Obstacles to Development

Currently there are two major groups of countries: developed and developing countries. They represent two totally different worlds, one with all the conditions of well-being the other with bad and often degrading living conditions. But what is the origin of this inequality?

The Colonial Past

A major cause is related to the colonial past of many countries. The colonizing countries (Europeans) exploited the natural wealth of these countries in benefit of Europe. So, they developed further, leaving the colonized countries with no evolution. Almost all African countries achieved independence after World War II,  in the 60s. This ultimately led to dictatorships and political instability. Today, armed conflict still dominate in this countries which reduces their possibilities of development.

Natural Hazards

Photo Marco Dormino/ The United Nations

In general, developing countries are more vulnerable to natural hazards because the financial and technical resources available to carry out disaster prevention, saving lives and rebuilding infrastructure are lower than those of developed countries. That is why hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and droughts, very common in developing countries, have a great impact on its economy.

A good example is what happened in Haiti and Chile. A strong earthquake in Chile resulted in less than a thousand victims. In Haiti, the death rate was more than two hundred thousand.

Population Growth

Developing countries are primarily responsible for the population explosion in the world and, in general, still have high rates of natural increase due to high birth rate. Due to this rapid growth of population, we are witnessing the worsening of problems such as poverty, the growth of slums and rising of crime, violence and social instability, malnutrition, difficult access to education and lack of health care.

The Democratic Deficit

There are still many countries with single-party regimes (military or dictatorial). It’s common the disregard for human rights and press freedom, the corruption, the misuse of capital and the enrichment of the ruling classes. This triggers political and social instability, which ultimately harms their development.

Armed Conflicts

Developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and South Asia, continue to be heavily affected by wars. Destruction of infrastructure, refugees and casualties, expenditure on armaments and recruitment of child soldiers are some of the consequences.

International Trade

Most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa and the Middle East are still very dependent on the export of agricultural or mineral products. In 38 of these countries, a single product contributes half of the value of the exports. Unfortunately, there was a general fall in commodity prices between 1974 and 2004. Many of these countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, depend on a small range of agricultural products and, therefore, the general fall of prices led them to double exports to maintain income levels constant and counter the deterioration of terms of trade. However, more offer eventually mean new lower prices and thus aggravated the terms of trade.

Transnational Corporations

The objectives of the transnational corporations are easy to summarize: lower production costs, gain more market and increase profits. But they are accused of lack of loyalty to workers and to the countries that host them, when they close its subsidiaries and move it to other countries, where production costs are lower. Many cause serious environmental damage, exploiting the raw materials and the labor-cheap population of developing countries, as their profits are repatriated almost entirely to developed countries.

In many developing countries, governments are very vulnerable to the interests of transnational corporations, yielding to corruption and allowing over-exploitation of resources of their own country.

Rakhi Sawant Hot Blue Film Kamasutra

Rakhi Sawant is the first Bollywood actress who get awarded for her bold role in blue film scandal called Indian Kamasutra.

Rakhi Sawant rolling stones item girl and hot Bollywood actress were in a hot blue film Kamasutra scandal for 13 years. It was still her husband David and Rakhi Sawant married Indian actor Johnny Liver. They David and Rakhi met when the latter played in the video Kamasutra as a bold actress and position maker in 1999.

About her their written a book about her biography and flexography including all her fakes and real scandals including her hidden tape scandal by American biographical author Jenny Paul.

The book is called Rakhi Sawant affairs: The True Story. Paul has spent six years researching past Rakhi Sawant and says he has found several previously unknown secretes of her, including her first entry in Bollywood scandals through a without clothes photo session by a local blue film director. Video Rolling Stones with Rakhi Sawant in the lead can be seen below it is probably not augment fragile.

Besides all these scandals and entertaining news about Rakhi it is so clear that she will leave the Indian film industry very soon because she is taking a high interest in making her own art academy in Delhi. You can watch and enjoy this b-grade actress movie and video clips on any free video sharing website for free of cost.

Pakistani Girls Desi MMS Mobile Clips

Pakistan is a third world country where more than 70 present of population is illiterate and living a hand to mouth life. People hardly earn to get meal of one or two times and unable to pay gas and electricity bills. Girls are highly restricted to get education and higher education is a dram of every girl there. Only girls living in cities and having a rich background can freely get education from school o university level. This is a one side face of Pakistani people.

If you make a look at other side, you may surprised to get notice that stage drama halls that showing vulgar dance shows and cinema halls are fully crowded with men and young boys. People are wasting a lot of money on weddings private functions and out door parties. Mostly this money is spending on dancer girls imported from red areas of big cities like Lahore and Karachi. Every young boy or girl must have a mobile phone, even if they are school students or job workers.

The most common use of these mobile phones is to call their unknown girlfriends that they got through wrong mobile calls. After long calling and trusted developed relation young couples set their date meetings in some café or hotel rooms. Mostly guys did some sexual activities with these mobile girls and capture their shamed activities on their phones.

Later these mobile mms video clips are upload on sever websites on the Internet. These video clips are called Desi hot mobile clips. Some girls do suicide after watching these shameful clips on the Internet.

Cutting Edge Weapons: 10 Unusual Knives, Swords and Blades

By C. Jordan

In this age when we think of weapons, we tend to think of aircraft, electronic guidance systems, bombs and missiles. Sophisticated star wars systems may come to mind or huge warships and aircraft carriers or even chemical or nuclear weapons.

Of course that has not always been the case.

From man’s earliest days the blade has been the basic form of weapon whether for hunting, defence or warfare. For close combat and ceremonial occasions it is still in use today: the dress sword of the mounted officer or the bayonet of the infantry. If you are lucky enough to be Knighted you may even get a tap on the shoulders by the British Queen with a ceremonial sword.

I would like to make it clear at this point, that this article takes no stance on the use of weaponry.

My own beliefs and convictions are not included here. This is a look at some of the non standard, more interesting and curious forms that blades have taken, with historical, geographic and cultural differences. I use the term blade because some of the forms shown cannot be described as knives or swords.

  1. The Kukri

    Some readers may be surprised to find that the image shown is actually modern British army issue. It is issued to one of the most feared units in the British army: the Gurkhas.

    It is their weapon of choice in close combat, rather than the bayonet.

    The story of the Gurkhas is a long and historically complicated one.

    Succinctly: Gurkhas hail from Nepal which was part of India. In its Empire building days, Britain made India one of its colonies. The Gurkhas were seen as brave and heroic fighters who were recruited into the colonial Indian army as a “Martial Race”, a term which meant that they were not classed as mercenaries.

    With the independence of India in 1947 four regiments became part of the British army. Prior to this they have fought in both World Wars and latterly were part of the forces that in the 1980’s defeated the Argentine army in the Falklands and also served in the Middle East.

    The Kukri shown above is the standard army issue with karda and chakmak.

    Traditionally the blade is 12-15 inches (30-38cm) long. The karda is a small accessory blade used for many tasks. The chakmak is unsharpened and is used to burnish the blade. It can also be used to start a fire with flint.

