Hot Pakistani Girls

How many of you recognize this American-born Bollywood actress?  She is India’s newest rising film star and recently she has been seen in some new music videos. Here are two of my favorite photos, the second one from her Instagram account.

Nargis Fakhri
Nargis-Fakhri

Now a day the most in fashion in Pakistani girls are wearing jeans and skirts and they totally ignoring their past trend of wearing colorful shalwar kameez with stylish embroidery on the front of their shirts. Turquoise is very famous and is also known as purple color in Pakistan.

The other new trend follows by Pakistani babes is to adding their profile, describing their selves and what they’re looking for in a partner. They upload their photos with their profiles to get twenty times more attention to their profiles. They add these profiles to various single and partner looking websites. Mostly they are looking for guy living in abroad like UK, USA, and Dubai etc.

The other hot issue in Pak news is about Miss Pakistan World is a beauty competition for Pakistani girls from the planet earth. Which was started in 2002 by an American resident Sonia Ahmed, Miss Pakistan World attracted Pakistani girls from the England, America and Canada.

The other main issue with Pakistani girls is cell phone. Every second girl in Pakistan who has mobile is suffering from some kind of trouble from the wrong callers. Majority wrong callers are of guys searching for girl’s cell phone numbers. The interesting thing is that not only boys doing this but on the other hand certain types of girls are doing such things at a large number. In most cases the girls are asking for mobile cards to make a friendship with fool boys.

Henrikas Daktaras: Mafia Lord of Lithuania

Dr. Henry (alias – Henytė) – one of the most famous criminals of all time in Lithuania, the Lithuanian media is often referred to as the criminal authority.

Dr. Henry (alias – Henytė) – one of the most famous criminals of all time Lithuania, the Lithuanian media is often referred to as the criminal authority.

Convicted twice. He alleged a number of crimes for extortion, bodily harm, murder. Anticipated that it may be killing his cousin and he put together his protected gang members.

Dr. Henry is convicted for extortion and witness the impact .

1997, February 13, the day of the Vilnius district court granted Dr. Henry 8year prison sentence for mediation redemption cars threats and former Head of the Protection of Ancient Agora (now the Court of the former Criminal Police Office of the Deputy Head) Yuri Milevsko, if that, witness the court recognizes Dari Mačianską which the kidnap of his car .

In October 2001 from Dr H. Vilnius 2 nd amendment to the strict regime colony was released into the freedom for good behavior, completing a three-quarters of the punishment.

What Really Happens During a Recession?

Everywhere on the media we get news about the financial crisis and recession. It’s not a single country problem but most of the developed world is in a recession now. The situation has also been called “The Great Recession”.

Some people are also using the term ‘depression’ but that is not what economists would use, not yet.

Difference Between Recession and Depression

What then is the difference between a recession and a depression? Dictionary.com defines recession as “a period of an economic contraction, sometimes limited in scope or duration.” Economists usually define a depression as a decline in real GDP of more than 10% over three or four years. A very old joke tells us “a recession is when your neighbour loses his job, a depression is when you lose yours”.

Events in a Recession

  • Production decreases – People buy less and companies produce less because they can’t sell.
  • Stocks fall – As companies make less profits confidence in the company’s ability to grow and make profits comes down. This lowers share prices.
  • Politicians and company directors start denying – Any early signs of recession are promptly denied as usual market fluctuations or blamed on previous government policies.
  • More people are unemployed – Companies earn less and cut costs by firing people. Labour is usually the largest expense of a company and thus the greatest savings comes from cutting labour costs.
  • People start spending less – People are scared of losing their jobs or incomes and start saving so that they can live off savings if they lose their incomes.
  • Interest rates fall – Governments and Central Banks lower interest rates to make money cheaper so that it is easier for companies to borrow and increase their productivity.
  • Governments adopt expansionary policies – Taxes are cut and public sector spending is raised to boost confidence and increase spending power of consumers.
  • Confidence in the financial institutions suffers – Governments put astronomical sums of taxpayer money to save financial institutions like banks and pension funds to maintain confidence in the financial system.
  • Gloom mongers are in full swing – The same politicians and directors who denied early signs of recession start competing to paint blacker than black pictures of the state of the economy so that taxpayer money can be used to bail out ailing companies or industries and politicians would be seen as saviours.
  • Stricter laws about financial instruments – Governments or central authorities try to introduce stricter methods of controlling financial instruments and systems. Some high profile scapegoats are found. After some time innovative operators succeed in going around control mechanisms resulting in new misuses.
  • Many companies go bankrupt – Companies, which are not agile enough to react to the crisis or able to pressure the governments into bailing them out go bankrupt. Usually the taxpayer is left with the costs of the bankruptcies.
  • Care industry grows – Demand for services grow due to unemployment, early retirement, health problems and mental health issues.
  • Cosmetic industry booms – People defer making large purchases like homes, cars and foreign vacations but buy relatively lower cost cosmetic products to feel good quickly.
  • Reading, communal activities and spending time with family and friends increases – With less money being spent on entertainment, hobbies, travel and devices, activities, which require less money become more popular.
  • Less babies are born in affluent countries – Measured by lower number of searches for baby related products, Heather Hopkins of Hitwise claims that less babies are being made now due to the recession.
  • Developing economies suffer more – If developing economies have to borrow to invest in new kinds of production, their debt burden increases. The developing world already spends $13 on debt repayment for every $1 it receives in grants.

The History of St. Patrick’s Day Parades

How did a Christian observance for the Patron Saint of Ireland turn into the St. Patrick’s Day parades we see every year? Read on to learn some of the history behind the festivities.

“May you live to be a hundred, with one extra year to repent!” goes a well-known Irish saying. And may you be able-bodied enough to enjoy St. Patrick’s Day every year of your life. One of the ways Americans enjoy it in cities across the nation is with annual parades. On March 17th it seems everyone has a wee bit o’the green in him, for they turn out in droves, line the streets early, bring their grills and their picnic baskets, and settle in for a day of pure enjoyment.

Lonely Irish immigrants in Boston in 1737 held the first recorded St. Patrick’s Day celebration in America. It is likely that they continued to celebrate together every year, just as they had in their home country, but the next one recorded in history was in 1762. Irish soldiers stationed there with the English military held a parade in the New York City streets, much to the delight of a growing Irish immigrant community. It was such a success that in 1766 New York declared it an annual event, and so it has been ever since.

The protestant, largely middle-class immigrants formed several ‘Irish Aid’ societies in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s, like the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, to assist each other and new immigrants that were pouring in. They were hard-working, upright people who helped their own and anybody else who needed it. And their celebrations – St. Patrick’s Day being the main one – were boisterous, happy, fun, and open to anybody who wanted to join in. As a result, they were well received by all. Local groups turned out with bagpipes and drums, the churches opened up with bazaars and games, and residents vied with each other to produce the best ethnic dishes and desserts.

In 1845 the Great Potato Famine in Ireland drove scores starving immigrants to American shores, and public opinion changed somewhat. These immigrants – almost a million of them – tended to be poor, uneducated, and Catholic. They had difficulty finding even menial work and were often met with contempt by Americans. Protestant middle class Irish scorned them as well. For years many of them had a rough go in their new country. But the Irish are durable, and find ways to weather storms. Eventually they began to recognize their power as a voting block, and to organize what was called the ‘green machine’. Their power was in their sheer numbers, and political candidates began to woo them determinedly for the swing vote they represented. By this time many cities were hosting parades on March 17, the largest being in New York City. Irishmen must have danced with glee in 1948 when then-President Harry Truman attended the New York City parade, giving his seal of approval to the practice and creating public acceptance across the nation.

