how it responds to touch- learn what you like so that when you do bite the bullet and go all the way, you will know exactly what you want and you will be a bit more prepared.

 

    • Get some toys- this is not advisable if you are a virgin because of religious views, because some sex toys can give the sensation of penetration- but if you want to experiment and get used to how something feels inside of you, before you go all the way- then this is the perfect way of enjoying yourself, as well as teaching yourself new things.

 

    • Go online- if you are scared about having sex for the first time, and you find that you keep putting it off, then go online and chat to people just like you- you are not the only one out there! The worst thing that you can do is build it up into a massive hurdle, and go out looking for someone to do it with- the chances are, the moment you stop stressing, is the moment that it happens! Do some research- sex isn’t that scary!

 

    • Be intimate without the sex- some of the best feelings you can experience is simply being with your partner, kissing and cuddling either dressed or naked can really get your blood pumping and make you hot and tingly all over. You do not have to have sex to enjoy all of the pleasures that it brings, and you do not have to have sex to have a healthy sex life.

 

Hopefully this has helped you to realise that you do not have to be having sex to have a sex life- there are plenty of ways to get all of the pleasure whilst keeping your virginity in tact- and getting you some great pointers along the way! Remember- don’t rush into anything that you are not ready for, and sex is a very special thing so make sure that you have found your special someone before you do anything as intimate as sex. Good luck!