  2. The Shamshir

    The Shamshir is a sabre that is part of the scimitar group of swords.

    Originating in Persia in the 16th century, it was the weapon of the Persian cavalry.

    Somewhat unwieldy and inaccurate in a thrusting stabbing motion, its strength was in its slashing ability. The curved blade which made it unwieldy for thrusting made it dynamic for a downward slashing movement, normally against un-armoured foot opponents. One writer said that “bright shamshirs which fell on the head cleft men to the waist.”

  3. The Khanda

    The Khanda is a straight, heavy double edged Indian sword

    This example clearly shows that the weapon is broader towards the tip than half way down the blade, complete with spike at the base of the handle. Because of its size and weight, this again was a weapon that was more useful for slashing and hacking rather than a stabbing movement.

    It is mainly associated with the Sikhs, Marathas and other clans of the Kshatriya warrior class of India. It is also used in Sikh martial arts.

  4. The Quoit

    The quoit, surely this is a ring of rope used by passengers on luxury liners in days gone by in deck games, or perhaps the ring used in Hoopla on the funfair?

    These pastimes of idling away time do not have much to do with reality.

    The reality was that the quoit was a solid razor sharp ring of thin steel used by the Sikhs of India. (The example above is actually inlaid with gold

    Image sourceSikhs with chakrams, 1844

    The quoit also known as a Chakram measured anything between 5-12 inches (13-30cm)

    This weapon was thrown at the enemy. It was released either vertically in an underarm throw to fall under it own weight on the heads of opponents, or would be twirled around the index finger raised above the head and released.

    It is said that in the right hands it could kill a man at 80 paces.

  5. The Kora

    A somewhat rare and fierce weapon, the Kora served as part axe and part sword.

    This Indo/Nepal weapon was used for fighting and for sacrifice.

  6. The Tang

    A tang on a knife or sword is that part that will be enclosed by the handle.

    This is probably how the weapon got its name. At first glance it appears as if the pointed part is like the tang waiting to have the handle fitted with the parts to right and left being hand guards.

    The tang shown is actually 58cm long and 65 cm wide (23 and 26 inches)

    This is actually a “pole arm”. A shaft fits into the opening in the bottom left.

    It derives from China in the 19th century and consists of a 13cm (5 inch) spear type point with two 33cm (13 inch) blades either side.

    This type of weapon was used by police forces or others who needed to keep crowds in order.

  7. The Ayda Katti

    The Ayda Katti is the national sword of the Coorg of Malabar, the South West coastal area of India.

    It is one of the rarest swords in the Indian arsenal and of a very peculiar shape. It is single edged and is reminiscent of a scythe or other farming agricultural tool. However it is a real weapon and a deadly one in experienced hands.

    The blade of this one is 38cm (15 inches) long and 10cm (4 inches) wide at its widest point with a massive steel bolster.

  8. The Katar

    The Katar, shown in the introduction, is a short punching sword from India. The hand fitted into the grip so that the blade was above the knuckles. It was a weapon used by the Rajput, referred to as “the most valiant warriors of the Indian sub continent.”

    Used in close combat the blades were said to be able to punch through armour.

    The fascinating example above incorporates two small pistols alongside the hand grip. this was used by the Maharatti cavalry. An earlier example of this pistol weapon did not have triggers but was fired by squeezing together the two “swallow tails” at the back, which was attached to the firing mechanism.

  9. The Badek

    The Badek (or Badik) is a knife from Java, Indonesia. It is characterized by its single edge blade with straight back and up-curving edge, and the pistol grip shape handle.

    It measures from 20 to 40 cm in length (8-16 inches)

    It sometimes features in Silat Melayu – martial arts from the countries around the Malay Archipelago.

  10. The Kris

    The Kris or Keris is a dagger that originates from Indonesia and Malaysia.

    The Glenbow museum describes them “Kris knives with decorative scabbards are used throughout Indonesia as weapons and ritual objects, and are part of men’s ceremonial attire. The wavy iron blade of the knife represents a snake in movement and is thought to have power to protect its owner.”

    In the past disputes were settled with this double edged dagger. The more people it killed the more valuable it became.

    There was a superstition that it should not be drawn in the presence of the person who gave it to the owner.

    The kris was also supposed to have a spirit that could be good or bad. The same weapon may be bad for one person but good for another.

Ancient Symbols – The Swastika

(Photo above: Anglo-Saxon cinerary urn with swastika motifs, created between 5th and 6th century, from North Elmham, Norfolk.)

The Swastika is an ancient sacred symbol – upon first glance, the words “Sacred” and “Swastika” seem to contradict each other……we are all painfully aware of the negative Nazi association with this symbol, BUT, we should not forget that this symbol is ancient, it did not start with the Nazi’s and it would be a shame to let it end there, when potentially, analysis could provide a startling insight into human history.

The swastika has been used by many cultures and religions

The Swastika has been attributed with many meanings over time.

Many believe that the symbol originated in the ancient Sumerian civilisation (the cradle of civilisation) 5300 – 1940BC located in modern Southern Iraq – the Swastika symbol has been found on some of the earliest Sumerian pottery ……. but, the earliest discovered use of the Swastika was in and around India during the Neolithic era – the new stone age – 9500 years ago!

The word Swastika is derived from the Sanskrit language – svastika – meaning well being or lucky.
Source

In 1925, Coca Cola launched a brass Swastika shaped lucky watch fob promotion.

It’s possible that the key fob was distributed in Germany just before the 1936 Olympics. The Coca Cola corporation appeared to be one of the sponsors of Hitler’s Third Reich propaganda.

A town in Ontario was named Swastika in 1911 because of a lucky gold strike.
Source


In Great Britain the common name given to the Swastika from Anglo-Saxon times … was Fylfot, said to have been derived from the Anglo-Saxon “fower fot”, meaning four-footed, or many-footed. SWASTIKA STONE ILKLEY – YORKSHIRE

This carved stone on Woodhouse Crag, Ilkley Moor, Yorkshire, England – the carving is thought to date back to the bronze age (2700 – 700 BC).

You may see the swastika symbol regularly – hidden in plain sight – The Microsoft Swastika
Source

The US Navy base in San Diego was required to spend $ 600,000.00 to alter the design of their building in the wake of numerous complaints following the launch of the aerial visualisation tool – Google Earth. From The Daily Kos.

Buddha in Tanzhe Temple in Bejing, China has a swastika on his chest – “A seal on Buddha’s heart”. In the Buddhist tradition, the Swastika was used to mark the beginning of sacred texts. Source

Villa Romana de Tejada in village of Quintanilla de la Cueza, in the province of (Palencia), Spain.

Mosaic floor showing the symbol of a swastica in the Roman City of Sabratha, Libya

Many scholars have attributed the symbol to be a representation of the sun – However, every time I look at a swastika – I see a spinning, spiral armed galaxy – but given the history of this symbol – how could our ancient ancestors know of or have seen a distant galaxy?

Hot Pakistani Girls

Now a day the most in fashion in Pakistani girls are wearing jeans and skirts and they totally ignoring their past trend of wearing colorful shalwar kameez with stylish embroidery on the front of their shirts. Turquoise is very famous and is also known as purple color in Pakistan.