St. Patrick’s Day was not an officially recognized holiday until 1976, but most large cities were already hosting their own brand of parades in honor of the day. However, it was increasingly recognized as a secular holiday, not a Christian one, with the emphasis on pure fun. While there is nothing wrong with that, the outlandish customs that Americans seem to love have become offensive to some devout Irish, who would never dream of wearing a “kiss me, I’m Irish” button. Also drinking to excess is now a given for many folks on this holiday, something the true Irish did not tolerate.

In Ireland, businesses were closed on St. Patrick’s Day, including the pubs. The day began by attending church services to honor their patron saint. Men wore a sprig of shamrocks on the hats or jackets, women wore green ribbons in their hair, and children wore green, white and orange badges – the colors of the flag. The rest of the day was devoted to family, friends, and festivities. Games, crafts, and contests were held, and copious quantities of dark Irish beer and traditional Irish dishes were consumed, but drinkers stayed close to home and knew their limits.

It wasn’t until the 1970’s that the Irish parliament repealed the law keeping pubs closed. In 1995 a national campaign began to attract tourism to the war-torn country, and to showcase the beautiful Emerald Isle. A national St. Patrick’s celebration now takes place in Dublin every year, lasting several days. In addition to a huge parade, there are fireworks, concerts, theater productions, and treasure hunts. Close to a million attend every year.

St. Patrick’s Day parades are springing up in other countries as well. Canada, Russia, Singapore, and Japan boast of parades, among others. It just goes to show that, indeed, there may be a little leprechaun in all of us. This is certainly true in America, where the Census Bureau estimates over 34 million Americans can trace some Irish blood in their ancestry.

With this year’s celebration just around the corner, many establishments are already gearing up for the coming festivities. In university towns this often includes neighbors boarding up their windows against a night of frivolity and heavy drinking. But less troublesome celebrations will be everywhere, so be sure to freshen up your green jacket and buff up your dancing shoes! And as the evening wears on and you are ready to end your day, be sure and bless your hosts with a traditional Irish blessing: “May your neighbors respect you, troubles neglect you, the angels protect you, and Heaven accept you.”

Unknown Facts About President Barrack Obama

President Barack Obama

The 44th President of the United States is about as unknown to the average American as he can be; because he is not a life-long Washington politician.

Most of his life has been spent as a private citizen and an educator. Next week, he travels to France to meet with President Nicolas Sarkozy and it turns out that they have something in common. Neither of them had their father live with them.

President Obama, although extraordinarily bright that he is, will need to use an interpreter to converse with Sarkozy as our current president received a D in 8th grade French!

Here are some other interesting facts about our new African-American President:

1. Obama’s ancestors owned slaves:

A distant cousin from his mother’s side, Gabriel Duvall, a Supreme Court Justice and a member of the US House of Representatives, from the second district of Maryland was also a friend of Thomas Jefferson and the owner of 37 slaves

2. His maternal grandparents liked to move around:

Born in Kansas, Obama’s maternal grandparents lived in four states before settling in Hawaii.

3. Obama’s great-uncle liberated a Nazi concentration camp:

Charles T. Payne, served in the U.S. Army 89th Division and helped liberate Buchenwald concentration camp.

4.  Obama has highly educated family members

Father Barack Hussein Obama got a Master degree in economics from Harvard University, Mother Stanley Ann Dunham Soetoro got a Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Hawai, Half-sister Auma Obama got her PhD from the University of Heidelberg.


5.   China Business Consultant among family members

Mark Ndesandjo, Barack Obama’s half-brother, son of Ruth Nidesand and Barack Obama Sr. runs an Internet company called WorldNexus that advises Chinese corporations how best to reach international customers.

6.   Obama’s Grandmother was a bank president

Barack Obama’s maternal grandmother was a bank vice president in Hawaii.

7.   His wife was assigned to be his mentor

In 1989 Michelle Obama was asked to mentor a summer associate from Harvard name Barack Obama. Michelle Robinson initially brushed off advances from Barack because he was an intern, and she was higher up the law firm’s hierarchy as an associate.

8.  Obama has won two major media awards

Obama has won two Grammy Awards. First for Best Spoken Word Album in 2005 for the audio book edition of Dreams From My Father (2004), and again in 2007 for the audio book edition of The Audacity of Hope (2006).

9.  Gandhi is Obama’s hero

His heroes are Martin Luther King Jr., Mahatma Gandhi, Pablo Picasso and John Coltrane.

10. Who would Obama choose to play Obama in a movie?

Obama has said that he would like Will Smith to play himself in a movie.

Moving on After Loss

It still really hurts, but it does get better…

Growing up in a secure household where there was never a need for any thought to be given to the insecurity that tomorrow may bring, I had the love of my parents and I grew up with the wonderful companionship of my sister and a house with plenty.

As children we were shielded from the adverse things of life, by never having to face them, although we were made to understand how very fortunate we were and not to ever take anything for granted.

Years have rolled on ever since, and my vision is clouded by the unexpected terminal illness to which I lost my Mum nearly ten years back. It seemed unfair not only because she was young, and so was I, but also we were at that stage in our lives together where we were getting closer and closer and the need to share with her had become almost a necessity. I am a great believer in the the words, ‘Time heals everything,’ and although it seemed impossible at the time, I have overcome my deep sorrow to remember the good days with her, the times we laughed together and the bundle of energy that she was!

In times of grief, people often console you, telling you not to cry, that it will al be alright, and I had all that as well- a close knit extended family and wonderful friends. But the need to grieve is essential and only by allowing myself to feel the pain and on some days get up with the thought that I am not going to make it, did I actually manage to live with the sadness.

There are still days when I miss her so much that my heart physically aches and I am overwhelmed by the fact that my children will never know her, but yet I know she is watching us. If I can be anything like she was as a mother, to my daughters, I will consider myself a real success. She gives me strength to be a better person and I know that if time allows one to get through a personal tragedy and come out on the other side, there is believe strength and resilience in the human spirit. Let not anyone tell you otherwise.

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Introduction

Introduction

Journal, the root word of journalism, came from the Latin word diurnal, which means daily. In ancient Rome, brief communiqués were called Acta Diurna, which means Daily Events. Others were called Acta Publica, which means Public Events.

Journalism, the art and science of writing for newspapers, periodicals, radio, television, and online publications, enfolds timely and factual reports of unusual or unexpected events, opinions, or situations that affect man and his environment. These reports are gathered, evaluated, and published, broadcast, or posted on the Web to inform, to entertain, or to influence large number of readers.

The history of journalism started in ancient Egypt when heralds ran to pharaohs with oral reports and when town criers sang important announcements in public places. The first printed newspaper, produced from wood blocks, appeared in Beijing, China in the Seventh and in the Eight Centuries.

When Johan Guttenberg of Mainz, Germany invented the movable printing press in 1450, wider and faster dissemination of news stories were made possible. It also facilitated the exchange of ideas throughout Europe and the spread of the ideas of the Renaissance from 1300 to 1600.

On September 25, 1690, Benjamin Harris, an English refugee, published the Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick, the first American newspaper, in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1783, the Daily Advertisers and the Pennsylvania Evening Post, the first daily American newspapers, were published in Philadelphia.

The Gentleman’s Magazine, published from 1731 to 1907, was the first periodical to use the word magazine that denotes a vehicle of entertaining reading. It contained political essays, poems, stories, and debates and was very influential, serving for example, as the model for the American Magazine of Andrew Bradford and the General Magazine and Historical Chronicle of Benjamin Franklin, the first true American periodicals.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Early Years

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Early Years

The Philippine press, which is committed to the great heritage of libertarianism, is one of the freest, liveliest, and strongest in Asia and in the world. Throughout the ages, it has perpetuated a formidable tradition of service, which is the fortification of our sovereign life.