The other new trend follows by Pakistani babes is to adding their profile, describing their selves and what they’re looking for in a partner. They upload their photos with their profiles to get twenty times more attention to their profiles. They add these profiles to various single and partner looking websites. Mostly they are looking for guy living in abroad like UK, USA, and Dubai etc.

The other hot issue in Pak news is about Miss Pakistan World is a beauty competition for Pakistani girls from the planet earth. Which was started in 2002 by an American resident Sonia Ahmed, Miss Pakistan World attracted Pakistani girls from the England, America and Canada.

The other main issue with Pakistani girls is cell phone. Every second girl in Pakistan who has mobile is suffering from some kind of trouble from the wrong callers. Majority wrong callers are of guys searching for girl’s cell phone numbers. The interesting thing is that not only boys doing this but on the other hand certain types of girls are doing such things at a large number. In most cases the girls are asking for mobile cards to make a friendship with fool boys.

Henrikas Daktaras: Mafia Lord of Lithuania

Dr. Henry (alias – Henytė) – one of the most famous criminals of all time in Lithuania, the Lithuanian media is often referred to as the criminal authority.

Dr. Henry (alias – Henytė) – one of the most famous criminals of all time Lithuania, the Lithuanian media is often referred to as the criminal authority.

Convicted twice. He alleged a number of crimes for extortion, bodily harm, murder. Anticipated that it may be killing his cousin and he put together his protected gang members.

Dr. Henry is convicted for extortion and witness the impact .

1997, February 13, the day of the Vilnius district court granted Dr. Henry 8year prison sentence for mediation redemption cars threats and former Head of the Protection of Ancient Agora (now the Court of the former Criminal Police Office of the Deputy Head) Yuri Milevsko, if that, witness the court recognizes Dari Mačianską which the kidnap of his car .

In October 2001 from Dr H. Vilnius 2 nd amendment to the strict regime colony was released into the freedom for good behavior, completing a three-quarters of the punishment.

The History of St. Patrick’s Day Parades

How did a Christian observance for the Patron Saint of Ireland turn into the St. Patrick’s Day parades we see every year? Read on to learn some of the history behind the festivities.

“May you live to be a hundred, with one extra year to repent!” goes a well-known Irish saying. And may you be able-bodied enough to enjoy St. Patrick’s Day every year of your life. One of the ways Americans enjoy it in cities across the nation is with annual parades. On March 17th it seems everyone has a wee bit o’the green in him, for they turn out in droves, line the streets early, bring their grills and their picnic baskets, and settle in for a day of pure enjoyment.

Lonely Irish immigrants in Boston in 1737 held the first recorded St. Patrick’s Day celebration in America. It is likely that they continued to celebrate together every year, just as they had in their home country, but the next one recorded in history was in 1762. Irish soldiers stationed there with the English military held a parade in the New York City streets, much to the delight of a growing Irish immigrant community. It was such a success that in 1766 New York declared it an annual event, and so it has been ever since.

The protestant, largely middle-class immigrants formed several ‘Irish Aid’ societies in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s, like the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, to assist each other and new immigrants that were pouring in. They were hard-working, upright people who helped their own and anybody else who needed it. And their celebrations – St. Patrick’s Day being the main one – were boisterous, happy, fun, and open to anybody who wanted to join in. As a result, they were well received by all. Local groups turned out with bagpipes and drums, the churches opened up with bazaars and games, and residents vied with each other to produce the best ethnic dishes and desserts.

In 1845 the Great Potato Famine in Ireland drove scores starving immigrants to American shores, and public opinion changed somewhat. These immigrants – almost a million of them – tended to be poor, uneducated, and Catholic. They had difficulty finding even menial work and were often met with contempt by Americans. Protestant middle class Irish scorned them as well. For years many of them had a rough go in their new country. But the Irish are durable, and find ways to weather storms. Eventually they began to recognize their power as a voting block, and to organize what was called the ‘green machine’. Their power was in their sheer numbers, and political candidates began to woo them determinedly for the swing vote they represented. By this time many cities were hosting parades on March 17, the largest being in New York City. Irishmen must have danced with glee in 1948 when then-President Harry Truman attended the New York City parade, giving his seal of approval to the practice and creating public acceptance across the nation.

St. Patrick’s Day was not an officially recognized holiday until 1976, but most large cities were already hosting their own brand of parades in honor of the day. However, it was increasingly recognized as a secular holiday, not a Christian one, with the emphasis on pure fun. While there is nothing wrong with that, the outlandish customs that Americans seem to love have become offensive to some devout Irish, who would never dream of wearing a “kiss me, I’m Irish” button. Also drinking to excess is now a given for many folks on this holiday, something the true Irish did not tolerate.

In Ireland, businesses were closed on St. Patrick’s Day, including the pubs. The day began by attending church services to honor their patron saint. Men wore a sprig of shamrocks on the hats or jackets, women wore green ribbons in their hair, and children wore green, white and orange badges – the colors of the flag. The rest of the day was devoted to family, friends, and festivities. Games, crafts, and contests were held, and copious quantities of dark Irish beer and traditional Irish dishes were consumed, but drinkers stayed close to home and knew their limits.

It wasn’t until the 1970’s that the Irish parliament repealed the law keeping pubs closed. In 1995 a national campaign began to attract tourism to the war-torn country, and to showcase the beautiful Emerald Isle. A national St. Patrick’s celebration now takes place in Dublin every year, lasting several days. In addition to a huge parade, there are fireworks, concerts, theater productions, and treasure hunts. Close to a million attend every year.

St. Patrick’s Day parades are springing up in other countries as well. Canada, Russia, Singapore, and Japan boast of parades, among others. It just goes to show that, indeed, there may be a little leprechaun in all of us. This is certainly true in America, where the Census Bureau estimates over 34 million Americans can trace some Irish blood in their ancestry.

With this year’s celebration just around the corner, many establishments are already gearing up for the coming festivities. In university towns this often includes neighbors boarding up their windows against a night of frivolity and heavy drinking. But less troublesome celebrations will be everywhere, so be sure to freshen up your green jacket and buff up your dancing shoes! And as the evening wears on and you are ready to end your day, be sure and bless your hosts with a traditional Irish blessing: “May your neighbors respect you, troubles neglect you, the angels protect you, and Heaven accept you.”

Dealing with Breakups – Happiness Depends Upon Ourselves

Steps to overcoming the pain and hurt of a breakup, and how to find happiness again.

As the great philosopher Aristotle once said, “Happiness depends upon ourselves.” You can’t rely on money, material things, or even other people to make yourself happy. In order to be happy during a relationship or after it has ended, you must be happy with yourself. A breakup is just one of the sticky situations in life that we all experience, some more than others.