Its sustainable growth and development provides gratifying and fascinating footnotes of our historical revolutions. It started in 1637 when Tomas Pinpin, the father of Filipino printing, published the Successos Felices, the first Philippine newspaper that antedated Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick for 53 years.

Pinpin, who learned the art of printing from Father Francisco Blancas de San Jose, the parish priest of Abucay, Bataan and founder of the Dominican-owned printing press in Binondo, Manila and in Pila, Laguna, devoted his 14 – page newspaper to the raids of Muslim pirates in the country.

Hojas Volantes, with the title Aviso Al Publico, was distributed for mass readership in the Philippines and acted as town criers of Spain in the country on February 27, 1799. Although it appeared intermittently in the next 50 years, it was only on August 8, 1811 when the Spaniards put out the Del Superior Govierno, the first regularly issued newspaper edited by Governor General Manuel (Mariano?) Fernandez Del Folgueras. It gave news about the Napoleonic invasion in Spain and was a potent weapon in the fight for emancipation. It ceased publication after 15 issues over a six-month period.

Published on March 25, 1821, El Ramillete Patriotico was a liberal and audacious newspaper. It was sarcastic and sometimes unbridled in its speech of degenerating personalities. Another newspaper, El Noticioso Filipino, was published on July 29, 1821.

La Filantropía, a weekly newspaper dealing with current issues from Europe and the arrivals and departures of vessels in Manila, was dedicated to the “welfare of the people in the language that is not offensive to the sane moral of the public.” Printed in papel de arroz (rice paper), it first appeared on September 1, 1821 and ceased publication in 1822. It was followed by El Filantropo, a relatively small newspaper that lasted a year, and the Noticias Compiladas de los Papeles Publicos de la Peninsula both in 1824.

Founded by the Real Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais and edited by Luis Barreto, Jose Azcarraga, Manuel Azcarraga, Marcelo Azcarraga, and Jose Nicolas Irastorza in 1824, the Registro Mercantil de Manila was a monthly newspaper that worked for economic prosperity and political independence, but ceased publication in May 1833 because of lack of financial support and regular subscribers. El Noticiero followed it in 1838.

In 1843, Gregorio Tarrius, the Administrator of Posts, founded the Semanario Filipino that published business news from Asia, Europe, and the Archipelago. It was renamed El Amigo del Pais in 1845, but ceased publication in April 1847. La Estrella, a weekly newspaper founded by Agustin de la Cavada y Mendez de Vigo on October 4, 1846, became a daily newspaper on February 1, 1847, but was suspended in January 1849.

La Esperanza, the first daily newspaper filled with long discussions about religious, scientific, historical, and philosophical subjects, was also founded by Agustin de la Cavada y Mendez de Vigo, was edited by Felipe de la Corte y Ruano Calderon, and was published by Miguel Sanchez on December 1, 1846. It also published official and commercial news and advertisements.

When El Diario de Manila was founded on January 1, 1848, La Estrella and La Esperanza ceased publication and relinquished the monopoly to the Boletin Oficial de Filipinas, the daily government organ from 1852 to 1860. However, when the latter was renamed the Gaceta de Manila by a Royal Order on May 18, 1860, El Diario de Manila reappeared in September 1860.

Edited by José Felipe Del Pan, El Diario de Manila became not only the best-edited newspaper, but also one that had long, prosperous, and continuous circulation until 1899. Its editorial staff included José de la Rosa, Manuel Garrido, Manuel Marzano, Lorenzo Moreno Conde, Francisco Ramos Borguella, Francisco de Paula Martinez, and Antonio Vazquez de Aldana.

El Instructor, 1849; El Despertador, 1849; Diario de Avisos y Noticias, 1850; El Observador Filipino, 1851; Boletin Oficial de Filipinas, 1852, and El Commercio, 1858, followed the Diario. The latter, not an example of correctness, tidiness of language, and civility in reasoning, was an afternoon newspaper edited by Soler Ovejero, an army officer.

A fortnightly that opened a new era in the history of Philippine journalism because it had sustained its reviews, sketches, biographies, news about the country, and literary and scientific sections, the Ilustracion Filipina was published on March 1, 1859 and ceased publication on December 15, 1860.

Published on February 26, 1861, the Gaceta de Manila, a weekly government newspaper that published official documents and announcements, ceased publication on August 8, 1898. It was followed by the Revista de Noticias y Anuncios, 1861, La España Catolica, 1862, and La España Oceánica, 1862.

With the slogan “Religious Unity,” El Catolico Filipino was founded by Father Pedro Pelaez and was published by Father Mariano Sevilla on February 1, 1862. Though it was the first religious newspaper in the country, Fray Agapito Aparicio charged it as a political newspaper masquerading beneath the cloak of religion. El Correo de Filipinas was published in 1863.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Revolutionary Period

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Revolutionary Period

by Alixander Haban Escote

The supreme quest for freedom and independence started in Barcelona, Spain when La Solidaridad, a fortnightly edited by Graciano Lopez-Jaena, financed by Dr Pablo Rianzares, and supported by the Comité de Propaganda, was published on February 15, 1889. With the policy to champion democracy and liberalism, to expose the real plight of the country, and to work peacefully for economic and social reforms, the newspaper published not only news, but also articles and essays about the Philippines and its people.

As editor of the newspaper, Lopez-Jaena did not receive any monetary compensation, but was given free meals, lodging, clothing, and modest pocket money. In 1891, he collected his articles and speeches and incorporated them in his book entitled Discursos y Articulos Varios.

In writing for the newspaper, Filipino reformists used pen names: Antonio Luna, Taga-Ilog; Jose Ma. Panganiban, Jomapa; Domingo Gomez, Romero Franco; Clemente Jose Zulueta, Juan Totoó; Jose Rizal4, Laong Laan and Dimas Alang; Marcelo del Pilar, Kupang, Plaridel, and Maitalaga; Mariano Ponce, Naning, Tikbalang, and Kalipulako, Eduardo Lete, Pedro Paterno, Jose Alejandrino, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Ma Regidor, among others. Ferdinand Blumentritt5, a Bohemian scholar, and Miguel Morayta, a Spanish historian, also worked for the newspaper.

On October 31, 1889, Lopez-Jaena passed the editorship to Marcelo del Pilar, who left his family in the Philippines, went to Spain, and literally gave his life for the newspaper. Del Pilar became the moving spirit of the reform movement and contacted progressive Europeans who would fight side by side with Filipino reformists.

In the next five years, Del Pilar, put out the newspaper despite of affliction, deprivation, and starvation. The newspaper ceased publication in Madrid, Spain on November 15, 1895. Apolinario Mabini had written Del Pilar about the difficulty of raising funds and the added obstacles of getting copies into the Philippines.

Two months and three days later, that was on January 18, 1896, Ang Kalayaan, the official revolutionary newspaper of the Kataastaasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Sons of the People) founded by Andres Bonifacio6 and Emilio Jacinto, was published under the editorship of Pio Valenzuela. Printed with 2 000 copies, it exposed the inhumane and indignities of civil guards and Spanish friars and called for a bloody revolution against Spain. To deceive the Spaniards, the founders and the editor made it appeared that the newspaper was printed in Yokohoma, Japan, that the Japanese were in sympathy with the Filipino people, and that the editor was Marcelo del Pilar, who at that time was in Madrid and at the eve of his death.

The first issue of the newspaper contained a supposed editorial of Del Pilar, which Jacinto actually wrote. It greeted the people and wished them solidarity and independence and offered them his life and all he have for the good of the Filipino people. There was also an article by Jacinto and Valenzuela’s Catuiran, which described the cruelties of the Spanish friars and civil guards of San Francisco del Monte on a helpless village lieutenant. It also contained Bonifacio’s Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa that expressed the oppression of Spain and encourage the Filipino people to liberate their country; and Jacinto’s Manifesto that urged the Filipino people to revolt against Spain and to secure their liberty.

Bonifacio, Jacinto, and Valenzuela wrote under their pen names: Agap-ito Bagumbayan, Dimas-Ilaw and Pinkian, and Madlang-Away, respectively. Jacinto was about to publish the second issue when the Spanish authorities discovered the Katipunan. The newspaper, then, abruptly ceased publication.

On the other hand, Clemente Jose Zulueta, an enterprising writer, disappointed bibliophile, and later official researcher in the archives of Paris, Madrid, and Mexico, edited and published La Libertad on June 20, 1898. However, Gen Emilio Aguinaldo7, ordered the suspension of the newspaper because of not applying for a license through his offices. The July 4, 1898 decree stated, “While abnormal circumstances to the war still prevail, all publications, without permission from the government are strictly prohibited.” Aguinaldo confiscated the printing paraphernalia of the newspaper, which was operated by Asilo de Huérfanos, an Augustian orphanage in Malabon.

Probably the most read, most famous, and most important newspaper of the revolution was La Independencia. Gen Antonio Luna, the Commander in chief of the Army of Liberation of the First Philippine Republic, together with his brother Joaquin and a few friends, founded it. Its first issue appeared on September 3, 1898 and its last issue appeared on November 11, 1900. Like Ang Katipunan, the newspaper also concealed its place of publication and declared that it was published in Manila when it was actually published in Malabon. It used the same printing press that the La Libertad used. It had four pages, with one page devoted to advertisements, and contained news stories, with the foreign articles taken from the newly circulated the Manila Times.

La Independencia editorial staff was composed of highly liberate men and women who, most of them, wrote under their pen names: Antonio Luna, Taga-Ilog, director; Salvador Vivencio del Rosario, X and Juan Tagalo, editor in chief; Jose Abreu, Kaibigan, Cecilio Apostol, Catulo, Mariano del Rosario, Tito-Tato, Clemente Jose Zulueta, M. Kaun, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Fluvio Gil, Rafael Palma8, Hapon and Dapit-Hapon, staff writers; R Regidor, Jose Palma, Rosa Sevilla, Luis Guerrero, Mariano Ponce, Manuel Guerrero, Rianzares Bautista, Apolinario Mabini, Leon Ma. Guerrero, Florentina Arellano, Ferdinand Blumentritt, Epifanio de los Santos, Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, contributors; and Felipe Calderon, proofreader.

La Independencia, which castigated both the Spaniards and the Americans, was published in consonance with the wave of nationalism and with the historical occurrence in Malolos, Bulacan. It had the distinction of surviving the 1896 Philippine Revolution and resisting American imperialism.

On September 15, 1898, La Republica Filipina, the newspaper edited by Pedro Paterno, was published in Mandaluyong, Rizal. Like La Independencia, the newspaper was written in refined style and was an example of editorial direction and excellence. However, it was closed down on January 8, 1899 with the hope that the Filipino people will achieve national unity under a democratic republic. Maj Gen Douglas MacArthur, in his 1901 annual report to the Secretary of War, called it an “official organ of the insurgent government” along with La Independencia.

Periodical El Heraldo de la Revolucion Filipina; El Heraldo de la Revolucion Filipina; El Heraldo de la Revolucion; El Heraldo, the official publication of the revolutionary government founded by Gen Emilio Aguinaldo on July 14, 1898, was first published on September 29, 1898 in Malolos, Bulacan. It was a bilingual, Spanish and Tagalog and Spanish and Ilocano, biweekly newspaper edited by Arsenio Cruz Herrera, who was the director of public instruction in the Malolos government and who also became City Mayor of Manila. In January 1899, it settled on the name Heraldo Filipino; this changed in April 1899 to Indice Oficial; and in May 1899 to Gaceta de Filipinas, which remained until it ceased publication in October 1899.

La Revolution was published in Jaro, Iloilo on December 18, 1898. Small, it explained that “our claims are as great as our strength” and it aimed “to defend the rights that the Filipino people have won.”

Published by young professionals, who belonged to the Club Democratico Independiente, Columnas Volantes was printed in Lipa, Batangas on March 24, 1899. It “looked like a real newspaper because besides recording the events mostly about Lipa, it commented on general politics and military movements.” Its writers included Fidel Reyes, Gregorio Solis, Teodoro Kalaw, and Baldomero Roxas. It had also correspondence in Laguna, Hugo Salazar; and La Union, Diego Gloria and Lorenzo Tinoy.

Edited by Isabelo de los Reyes, Filipinas Ante Europa and El Defensor de Filipinas were the two nationalistic newspapers published in Barcelona, Spain on November 18, 1899.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – American Colonial Period

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – American Colonial Period

by Alixander Haban Escote

Although Gen Emilio Aguinaldo and his revolutionary government proclaimed Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 and established the First Philippine Republic in Malolos, Bulacan on January 23, 1899, President William McKinley and Admiral George Dewey planned to take over the Philippines and forced the surrender of Spanish forces inside Intramuros. With the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898 and the Treaty with Spain on November 7, 1900, the United States of America acquired the sovereignty over the Philippines.

As the Spanish-American War was being fought, La Democracia, the first Filipino newspaper that recognized American sovereignty in the country, urged the Filipino people to accept the new government and to help heal the wounds of war. Edited by Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, it was the official publication of the pro-American Partido Federalista, the first political party organized on December 23, 1900 by 125 Filipino illustrados.

Besides La Independencia and El Heraldo dela Revolucion, other Filipino newspapers were also published as the Americans established their military government in the country. Among these was La Patria, the newspaper that openly championed freedom and independence and directly challenged La Democracia. Published by Pablo Ocampo and edited by Rafael Palma and Aurelio Tolentino, it was closed by Gen Arthur McArthur, the father of Gen Douglas McArthur9.

The closure of La Patria and the assertion of American military rule did not dampen the newspaper industry. Unfazed, Pablo Ocampo published La Libertad and continued to fight for freedom and independence. As a result, the American military authorities banned the newspaper, and its publisher was exiled to Guam for two years.

Meanwhile, Rafael Palma, a lawyer, educator, and social scientist, founded El Nuevo Dia, Cebu’s first daily newspaper, on April 6, 1900. In collaboration with the then Speaker Sergio Osmeña Sr.10 and Commissioner Jaime Carlos de Veyra, Palma criticized American military rule. In the end, the newspaper was severely censored and as a sign of protest, it came out with large blacked-out pages that ostracized the Americans who championed freedom of the press and expression in their country, but censored them in the Philippines.

El Grito del Pueblo and its sister publication in Tagalog, Kapatid ng Bayan, edited by Pascual Poblete, and El Filipino Libre, published by Manuel Xeres Burgos, also cried for freedom and independence and criticized American military rule.

On the other hand, English language newspapers were published to cater the needs of the American reading public: Bounding Billow, published aboard US Olympia;11 Official Gazette, published by the American military government; American Soldier, published for a month with some 20 issues; and Soldier’s Letter, published by the 18th Minnesota Volunteers in the US Army. These newspapers had common point of view: “These islands were rich untapped sources of American wealth and capital. The natives, half-devil and half-child, insist on playing government: a group of warlike tribes who will devour each other the moment American troops leave.”