Breaking Up With the Person You Love

Dealing with heartache and heartbreak is never easy, no matter the circumstances. You may have caught them cheating, and ended it yourself, or maybe one of you just couldn’t deal with the long distance relationship any longer. All you can remember are the memories you had together, and possibly the thoughts of a future you would have shared together. It can be a very painful experience and people have different ways of trying to cope. You may find yourself terribly unhappy and unable to enjoy the things you once loved. Here are some things you can do:

  1. Let Those Emotions Flow: letting go of a person who you care about can play a huge toll on the emotions. Every song you hear, place you visit, or conversation you have may leave you thinking of them. Grieving is the first step to healing. Keeping bad emotions inside is harmful to the body. It may take days, even months, but once you have dealt with your emotions you will be a happier person.
  2. Learn to Forgive: if things ended badly, you may be experiencing a lot of hurt and even anger. Reframe from sending hate mail via e-mail, or leaving nasty messages on their answering machine. Not only are you too good for them, but you are too good for that. Stop wasting your time! They don’t deserve your attention for another minute. Forgive them for the things they have done, and you will find it easier to move on to bigger and better things.
  3. Learn to Forget: It will take time. Time and time again you will hear someone say “you will heal in time.” Chances are you will not believe it at the time, but it is true. Once you learn to focus on the present and all that you have going for you, new wonderful memories will grow.
  4. Exercise and Eat Healthy: go for a run, join the gym, or attend a yoga class! Exercising gives the body, mind, and soul a natural high. It will leave you feeling refreshed and positive. Plus, you may just catch the eye of the person at the gym beside you!
  5. Stay Confident: don’t let your self esteem dwindle because someone dumped you. You’re fun, your beautiful, your the perfect match for someone out there! Confidence is key, not only to feeling great about yourself, but attracting future love interests for when you ready to join back in the game.
  6. Do Something Special For Yourself: after a painful experience you should treat yourself. After all, you deserve it. Go get that manicure you’ve been wanting, or that CD you’ve been dying to listen to. Do the things you enjoy most.
  7. Keep A Journal or Diary: write about the things that make you happy. Putting emphasis on the good things in life will boast your positive thoughts and feelings. Record the things you are grateful for. Are you appreciating all the beautiful things life has to offer?
  8. Go Out With Your Friends: chances are, you did not spend a tonne of time with your friends while you were in your relationship. Go out with your friends. If you’re feeling really down, talk about it with them, even ask them for advice. Just have fun! By the end of the night you will hopefully remember how great it is to be single.
  9. Get Back On the Road to Happiness: Remember, “happiness depends upon yourself.” You don’t need a boyfriend or girlfriend to be happy. There are plenty of things to be grateful for in life. Spend extra time with friends and family — the people who make you happy!

What Does Labour Have to Lose From a Left Turn?

by James Kelly

Why the British Labour Party abandoned its traditional socialist policies, and the lessons that can be applied to the party’s current predicament.

When the British Labour Party abandoned much of its socialist ideology in the 1990s, it did so for one reason – the pursuit of popularity, and by extension the pursuit of power. It had been in opposition for almost two decades, lost four general elections in a row, and the question that was being posed more and more volubly was “what”s the point of having the most wonderful policies in the world if you never have the power to put them into practice?’ The moment that came to symbolise this dilemma more than any other was the 1983 election, when Labour was led by its most left-wing leader since pre-war times, Michael Foot, and had a manifesto that made radical party activists purr with pleasure. The party went on to suffer its most crushing defeat since the 1930s, and came perilously close to slipping into third place in the popular vote. Perhaps not unreasonably, the lesson drawn by the “modernisers” in the party – including the young Tony Blair and Gordon Brown – was that Labour’s electoral woes were directly correlated to the party’s ideological distance from the centre of gravity in the country as a whole.

“June 9th, 1983, never again!” was the new leader Neil Kinnock’s battle-cry as he embarked on the slow and painful process of moving Labour onto the centre-ground of politics where it was felt it could achieve electability. The most dramatic indication of the sacrifices the party was prepared to make came when Kinnock himself shifted on one of his most passionately-held personal beliefs, and agreed to support the retention of the UK’s nuclear weapons. In an interview days before the 1992 general election, he even suggested that as Prime Minister he might be prepared in some circumstances to launch a nuclear attack – an extraordinary position for a man who had devoted much of his political life to the cause of unilateral disarmament.

But Labour still lost the 1992 election, its fourth defeat in succession. Did this give the true believers in the “1983 maxim” some pause for thought? Quite the reverse. The fact that the Conservatives’ parliamentary majority had been slashed to 21 was cited as proof that Labour’s ideological repositioning had gained some traction with the electorate. The fact that the Conservatives remained in power simply proved that the process hadn’t gone far enough yet. So “New Labour” was born, and in Tony Blair the party suddenly had a leader who was probably further to the right than many “conservative” political leaders in continental Europe. Yet so hungry were the party faithful for power, and so completely had they bought into the modernizers’ analysis of what was required to achieve that goal, they accepted every move Blair made as being necessary. It was sometimes mischievously suggested that if Blair had wanted to reintroduce capital punishment, the party rank-and-file would have let it through on the nod.

And in 1997, the Labour party did not merely return to power, but recorded the most comprehensive victory by any side in a British general election since the 1930s. Some pointed out there was considerable evidence that if John Smith, Blair’s immediate predecessor as Labour leader, had not died in office, he would still have been able to lead the party back to power from a more traditional centre-left position. But not by anything like the same margin, the modernisers retorted. It did indeed seem to be the final, irrefutable proof that Labour’s level of support went up in direct proportion to how far it had moved to the right.

But fast forward to the present day. Gordon Brown has persisted with the Blairite strategy of tacking to the right, and yet the latest opinion polls show Labour at its lowest level of support since records began, and thus by definition lower than at the party’s 1983 nadir. Gordon Brown is a less popular leader than Michael Foot. New Labour was founded on the principle that if you are shedding votes, you must ruthlessly shed your current ideology to win those votes back. As it is the more traditional Labour voters who have been deserting the party in droves – witness the Scottish parliament election last year – the obvious conclusion to draw is that the party must shift back to the left to regain some degree of support.

The objection to this analysis might be that Labour cannot hope to win the next election with its traditional supporters alone – it needs the entire New Labour coalition of 1997. Unfortunately, the hard truth is that this coalition is long gone, and the next election is almost certainly already lost. To adapt the question that was asked in the long years of opposition to fit present-day circumstances – “if you”re going to lose anyway, what’s the point of having power for the next two years if you’re not going to use it to achieve the things your party is supposed to believe in?’

10 Things Women Do Better Than Men

by MindIt

I am not a feminist, but I am amazed at the number of studies that have found women better than men in various skills. Here is a list of 10 skills where women seem to be doing better than men.

 

  1. Women drive better than men.

    Well this reverses a social myth – that women are bad drivers. Carnegie Mellon University researchers found after analyzing a lot of traffic data in 2007 that men are 77% more likely to die in a car accident than women, keeping the miles driven constant. So next time when your husband asks you to hand over the car keys, just give him this article.