On October 11, 1898, Thomas Gowan, an Englishman rather than an American, edited and published the Manila Times, the first continually published English language daily newspaper in the country. In 1899, George Seliner joined the Manila Times as business manager and later bought the newspaper from Gowan. Seliner sold it in 1902, reacquired it in 1905, and sold it again in 1907.

The then Senate President Manuel Quezon12 bought the Manila Times in 1917. During his ownership, the newspaper was generally staffed by Filipinos, a pattern followed by Governor General Francis Burton Harrison13 in Filipinizing the government. In 1921, Quezon, who found out that politics and journalism are like oil and water that could never be mixed well, sold the newspaper to George Fairchild, a Hawaiian senator engaged in the sugar industry. Politically speaking, the newspaper became the mouthpiece of American politicians and businessmen and was intensely pro-American and anti-Filipino. In 1926, Fairchild sold the newspaper to Jacob Rosenthal, a businessmen engaged in the shoe industry.

Alejandro Roces Sr., the father of modern journalism in the Philippines, bought the Manila Times in 1927. At that time, he was also the owner of the TVT chain of newspapers: Taliba, La Vanguardia, and Manila Tribune. Roces founded the latter on April 1, 1925 when he failed to purchase the Philippine Herald.

Because of its substantial editorial pages and wide international coverage, the Manila Tribune, edited by Carlos Romulo,14 the Philippine Herald former editor, and staffed by Mauro Mendez, Benito Sakdalan, Amando Dayritt, Roberto Anselmo, and Fernando Maramag became the most informative and most entertaining newspaper in the 1920s. The Tribune Magazine, its weekly supplement, had a circulation of 40,000 during weekdays and 80,000 during weekends.

On March 15, 1930, Roces stopped the publication of the Manila Times, but continued the publication of the Manila Tribune, which became a morning newspaper, and the Philippine Herald, which became an afternoon newspaper. After World War II, Alejandro Roces Jr. revived the newspaper business that his father founded, but discarded the TVT chain of newspapers. Roces formed The Manila Times Publishing Company, Inc., and published the Sunday Times on May 27, 1945, which became the Manila Times on September 5, 1945.

Established by Carson Taylor, an Illinois public school teacher who came to the country as part of the Colorado First Volunteer National Guard Regiment, the Manila Daily Bulletin made its debut on February 1, 1900 as a shipping gazette devoted to ship arrivals and departures. Its early editors were H G Farris, 1900; George Rice, late 1900; Chas Bond, 1904; William Crozier, 1905; M L Steward, 1913; C R Zeininger, 1918; and Roy Bennet, late 1918.

In 1912, the Manila Daily Bulletin widened its coverage and circulation and marked its entrance into the newspaper industry. By then, the newspaper shifted to a six-column newspaper consisting of eight pages.

In 1918, the Manila Daily Bulletin switched to a standard eight-column newspaper and published foreign news, first obtained as cable flashes from San Francisco and later as wired stories from the Associated Press and the United Press International. It also rose in circulation and became the largest English language daily newspaper in 1925. Robert Kidd, Ford Wilkins, Frank Bennett, and Ralph Hawkins, were among its early bigwigs.

Abram V Hartendorp, a Thomasite who stayed in Samar and in Zambales, founded The Philippine Magazine, formerly The Philippine Teacher, and later The Philippine Education, in 1904. He contributed largely to the development of Filipino writers in the English language such as Manuel Arguilla, Amador Daguio, Jose Garcia Villa, N V M Gonzalez, Edilberto Tiempo, Bienvenido Santos, and Francisco Avellana.

Judge W H Kincaid founded the Philippine Free Press, the first regularly issued English language weekly magazine, in 1907. It was edited by Pat Gallagher and started as English-Spanish weekly. On August 19, 1908, Robert McCulloch Dick, a Scot who came to the country in 1899, bought the one-year-old magazine and paid one peso, approximately fifty cents, for its goodwill, circulation, and equipment. With the aid of F Theo Rogers as general manager, Dick, who was the editor and publisher until his death on September 14, 1960, turned the magazine into the largest circulated publication in the archipelago and the most influential English language weekly magazine in the history of Philippine journalism. Dick lived most of his life in the Philippines, dying here at the age of 80 years.

Before the war, leading Filipino journalist joined the Philippine Free Press editorial staff – Jose Joven, Jose Reyes, Juan Callas, Ramon Navas, Federico Calero, Roberto Anselmo, and Leon Maria Guerrero. A consistent crusader, the magazine contributed much to the social, cultural, political, educational, and economic growth of the country.

El Renacimiento, a Spanish daily newspaper founded by Rafael Palma on September 1, 1900, became very popular because of its vigorous campaign against graft and corruption in the government. On October 30, 1908, the newspaper came out with an editorial written by Fidel Reyes, its city editor, titled Aves de Rapina, Birds of Prey, which denounced an American official for taking advantage his office in exploiting the resources of the country for his personal gains.

Although the editorial did not mention names, Dean C Worcester, the then Secretary of the Interior and former professor at the University of Michigan, felt alluded to in the editorial and filed a libel case against Teodoro Kalaw and Martin Ocampo, editor and publisher, respectively. The entire Spanish and Filipino press supported the newspaper and many Filipinos offered legal, moral, and financial support.

The lower court sentenced Ocampo to 6 months imprisonment and PhP2 000 fine and Kalaw to 12 months imprisonment and PhP3 000 fine and a verdict for moral and punitive damages for PhP25 000. The defendants appealed to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which affirmed the decision of the lower court. The embattled journalists appealed again to the Supreme Court of the United States of America, which sustained the decision of the Philippine tribunals. However, Ocampo and Kalaw did not spend a day in jail because Governor General Francis Burton Harrison pardoned them in 1914.

Today, El Renacimiento is remembered as a proof of American antagonism against Filipino nationalism. And, after it had been closed, several newspapers and periodicals were published and fought for freedom and independence.

On August 8, 1920, the Philippine Herald, the first Filipino-owned English language daily newspaper edited by Conrado Benitez, became the mouthpiece of outraged Filipinos led by the then Senate President Manuel Quezon against conservative Americans led by Governor General Leonard Wood. Later, at the helm of its bankruptcy, Senator Vicente Madrigal, Ramon Fernandez, the Earnshaw brothers, and other Filipino millionaires continued its publication and circulation. Among those who worked for the Philippine Herald were Vicente Bunuan, Gregorio Nieva, Antonio Estrada, Modesto Farolan, and Vicente del Fiero.

Founded in 1922 by Ramon Roces, Liwayway became the most widely read weekly magazine in Tagalog and gave rise to publications of the same type in other Philippine dialects. It first appeared as Photo News on June 15, 1922, and had sections in Tagalog, English, and Spanish. However, the idea did not appeal to the reading public and was dropped after 10 issues over a five-month period. When the publication was revived on November 18, 1929, it became a Tagalog weekly magazine that published romance and fantasy stories that included Mga Kuwento ni Lola Basyang by Severino Reyes, the leading Tagalog fictionist during those days. Among those who served as editors in chief were Jose Esperanza Cruz, 1932-1942; Pedrito Reyes, 1942-1945; Catalino Flores, 1945-1954; Jose Domingo Karasig, 1954-1960; Gervasio Santiago, 1960-1979; Bienvenido Ramos, 1979-1982; and Rodolfo Salandanan, from 1982 to the present.

Ramon Roces also founded the Weekly Graphic, the most widely read weekly magazine in English, on July 15, 1927. It was edited by Vicente Albano Pacis, the Manila Times former editor, and later, by Agustin Fabian. In the 1930s, the Philippine Herald and the Manila Tribune shared the top position in the newspaper industry.

Established by Ramon Roces, Bisaya became the most successful periodical in Cebuano. Its first issue on August 15, 1930 had an initial circulation of 5 000 that rose to 60 000 in the 1960s. Among those who served as editors were Vicente Padriga, 1930-1931; Natalio Bacalso, 1931-1933; Flaviano Boquecosa, 1933-1941; Maximo Bas, 1946-1949; Francisco Candia, 1949-1966; Marcelo Navarra, 1969-1973; Nazario Bas, 1973-1986; and Tiburcio Baguio, its current editor.

In 1933, Senator Vicente Madrigal with the help of Carlos Romulo, who left the Manila Tribune, organized the DMHM chain of newspapers: El Debate, a Spanish morning daily; Mabuhay, a Tagalog morning daily; Philippine Herald, an English afternoon daily; and Monday Mail, an English weekly. In his capacity as the editor in chief of the DMHM chain of newspapers, Romulo won a Pulitzer Prize.

First published regularly in 1934, Ang Bisaya sa Hiligaynon was renamed the Hiligaynon in 1936. With an initial circulation of 5 000 copies, it reached a larger circulation than its sister publication, Bisaya and Bannawag, at its peak. It was published by Ramon Roces and was first edited by Abe Gonzales.

Ramon Roces published Bannawag, the brainchild of Magdaleno Abaya, the Philippine Graphic former staff member, in 1935. It has fostered the growth and maturity of Ilocano literature and has produced creative writers like Leon Pichay, Benjamin Pascual, Godofredo Reyes, and Hermogenes Belen. Considered as the “Bible of the North” that catered the grassroots and intellectual readers, the magazine serves as the major venue for most writings in Ilocano and covers a wide range of writings from fiction, poetry, and comic stories to essays, feature articles, and reportage on local and foreign developments.

After spending at least PhP100 000, Joaquin Elizalde, who rescued the Philippine Herald from Senator Vicente Madrigal, leased the DMHM chain of newspapers to Jorge Araneta, a businessman who wanted a newspaper to bat for a larger market for the Philippine sugar industry in the United States, in 1938. After his death, the chain of newspapers was reverted to the Madrigals.

Before World War II, there were 153 provincial newspapers in the country. Of these, seven were dailies: Cebu City Advertiser, Cebu; Cebu Herald, Cebu; Davao Nichi-Nichi, Davao; El Tiempo, Iloilo; La Nacion, Cebu; La Revolucion, Cebu; and Times, Iloilo.

The oldest newspaper before World War II were Mindanao Herald, which was published in Zamboanga on November 3, 1903, and Ang Manugbantala, which was published in Iloilo on July 7, 1905.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Japanese Imperial Occupation

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Japanese Imperial Occupation

by Alixander Haban Escote

The DMHM chain of newspapers owned by Senator Vicente Madrigal was the first casualty in the field of journalism. It was destroyed when a couple of bombs attacked its editorial offices in Port Area, Manila on December 8, 1941, the Feast of Immaculate Conception.

Within two weeks of Japanese occupation, all publications, except the TVT chain of newspapers of Alejandro Roces Sr. and one of the chain of magazines of Ramon Roces, were closed and their editorial offices were sealed with “By Order of the Japanese Imperial Government.”

On October 12, 1942, Taliba, La Vanguardia, Tribune, and Liwayway were placed under Osaka Mainichi Publishing Company, a group that established the Manila Sinbun-sya Corporation and controlled Shin-Seiki, Bicol Herald, Manila Shimbun, and Davao Nichi-Nichi.

During this period, anyone who wanted to publish newspapers and periodicals must secure a military permit and must submit to military censorship, which, when violated meant severe punishment, if not death.

In a study conducted by Jacqueline Co, Annie Dematera, Rosanna Carreon, Rolando dela Cruz, and Adoracion de Guzman, 27 publications were given permission to operate: The Bicol Herald, a four-page tabloid in English and Bikolano published in Bicol from August 1942 to March 1944; the Panay Times, a twice a week newspaper in English and Ilonggo published in Iloilo from January 1943 to December 1944; the Cebu Times, a four-page daily, except Monday, newspaper in English and Cebuano published in Cebu from March 1944 to March 1945; and the Davao Times, a newspaper in English and Cebuano published in Davao from March 1944 to April 1945.

Other newspapers were Davao, Manila; Filipina, Manila; Leyte-Samar Bulletin, Tacloban; Leyte Shimbun, Tacloban; Liwanag, Manila; New Negros Weekly, Bacolod; Philippine Review Newsette, Davao;Pillars, Cavite; Republic, Manila; Shin-Seiki, Manila; Tagapagturo, Manila; and government bulletins and bibliographies.

On the other hand, guerilla newspapers and periodicals were published to boost people’s morale, to warn against collaboration, and to fight against the Japanese Military Government. Guerilla publications, edited by journalist-guerillas, were usually typewritten or mimeographed on 8.5 X 11-inch bond papers.

In 1942, the HUKBALAHAP (Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon) published Ing Masala, the most powerful guerilla publication in Tarlac and in Pampanga. Pedro de la Llana edited The Flash, the newspaper in Tagalog, English, and Spanish in Iloilo. The latter published news stories about the war and editorial articles denouncing the Japanese Military Government. Ironically, its editor was liquated by uninformed guerillas because he was mistaken as a collaborator.

The Thurderclap, the official publication of the Hunter ROTC (Reserved Officers Training Corps) also came out in 1943. Very often, it changed its place of publication to confuse the Japanese as to its origin. On February 2, 1945, a day before the Americans entered in Manila, it was renamed the Liberty.

Founded and edited by Leon Ty of the Philippine Free Press, The Liberator was one of the most widely read guerilla newspapers in Rizal, Cavite, Manila, and Bulakan. Some of its writers were executed because they were caught circulating it. Luckily, Ty and a few others escaped and were saved from the enemy dragnet.

In Nueva Vizcaya, Col Guillermo Nakar published the Matang Lawin, which reported news stories about the Battle of Bataan.15 It also informed the Filipino people that like the Hawk, the guerillas watch over and look after their welfare and, at the same time, take cognizance of the activity of the spies.

In Panay, Tomas Confessor, Free Panay governor, published Ang Tigbatas, a Hiligaynon-English newspaper that survived the war and later became the principal reading matter of the province. Other newspapers in Panay were the Chronicle, Coordinator, Harbinger, Kalibo War Bulletin, and the Unknown Soldiers.

Juan Frivaldo published The Commentator in Sorsogon while Wenceslao Vinzons popularized The Saber in Bicol and in Laguna. Other guerilla newspapers were The Bugle of Leyte, the Palaso of Manila, and the Kalayaan of Bulakan.

Also based from the study conducted by Co, Carreon, Dematera, Dela Cruz, and De Guzman, 37 guerilla newspapers, which when evaluated carefully, reflected the sentiments of the country. Among these newspapers were Bolos and Bullets, Manila; Bombshells, Manila; Fornightly Publication, Panay; Free Philippines, Manila; Free Sulu News, Sulu; Freedom, Panay; Liberator, Negros Occidental; Patnubay, Manila; Patriot, No Official Address; Press of Freedom, No Official Address; Red, White, and Blue, Manila; Tanauan, Leyte; 34th Anniversary of the Chinese Republic, No Official Address; Thurderbolt, Manila; Tigbatas, Panay; Tingug sang Kalwasan, Cebu or Iloilo; Torch, Cebu; Unknown Soldier, Panay; USAFIP NL Newsletter, No Official Address; Victory News, Negros; Victory News, No Official Address; Victory News, Panay; Vigil of Freedom, Visayas; Voice, No Official Address; Voice of Free Samar, Samar; Voice of Free People, Leyte; Voice of Victory, Tacloban; and Weekly News Bulletin, No Official Address.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Post Liberation Period

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Post Liberation Period

by Alixander Haban Escote

When Manila was freed on February 3, 1945, the press was also liberated, not only from censorship, but also from the notion that newspapers must be a million peso corporations. Vicente Albano Pacis remembered that approximately 250 newspapers and periodicals were published right after the Japanese occupation.