  2. Women remember appearances better than men.

    Some would say, “Why not? Don’t women pay all their attention to appearances?” Well, say what you may, but only a loser complains about somebody for being better than him! Terrence Horgan, research fellow in psychology at Ohio State University, and her co-researchers found in a study that women are more accurate in describing appearances after seeing people once. The study was published in the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

  3. Women cooperate better than men.

    We can see this everywhere, but still if you want a citation, here it is. A study by Rolf Kuemmerli and other researchers at Edinburgh and Lausanne universities indicated that women cooperate better than men. In the research, based on games played by 100 Swiss students, women cooperated with others almost twice as much as men did.

  4. Women eat better than men.

    This is probably not so obvious, for rarely do we notice gender differences in eating habits. A survey involving 14000 Americans, conducted by University of Minnesota, revealed that men are more likely to eat frozen pizza and meat, whereas women are more likely to eat fruits and vegetables.

  5. Women perform better than men in timed tests.

    So if time is precious, women are better at preserving it than men. A study by Vanderbilt University researchers in 2006 found that women score better in timed intelligence tests than men. The study, published in the May-June issue of the journal Intelligence, didn’t find much difference in un-timed tests, which meant women had a quicker mind.

  6. Women perceive their relationships better than men.

    Talk about relationships and most men will frown. Now you know why – they know so little about their relationships! A Hebrew University of Jerusalem study, after surveying 97 couples in the United States, found that women are more perceptive than men in describing their relationships. The study, published in ScienceDaily, reported that women were much more accurate in describing the perception of their partners than men.

  7. Women communicate better than men.

    This is now scientifically proven and acknowledged. Louann Brizendine, neuro-pyschiatrist at the University of California at San Francisco, found in a study that women can process 20000 words a day compared to men’s 7000 words (Louann Brizendine,The Female Brain, Morgan Road Books). This difference, as per Brizendine’s study, is more biological than social, which starts as early as the fetal stage.

  8. Women learn better than men.

    That is why girls get better grades in school on an average than boys in many parts of the world. Dr Simone Kruger of Edge Hill University, UK, found in her research based on remote learners that women learners were more successful in sharing ideas and experiences with each other, and hence learnt more efficiently than men.

  9. Women invest better than men.

    You don’t believe it, do you? We all know fewer women invest in stocks than men do, but the few women who invest in shares do better than their male counterparts. A study by the National Association of Investors Corporation (NAIC) for the University of California found that women earn on an average 1.4% more than men in their share portfolios.

  10. Women cope with stress better than men.

    A study at the University of California, Los Angeles, published in the July 2000 issue of Psychological Review, found some biological and behavioral differences in the ways men and women cope with stress. It found that women tend to seek contact with others and social support when they are under stress, which is a psychologically much better way of coping with stress than the “fight-or-flight” approach of men.

Of course, there are other studies which indicate men are better than women in various skills. The point I want to make is not that women are better than men in everything, but that men should stop underestimating women after being proven wrong time and again.

Words About Life

Spiritual understanding of existence, karma, the difference between soulful life and ego-orientated life.

Indeed the universal implications must be known in order to have a controlled life. Indeed when such thoughts arise in the mind, feelings of insanity might arise as well. The universe works in sequences, rhythms, patterns and cycles. It could be frustrating realizing this concept, watching everything repeat itself could get annoying, especially when the ones around you don’t realize that humanity and the rest of the world are part of an endless cycle. The benefit of knowing this concept outweighs the negative aspect of it. Instead of complaining about the cycle, realize you start the motions. You can either start a negative or positive motion; the power lies in your hands.

If you start a negative motion it will repeat itself until you realize it and stop it, or else it will just spin and spin. Realize that you are a soul and not a body. The body is just the soul’s instrument, and when the instrument becomes old and rusty, doesn’t work as it used to, the soul discards the body and gets another one. There is no such thing as “death” really. It is only a moment in one’s life when the body becomes too weak to work anymore and is not a benefit for the soul any longer. One could say it is also a time when the soul’s mission is complete, however only for that period of time because it will return and have a new objective. Nevertheless, there is one general objective the all souls must strive to carry out, that is spirituality, to be connected to the supreme soul while having its presence on earth. However, through many births this objective in majority of cases has been neglected and forgotten.

Through many births the soul consciousness has been replaced by body consciousness, this means that the body rather than the soul governs actions. This means that majority of people will do things if there is a benefit for them. This means that anger, jealousy, egotism, arrogance, selfishness, ignorance, attachment to physical objects, thirst for power, lust, become apparent in one’s life. Those who live by soul consciousness would never live by such negative aspects. A soul sees everyone as a brother or a sister; the soul sees everyone as one. The soul sees everyone pure as crystal water. The soul will never fully attach itself to a physical object, knowing that physical objects sooner or later will crumble to nothingness.

It knows that by seeking happiness in physical objects, that happiness will last as long as that physical object or as long as one has an attachment towards it. It knows that happiness through materialism is temporal; through soul consciousness happiness is eternal. It is logical to consider the fact that when one is dependent on an external factor, the fulfillment will not last due to the fact that nothing is permanent. Therefore, if one is merely dependent on one’s internal nature, which is everlasting, the fulfillment is eternal. In order for this to occur, one needs to reach a certain spiritual plateau from which this internal fulfillment will arouse. By living with a body consciousness, a person will be living in an a illusion believing it is reality. The mental perspective of the world itself is an illusion.

The world you live in is the world that lives within your mind. Your perspective is only due to your state of mind, each mind equals a different world. However, by going back to soul consciousness, one awakes from their illusionary dream and sees the world with clarity and truth. By living a righteousness life and meditating and by reading spiritual material one can gain such clarity. Soul and body consciousness are of the same essence, tails and heads of a coin. Spirituality is not a religion, it is not a way of life, it is life, true essence of life. There are no rituals, no customs, no worship; all that is required is to live with a soul consciousness, to be righteous and to be aware of the universal laws. Spirituality is the core of religions, it is the core and the religions are the seeds, which have grown to be what they are due to their environment and time. In essence they are pretty much the same.

The problem is that they have been interpreted wrongly and manipulated; one must look upon without attaching oneself to it and with an open mind to see the meaning with a wider perspective. It is mostly written metaphorically and the meaning lies deeper, it is important not to take it literally. Most of the stories, which are taken literally have a certain meaning but lose their true meaning. For example, many will disagree with this but many will agree, it depends on the state of mind. The main figurehead other than God, of the Bible is Jesus. He has been portrayed as a son of God, as a messiah who came down to earth, he was indeed.

However, Jesus said that he is the son of God indicating that everyone else is a son or daughter of God. He didn’t say it to indicate that he is all powerful and that everyone must obey him. He also said that everyone could be him if they wanted. Furthermore, anyone who comes here, earth, to elevate humanity and to preach peace and love is a messiah. He came down to play his role; everyone has their role to play. This is an example of manipulation; the Christian scholars, the apostles got people to worship a man, like an idol, which is against their law. Yes he had spiritual powers but everyone can achieve them if they tried hard enough, perhaps to a lesser degree, that was one of the things Jesus preached about. Muhammad is very similar to Jesus, pretty much preached the same words. However, Muhammad said he is no God and must not be worshipped, that he is only a man. One does not need to seek out to find a meaning to life or to seek out to find truth, does not need a God to worship but only acknowledged, truth and meaning lies within oneself. There is a whole world waiting to be discovered within you. The purpose of life is to give it a purpose, the truth of life is hidden within you. Meditating is not a religious aspect, nor a Buddhist or Hindu practice.