Publishers during this period were the Roxas syndicate – Light, Balita, and Daily News; the Standard Publishing House – Ang Pilipino and Daily Standard; the PSP Publishing – Bagong Buhay, Liberty News, and Voz de Manila; and the Roces chain of newspapers – Liwayway, Evening Post, and Manila Times.

Other post war newspapers were the Chua’s Courier, the Cojuangco’s Manila Tribune, the Del Fierro’s Star Reporter, the Mendez’s Morning Sun, and the Subido’s Manila Post. The US Armed Forces also published the Yank, the Daily Pacifican, and the Star and Stripes and distributed condensed editions of the Times and the Newsweek

The US Army Office of War Information in Leyte published the Manila Free Philippines, the first post-liberation newspaper, on February 9, 1945. It was edited by Frits Marquardt, Philippine Free Press former editor, and was distributed free until March 12, 1945. It ceased publication on September 3, 1945 when privately owned newspapers were published.

On April 23, 1945, Ramon Roces resumed the publication of the Liwayway and its sister publications: Bannawag for the Ilocano speaking provinces of Luzon, Bicolonian for the Bicol speaking provinces of the Bicol region, Bisaya for the Cebuano speaking provinces of the Visayas and Mindanao, and Hiligaynon, for the Ilonggo speaking provinces of Panay and Negros. This group of weekly vernacular magazines formed the Ramon Roces Publication, Inc.

With a capital of PhP6 000 from the Manila Post and the Philippine Tribune rebel staff members, the Manila Chronicle, a hard hitting and politically conscious newspaper published by Manuel Villanueva and edited by Anacleto Benavides and Ernesto del Rosario, started as the People’s Newspaper in April 1945. Later, Eugenio Lopez Sr. acquired the newspaper when he sought congressional support for the sugar industry.

Following the Lopez takeover, the Manila Chronicle acquired a new offset printing press and a fleet of delivery vehicles that increased national circulation by 100 percent. The newspaper came out daily with at least 20 pages that included business section and provincial supplements. Del Rosario continued as associate editor though Pedro Amaguin and Anacleto Benavides were recruited to serve the same position. Before martial law, it had made itself as a newspaper of high quality.

At least 40 newspapermen who met at the Manila Jockey Club founded the Philippine Newspaper Guild on May 4, 1945. Its committee members were Cipriano Cid, chairperson; Renato Constantino, secretary; and Jose Lansang, Vicente Navarro, Amado Hernandez, Roberto Villanueva, and Hermenegildo Atienza, members. Its officers were Cipriano Cid, president; Jose Lansang, executive vice president; Amado Hernandez, first vice president; Ralph Hawkins, second vice president; Eugenio Santos, third vice president; and Roberto Anselmo, secretary-treasurer.

Under the new management of Joaquin Roces and the editorships of Jose Luna Castro and Vicente Guzman, the Manila Times, which had started as a weekly newspaper on May 27, 1945 became a daily tabloid on September 5, 1945. During those times, it had a rotary press with a capacity of 30 000 copies per hour. It started with chairs, tables, typewriters, and electric generators purchased from the US Army.

The Manila Daily Bulletin resumed publication on February 25, 1946. A printing assistance from Ramon Roces and two newsprint quotas from the War Production Board in Washington facilitated its comeback.

On July 4, 1946, President Harry Truman proclaimed, “the United States of America withdraws and surrenders all rights of possession, supervision, jurisdiction, control, or sovereignty now existing and exercised by the United States of America in and over the territory and [the] people of the Philippines.” Truman, in behalf of the United States of America “recognizes the independence of the Philippines as a separate and self-governing nation and acknowledges the authority and control over the same of the government instituted by the people under the constitution now in force.”

In October 1947, the Manila Daily Bulletin underwent modernization and transferred to its new plant in Florentino Torres Street, where its brand new Duplex Unitubular machine with a capacity of 40 000 copies per hour was housed. When Brig Gen Hans Menzi bought the newspaper, it became the unofficial mouthpiece of the Americans in the country after he gave it a Filipino rather than an American orientation.

In February 1948, the Newspaperman announced the death of three militant newspapers because of staffing and financial difficulties. These newspapers were the Manila Post, edited by Abelardo Subido and published by Victorio Santiago; the Manila Chronicle, edited by Vicente Pacis and published by Eduardo Cojuangco; and the Philippine Liberty News, edited by Indalecio Soliongco and published by Manuel Manahan.

In 1948, Ramon Roces revived the Graphic but with a different name, content, and language – Kislap, a movie magazine in Tagalog. In 1951, it became the Kislap-Graphic, a bilingual magazine in Tagalog and English. In 1960, it became the Weekly Graphic in order not to compete circulation with the Liwayway.

The Manila Times Publishing Company, Inc. launched the Daily Mirror on May 2, 1949, less than a year after Ramon Roces sold the News, the newspaper he founded on September 23, 1945, to Lt Cmdr Chick Parsons. On February 11, 1960, Parsons sold the News to the Far East Publishing Company. In 1965, it was taken over by Manuel Elizalde, a business tycoon with substantial holdings in radio and in television

In 1961, the Soriano Group of Companies acquired the Philippine Herald, which resumed publication on July 8, 1949. Other newspapers during this period were the Comet, Liberal, Express, Freedom, Guerilla, Chronicle, Daily Mail, Victory News, Fil-American, Evening Herald, Filipino Observer, Philippine Progress, and the Philippine Liberty News.

In 1952, the National Press Club was founded by the Senate Press Club, Philippine News Service, Manila Police Press Club, Congressional Press Club, Port Writers Association, Manila Overseas Press Club, Political Writers Association, Labor Reporters Association, Philippine Movie Press Club, Malacañang Press Association, Manila Newspaperwomen’s Club, Cartoonist Association of the Philippines, Philippine News Photographers Association, and the Business Writers Association of the Philippines.

On the other hand, the Philippine Press Institute was inaugurated on May 4, 1964 after the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation donated a more than enough fund for its establishment. Its pioneer officers were Hans Menzi, Oscar Lopez, P K Macker, Juan Mercado, Joaquin Roces, and Carlos Romulo.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Period of Nationalism and First Quarter Storm

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Period of Nationalism and First Quarter Storm

by Alixander Haban Escote

During this period, journalism moved the country toward nationalism and independence. It is the period when the country experienced economic turmoil and had a hard time in paying its increasing foreign debts. The Philippine peso flunked against the US dollar and America meddled in the state of economy of the country. As a result, the people felt hardships in life and the press reported the continuing destruction of bureaucracy that shaped the neocolonial outline of our history.

In 1963, Bertrand Russel Foundation published the Progressive Review whose prominent writers included Luis Teodoro, Jose Maria Sison, and Francisco Nemenzo Jr. The Philippine Collegian, the official student publication of the University of the Philippines,16 published essays that mirrored progressive and revolutionary ideas of its editorial staff.

At the University of the Philippines, Jose Maria Sison, also known as Amado Guerrero, founded the Kabataang Makabayan on November 30, 1964. A militant student organization, it removed the unscrupulous masks of feudalism, capitalism, imperialism, and neocolonialism, which, according to Sison, are “the barriers toward the attainment of freedom and independence.”