It is a universal aspect; it is a natural method and a very powerful method of transforming the mind. It is not used to empower breath control or just to relax, even though they are part of it, but the main point is to enlighten the soul by connecting it to a higher source. Just close your eyes and watch how it brightens your soul and how the light envelops your mind. The absence of spiritual light leads to darkness, the negativity and sorrow in one’s life. While being internally dark, the words you speak and the actions you perform will release the darkness, resulting in more sorrow for yourself and the people around you. The outer world will be only a reflection of the inner darkness; things might seem meaningless and distressful. However, when the inner light is shinning the opposite occurs, being that darkness and light are complete opposites, one’s eyes glitter exposing the inner peace.

One’s actions and words are performed with care and love. By sharing the light with others and seeing people benefit from it and become happier results in more happiness inside. Due to the inner light, the outer world in result shines as well. One should realize that one’s actions are judged and are returned to him, this is the law of Karma. The family that you have, the friends, everyone you meet, the situation that you are in, the hard times you have the good times you have, everything in your life, it might sound unfair but they are all fruits of your creation. The seeds you plant are the flowers that you will get. There is no one to blame but yourself. It is more logical to blame yourself rather than God, after all He did give you free will, the way you use it is your choice. To blame God is to say that He is cruel and loves hurting people, that He is blood thirsty and loves to see people suffer This perhaps answers the question, why do innocent suffer; well perhaps they are not innocent after all.

This is due to their past life or actions that they did in the past, the actions that they carried in their past life or what they did in the past have returned to them. This doesn’t mean that one has to suffer due to his actions forever; any negative situation is a sign that something needs to be changed. By changing your actions you change your present state, which changes your future. Nothing is coincidental, there is no luck or miracles, everything happens for a reason and everything has a meaning.

By going deep inside yourself you will find the real self. You will find your role and your purpose in life. Good things don’t come easy but bad things do, the harder you try the better the feeling when you get the result. It is a hard journey but the most important journey.

Limited Effects Theory

Paul Felix Lazarsfeld, an Austrian sociologist, influential methodologists, and one of the pioneers in mass communications, is recognized for his scientific investigations on the effects of media in the society and for employing surveys and experiments to gather empirical observations and generalizations.

In 1925, Lazarfeld obtained his doctorate’s degree in philosophy major in applied mathematics at the University of Vienna, where he founded a research institute for applied social psychology four years later. In 1933, he went to the United States and served as the Director of the Office of Radio Research at the Princeton University after receiving a research grant in psychology from the Rockefeller Foundation. In 1940, his project was transferred at the Columbia University where his office was renamed the Bureau of Applied Social Research.

With Hadly Cantril and Frank Stanton, Lazarsfeld is remembered for his detailed investigation of the radio habits of the American listening public. This investigation led to the famous radio broadcast of “War of the Worlds” in 1938. Orson Welles borrowed freely from H. G. Welles’s novel and created a radio drama that resemble to news stories. One out of six listeners believed that aliens had invaded the universe and eventually panicked. The invasion from Mars panic was seen by elite observers as a definitive proof of mass society theory, that is, if a radio program could induce such wide-spread panic, obvious and concerted propaganda messages could do much worse.

Lazarsfeld affirmed that many listeners acted hastily and that simulated news stories were trusted without question, especially the eyewitness reports and the interviews with phony experts. He also concluded that media audiences have one or more psychological traits that made them especially susceptible to media influence: fatalism, phobic personality, emotional insecurity, and lack of self-confidence.

At the Princeton University, Stanton, Cantril, and Lazarsfeld were part of a vanguard of social scientists who slowly formulated new views of how media influence society. They argued that media were no longer feared as instruments of political oppression and manipulation because the public itself was viewed as very resistant to persuasion and extremist manipulation. They believe that most people were influenced by others rather than by media; opinion leaders in every community, who, at every level of society, were responsible for guiding and stabilizing politics. Media were conceptualized as relatively powerless in shaping public opinion in the face of more potent intervening variables like people’s individual differences and group memberships.

Lazarsfeld pioneered the use of surveys and experiments to measure media influence, which, in turn, provided evidence that media rarely and indirectly influence individuals. He assumed that media effects were quite limited because in the more micro, or in the individual level, only a limited number of listeners were directly affected.

It should be noted, however, that Lazarsfeld and his colleagues, like Carl Hovland, were not theorists; they were methodologists. Unlike mass society theorists who assumed that media were quite powerful, they employed empirical social research methods like surveys and experiments to gather empirical observations and generalizations. They argued that media influence can be measured, observed, understood, controlled, and utilized for the benefit of the human race. They also argued that if the physical sciences permit people to control the physical world, the social sciences can also permit people to control the social world.

Lazarsfeld and his colleagues, while conducting their full-scale investigation of the effects of political mass communications in Eríe County, Ohio and in Elmira, New York during the 1940 and the 1948 presidential elections, respectively, found out that media were not as powerful as mass society theory assumed and that media influence over public opinion or attitudes was hard to locate. They also found out that people had numerous ways of resisting media influence and were influenced by many competing factors and that media influences were typically less important than social status, group membership, educational attainment, religious or political party affiliations, among others. These findings eventually led to the formulation or construction of the limited effects theory, also known as the indirect effects theory.

A paradigm, also called framework, provides a useful guide in research as long as its basic assumptions are accepted. Though a paradigm exercises great influence over the course of a research, a shift inevitably occur because no paradigm can provide adequate explanations for all observations. Also called theoretical innovation, a paradigm shift occurs when there are efforts to account theoretical limitations and when a new theory is formulated or constructed over and above a dominant theory. It is at this context that the limited effects theory is considered the paradigm shift of the mass society theory.

Formulated from “disciplined” data collections and data interpretations, the limited effects theory was gradually constructed using the inductive approach to theory construction. It assumed that media lacked or have limited power to instantly convert average people from strongly held beliefs, and that it negates, if not totally contradict, the mass society theory assumption that media have the power to reach out and directly influence the minds of the average people.

The limited effects theory gained popularity because it provided answers to the questions of troubled elites in the 1930s. When the propaganda theory threatened to challenge freedom and democracy, the limited effects theory argued that most people could not be directly influenced by typical propaganda messages.

However, the limited effects theory actually placed little faith in the rationality of the individual or in his ability to evaluate propaganda messages. During the 1950s and the 1960s, studies found out that most people are politically ignorant or apathetic and that only some people are politically active or involve because their collective wisdom and political knowledge were concentrated in the opinion leaders who are the mainstay of any political system and who play an important role in shaping or reconstructing the voting systems of the electorate.

Factors

  1. The refinement and broad acceptance of empirical social research methods was an essential factor in the development of the limited effects theory. This was so, because empirical social research methods were promoted effectively as the only “scientific” way of dealing and measuring social phenomena.
  2. People who advocated mass society theories were branded by empirical social researchers as “unscientific.” Mass society theorists were considered as doomsayers, political ideologues, biased against media, or fuzzy-mined humanists.
  3. Social researchers exploited the commercial potential of empirical social research method and gained the support of private industries.
  4. The development of empirical social research method was strongly backed by various private and government foundations like the Rockefeller Foundation and the National Science Foundation.
  5. After empirical social research methods showed that media were not as powerful and threatening as assumed by mass society theories, media companies were encouraged to finance more empirical social researches.
  6. Empirical social researchers were successful in introducing their approaches within the various social research disciplines – history, sociology, economics, political science, and social psychology – that shaped the development of communication research. Empirical social research was widely accepted as the most scientific way to study communication even though it proved difficult to find conclusive evidence of media influence.

Assumptions

  1. Media rarely have any direct influence upon individuals. Most people are sheltered from direct manipulation and that they do not believe everything they read, hear, or watch. This assumption negates, if not totally contradicts the assumption of mass society theory that people are isolated and vulnerable from direction manipulation.
  2. There is a two-step flow of media influence. Media could not influence people if the opinion leaders who guide them are not influenced by its messages.
  3. By the time most people become adults they have developed strong group commitments like political party or religious affiliations that media messages are powerless to overcome. These commitments make people to reject media messages although other group members are not present to help them.
  4. When media effects occur, they are modest and isolated. Large number of people will not change their votes although they are flooded with various media messages everyday.

Limitations

  1. Surveys can not measure how people actually use media on a day-to-day basis because they can only record how people report their media experiences.
  2. Surveys are very expensive and cumbersome way to study people’s use of specific media content like their reading of certain news stories or their viewing of specific television programs.
  3. The research design and data analysis procedures are inherently conservative in assessing the power of media.
  4. Subsequent research on the two-step flow has produced highly contradictory finding
  5. Although surveys can be useful for studying changes over time, they are a relatively crude technique.
  6. Surveys omit many potentially important variables by focusing only on what can be easily or reliably measured using existing techniques.

The FAA

The FAA, Boys and girls, we should be glad the FAA is looking out for us. Yes, it is s shame that some of their employees got too friendly with some of the airlines. However, adults do not “demonstrate acting reasonably” when trying to punish (the bad guy) – airline or the FAA inspectors by (going after the entire group) forcing the entire commercial system with “do it now” inspections! We have all seen the TV newsreels of mechanics measuring distances between tie (knots), to see if they are 1/4 of an inch off. Many on one plane are. Wow. As Charles Gibson asked one expert, is all this trouble reasonable for 1/4 of an inch? NO. Pure and simple. Is it true that commercial planes have had fuel line breaks that have caused catastrophic failures?

Yes. Is it also true that airplanes carry miles of lines of this or that? Yes. Maybe we need to go back a few decades. What must head mechanics and their charter or scheduled airlines do to become licensed-permitted, to fly under the protective wing of the FAA? “They must put together [the airlines] a description of their planes and their intended fight maintenance program and it must minimally match that of the manufacturer of the airplane to at least not violate the warranty and for safety, keep the plane in its best possible condition. Are these manufacturer rules or guidelines critical? They can be. Engine temperatures, weight distribution, amount of fuel capable of being carried, top safe speed, …the list goes on.

Can these minimums or maximums be challenged? You bet. They are guidelines since there cannot be an exact science regarding metal failure unless it is a proven fact that all metal such as steel, fails to keep its shape after y temperature. Or the engine is shown to put out no more than x amount of thrust regardless the amount of fuel given to it. When the thickness of a windshield is discussed, or wire width, or materials, it is all best guesses. Computers calibrate the components in a plane that crashed and the reason for the crash confirmed. It is a hypothesis as to what causes a crash. And usually the hypothesis is a good one; too much weight from ice, no fuel and controls refusing to work, etc. So, the FAA and the manufacturer have to guess “best guesses.” I want that. What I don’t want is to have a best guess become a rule and that rule, if violated, to disrupt the entire nation. The FAA has fall guys and the airlines have fall guys. No one wants to take the responsibility for errors.

Or, the error of one group like now and here, is assumed to be the error of many groups [airlines] as in a syllogism. If an FAA officer found a plane with inadequate inspections, the officer can stand by and inspect a plane. I agree with that. That is logical and not harmful to anyone. To, however, make the hypothesis that “if this plane is not current on its inspections, then all the planes are technically unsafe.” That is an absurd conclusion. Why is that so? An example; when many airplanes are sold, the sales comes with a caveat; this plane is past its inspection time. This means that it cannot be used for commercial purposes or to safely take trips without going through a specific level of inspection. It is safe and when the new buyer gets it to home base, it is to be put through inspection. For safety sake. The plane does not know there are no passengers. The no passenger rule is an FAA rule. Does this mean that airlines should ignore maintenance time frames and pull planes out of service regardless of their need in flight schedules? NO. What is more logical is to take a doubt situation, like wires, and direct the airline to remove one or two planes from “available to fly status”, get them inspected and while that goes on, let the rest of the fleet fly. When the one or two are inspected, direct the next 2 planes to be inspected. NOT take out a fleet or ½ of a fleet to inspect them all at one time. And here is why: a. The plane is automatically inspected by the pilot before each flight. B . The airplane has its senior mechanics and inspectors available prior to each start-up and can examine the plane to see if it has any worry components or levels of operations that are suspect. A cracked engine or fuselage is a dangerous thing and a plane with those ailments would not be on the tarmac with passengers. A broken wire tie has no meaning

A mis-distanced tie has no meaning. Remember, there are guides because every component has to have a time of maintenance and a rule created by which it must be judged. With many airplane components, these rules are arbitrary. Some rule must be created since FAA flies on rules. A component cannot have “no review needed.” Every component must be inspected. In fact, some components must be replaced even though they are working fine; this is because, via computer models, a component might begin to get weak and perform under 80% efficiency and the airplane might require 90% efficiency for all components all the time. Now we just have to tell the components that. The FAA needs to become alert to the idea that it is a guide body and if the flying public is so mad they choose to drive or take the train, the FAA will no longer have a purpose for being. So, FAA; common sense, please!

Racism

Racism stop it!  

You hear that a lot don’t you? In schools, on TV even in your own house, but do any of you really understand the true meaning? Or is it just a word that keeps repeating in your head. I bet that most of the students here have made a racist remark or maybe did something that was racist in their life. You might have noticed it, but you did.

Racism what is it? What does it mean? Well, racism means attitudes practices and other factors that disadvantage people because of their skin race or ethnicity. Racism can be directed in any one of those suggestions.

Racism is sometimes very obvious, examples such as graffiti or physical violence can be seen easily. Racial and ethnic jokes are widely spread. For instance the other day when I had a pizza, some kid asked nicely if he could have a piece because he asked nicely I gave him a piece, then he’s like give me another piece, so I said no, lastly he said why are you being a Jew and left. That was criticizing and racist. The guy had no right to call me names, in fact he had no right to criticize the Jews. How are Jews mean? They give you stuff, they lend you stuff, only if your nice to them. Same goes to the other religions.

Racism exists at three main levels, which are institutional, cultural and individual racism. Institutional racism takes the form of the practices, customs, rules and standards of organizations including governments that disadvantage people because of their race, color, or ethnicity. An example of this is back in the day when Martin Luther King Jr. a black man stood up for his people because the American government were cheating the black people from sitting on the bus – the rules were if the seats on the bus were full any black person sitting on a seat has to automatically get off the seat and give it to a white person.

Cultural racism is the cultural values that disadvantage people because of their race, color or ethnicity. An example of this is a when a beautiful, women walks by a man thinks she’s also trustworthy. It shouldn’t be how a person looks like to know if their trustworthy, it should be their personality.

Lastly individual racism, an example of individual racism are the beliefs of racial stereotypes, meaning that people actually believe that some races are better than others and even the belief that people can be classified according to their race. Like if you see a black person, you would automatically think that they’re good at playing basketball, or about Asians people give them the stereotype of being smart, even geniuses. Lastly what about Arabs when somebody sees an Arab walking by they point them out as a terrorist.

RACISM – STOP IT!

10 Ancient Gods of Beer

These are the world’s ten known Ancient Gods of beer:

  1. Silenus


    In Ancient Greek mythology, Silenus is the God of beer and a drinking companion. He is usually associated with his buddy, Dionysus. He is often featured as a bald and fat man, with a big beer belly. He is normally drunk and it is said that he had to be carried either by donkeys or satyrs (in Greek mythology, satyrs are wood-dwelling creatures with the head and body of a man and the ears, horns, and legs of a goat).

  2. Dionysus


    Dionysus is famously known for being the Ancient Greek God of intoxicating drinks like wine and beer. He is also known as the Liberator as he liberates oneself with the intoxicating power of alcoholic drinks. He is the son of Zeus and considered Silenus his tutor.

  3. Ninkasi


    The picture here is from a beer ad named after the Sumerian Goddess.

    Ninkasi is the Ancient Sumerian Goddess of beer and brewing. It is said that she provides the world with the secret to make beer. In Sumerian culture, she is also known for her power to satisfy human desire.

  4. Osiris


    In Ancient Egyptian culture, Osiris is the God of agriculture. He is also known as the God of beer. A Greek historian from the time of Julius Caesar once wrote that, “Osiris taught the people how to brew the beverage which is made of barley, which is not greatly inferior to wine in odor and potency.”

  5. Aegir


    In Norse mythology, Aegir is actually the God of the sea. It is believed that he has the control of the storms and turbulent seas. He is also known as the God of beer and brewing.

  6. Tezcatzontecatl


    In the Aztec tradition, Tezcatzontecatl is the God of pulque (a traditional alcoholic beverage made of fermented juice of the century plant, and similar to beer). He is also associated with drunkenness and fertility. A monument built like a pyramid was built on top of the Tepozteco Mountain for the worshiper and now, this place has become a well known archaeological site.

  7. Mbaba Mwana Waresa


    In Zulu mythology, Mbaba Mwana Waresa is the Goddess of beer because it is believed that she created the first beer for human comsumption. She is also known as the Goddess of rain and the rainbow. She is celebrated for her search of true love.

  8. Yasigi

     

    In certain African cultures, Yasigi is the Goddess of beer, dance and masks. Her statue portrays her as large-breasted female holding a beer ladle while dancing.

  9. Radegast


    In the Czech mythology, Radegast is the God of hospitality and mutuality. According to the legend, he is credited for the creation of beer.

  10. Raugupatis and Ragutiene


    In Ancient Baltic and Slavic mythology, Raugupatis is known as the God of fermentation. Raugutiene is Raugupatis partner and she is known as the Goddess of beer.

White Supremacy in America: The Ku Klux Klan

Throughout its 150-year history, the KKK has managed to remain a violent, homegrown terrorist group whole sole purpose was terrorization of classes of people that scared them: African-Americans, Catholics, Jews and all immigrants.  They attempted to justify murder, kidnapping, and intimidation by claiming white supremacy.

Their entire purpose was to propagate violence and intimidation among minorities, catholics and jews, and had no problem with expressing their ideas publicly.

There were three different periods of time in which the Klan was at large; they died out and then restarted themselves many times.  The first Klan was started by a man named Nathan Bedford Forrest and a group of Confederate soldier veterans (Ingalls 389). They were based in Pulaski, Tennessee and formed the KKK in 1865. In its early stages the Ku Klux Klan was very secretive. Because it was so secretive, it was very disorganized. It had no ranks or means of secret communication.

Until it gained more power and was more recognizable, no one knew who was behind the Klan’s attacks. The attacks were mostly directed towards disarming freed slaves who received firearms due to the Civil War. In one Florida county Klansmen killed over 150 blacks. The first Klan fell when Congress passed the Force Bill, or “Bloody Bill”, in 1871, which allowed the President to use the federal militia against the Ku Klux Klan. The KKK disappeared soon afterwards (Ingalls 389, 390).

The second Klan was founded by William J. Simmons in Atlanta, 1915 (Ingalls 389, 890). Simmons had served in the Spanish-American War and started the Klan with a group of men, all either from the former Klan or were young white supremacists. By the mid-1920s the Ku Klux Klan had reached six million members and had members as far north as Canada . In some areas 40% of white males were involved in the Klan. For a while the Klan was lead by David Ernest Duke, a state representative of Louisiana.

Klansmen hung a Jewish man from a tree because he was accused of the rape-murder of a young girl. Many lawsuits were filed against the Klan because of this . The Klan began to fall in the 1930s because of bankruptcy and a scandal involving the Grand Dragon of Indiana, D.C. Stephenson. Stephenson raped a young girl on a train. The girl did not die but suffered severe bite wounds all over her body. One spectator said that it looked like she “…Had been attacked by a group of vicious dogs.” By 1944 the Klan had died out completely (Ingalls 390).

The third Klan was restarted in Atlanta, in 1946. This time it was founded by Samuel Green. After Green died in 1949 the Klan split into independent groups. In the 1960s violence from the Ku Klux Klan increased due to the civil rights movement. In 1965 the FBI designed project COINTELPRO to take down the Klan. Klansmen became frightened and the Klan lost membership. Klansmen hung Michael Donald, a black man, due to accusations of sexual assault. Again, the Klan was slammed with lawsuits. The Klan lost even more membership.

The Klan is still active today at about three thousand Klansmen .Most Klans are now in the South. Some notable Klan groups are the Bayou Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Church of American Knights of the KKK, the Imperial Klans of America, Knights of White Kamelia, and the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.

Although the Klan still has remained a white supremacist group despite the fact that they died out many times, they hardly ever practice their beliefs and have midnight conventions as it would be extremely illegal. Today the Klan is regarded with fear, and for good reason. They killed thousands of innocent people.

Key points to remember about the Ku Klux Klan are that there was three times the Klan was active and they were a very violent organization. The Force Bill had a huge impact on the KKK and if it was not for that bill then the Klan would still be very large and dangerous, and the Klan was mostly based in the South.