In November 1965, the then Senate President Ferdinand Marcos,17 Nacionalista Party presidential candidate, who ran against President Diosdado Macapagal, Liberal Party presidential candidate, was elected Sixth President of the Republic of the Philippines, defeating the latter by 67 000 votes. In January 1966, Marcos vowed to be the “leader of the people” and “to make this nation great again.”

After one year, US President Lyndon Johnson sought support for the American involvement in South Vietnam and called for a summit among his allies in the Asia and the Pacific. As a response, Marcos sent an engineering battalion despite popular clamor for non-involvement.

In December 1968, Jose Maria Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) and continued the armed struggle against the government and its foreign tentacles. When Marcos was re-elected for another four-year term in November 1969, CPP formed an alliance with the Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan, formerly the military arm of the Partido ng Komunista ng Pilipinas and later the New People’s Army led by Bernabe Buscayno, also known as Kumander Dante.

In January 1970, series of rallies were launched by radical and moderate student organizations protesting the inclusion of politicians in the 1971 Constitutional Convention and the constitutional provision that would allow Marcos to run for a third term. When militant students overrun the military lines and ram commandeered fire trucks at the gates of the Malacañang Palace, bloody violence erupted.18 This bloody episode began a wave of protest known as the First Quarter Storm.

On August 21, 1971, two hand grenades were thrown at the Plaza Miranda19 killing 8 and injuring 120 persons including Senators Gerardo Roxas, Jovito Salonga, and Sergio Osmeña Jr. who attended the Liberal Party proclamation rally. As a result, Marcos suspended the privilege of writ of habeas corpus20.

In a study conducted by John Lent, there were 26 newspapers and 16 periodicals published during this period. The principal newspapers were the Taliba, Daily Mirror, Evening News, Manila Times, Manila Chronicle, Philippine Herald, and the Manila Daily Bulletin. The principal magazines were the Liwayway, Tagumpay, Weekly Nation, Weekly Graphic, Republic Weekly, Philippine Free Press, Asia Philippines Leader, and the Philippine Free Press sa Filipino,

Militant newspapers during this period included Ang Pasada, Samahan ng mga Makabayang Tsuper; Pagkakaisa, Philippine Peace and Solidarity Council; Bandilang Pula, Samahang Demokratiko ng Kabataan; Ang Kalayaan and Ang Aktibista, Kabataang Makabayan; Taliba ng Bayan and The Liberation, National Democratic Front; and the Sulong, Ang Bayan, and Ang Komunista, Communist Party of the Philippines.

In early September 1972, Senator Benigno Aquino Jr.21 refuted “Oplan Sagitarrius,” the plan to place some parts of the country under martial law.

On the very night before martial law was declared, the convoy of Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile was ambushed. Fourteen years later, while facing uncertain fate at the Camp Emilio Aguinaldo in Quezon City after he broke away from Marcos, Enrile confessed that the “ambush” was staged to help justify the imposition of the emergency rule.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Martial Law Days

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Martial Law Days

by Alixander Haban Escote

On September 21, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos signed Proclamation No. 1081 and “placed the entire country under martial law.” With the guise of rebellion and insurrection against the government, Marcos manipulated events and situations to justify the declaration of martial law.

The imposition of martial law was necessary, Marcos said, “to save the republic and form a new society.” The purposes of the emergency rule were two-sided: (1) eradicating the armed force of the rebellion and ending the anarchy that prevailed; and (2) eliminating the social and economic roots of the rebellion, by causing rapid national development.

Marcos assured the people that the imposition of martial rule was “legal and constitutional…humane, fair, and just as shown in the absence of bloodshed and the almost unanimous acceptance [of emergency measure] by the people.” The autocrat reiterated that martial law was “not a military takeover of civil government functions… but is the ultimate weapon availed of to preserve the people’s life as a nation when threatened.” A war to be waged on two fronts: “On one hand, we have to completely stamp out the communist menace. On the other hand, we have to cut the powers of the oligarchs who have tyrannized the people.”

The following day, Marcos issued Letter of Instruction No. 1 ordering the Press Secretary and the Defense Secretary “to take over and control or cause the taking over and control of the mass media for the duration of the national emergency, or until otherwise ordered by the President or by his duly designated representative.”

In the first few days of military rule, the Public Information Office issued tight censorship guidelines. Department Order No. 1 signed by Francisco Tatad, ordered, “unless otherwise specified, no newspaper, radio, or television program may carry any editorial opinion, commentary, or asides, or any other kind of political, unauthorized, or objectionable advertising. The so-called society page shall not appear in any newspaper and its equivalent shall not be broadcast either by radio or television.”

As a result, all newspapers and periodicals were closed down and the Sun, Daily Star, Evening News, Manila Times, Manila Chronicle, and the Philippines Herald were sequestered. The likes of publishers Antonio Araneta, Graphic; Joaquin Roces, Manila Times; Eugenio Lopez Jr., Manila Chronicle; and Teodoro Locsin Sr., Philippine Free Press; were jailed.

Marcos also jailed the following editors and reporters: Rolando Fadul, Taliba; Luis Mauricio, Graphic; Juan Mercado, Dumaguete Times; Rosalinda Galang, Manila Times; Jose Lacaba, Philippine Free Press; Amando Doronilla, Manila Chronicle; and Napoleon Rama, Philippine Free Press.

Dolores Feria, Jose Burgos Jr., Satur Ocampo, Rommel Corro, Armando Malay, Napoleon Rama, Maximo Soliven, Petronillo Daroy, Ernesto Granada, Jo-Ann Maglipon, Ninotchka Rosca, Rodolfo Ordonez, and Antonio Ma Nieva were also jailed.

Philippine Collegian student journalists like Roberto Coloma, Alexander Magno, and Malou Mangahas were also put in jail. Mauro Avena, Jose Burgos Jr., Sheila Coronel, Rommel Corro, Domini Suarez, Armando Malay, Ma Ceres Doyo, Francisco Rodrigo, and Salvador Gonzales faced libel and subversion cases.

Arlene Babst, Mauro Avena, Antonio Ma Nieva, Ninez Cacho Olivarez, and Letty Jimenez-Magsanoc were dismissed as professional journalists. Jacinto Peña, Alex Orcullo, Kenneth Lee, Geoffrey Siao, Henry Romero, Porfirio Doctor, Demy Dingcong, Walter Sisbrenio, Noe Alejandrino, Jacobo Amatong, Florante de Castro, and Antonio Tagamolila offered their lives for journalism.

Women journalists though subjected to military threats, harassments, and intimidations proved to be equally if not more daring than men in their writings. Among them were Ceres Doyo, Arlene Babst, Sheila Coronel, Ninez Olivares, Betty Belmonte, Melinda de Jesus, Eugenia Apostol, Malou Mangahas, Domini Torrevillas, Tina Monzon-Palma, and Letty Jimenez-Magsanoc.

Within weeks, the Philippine Daily Express, published by Juan Perez and owned by Roberto Benedicto, Marcos’s friend and law schoolmate, was allowed to operate and became the unofficial mouthpiece of the administration during the historical martial law proclamation. It was an unabashed propaganda newspaper and eventually came to be known, in the kind of defiant humor popular during the martial law, as the Daily Suppress.

In its December 7, 1972 editorial, the paper praised the imposition of martial law in rather flagrant time:

“President Marcos took the decisive step to realize that Filipino dream when he placed the entire country under martial law to save the republic from foreign-backed communist conspiracy trying to seize state and political power, and to reform a sick society by eradicating the social roots of the rebellion and anarchy. (Italics Mine)

“Proclamation 1081 is not a martial law proclamation but a declaration of emancipation…liberating the Filipino mind, body, and soul from centuries of imprisonment (by social, political, and economic ills and conditions imposed by [the] Spanish, [the] American, and [the] Japanese force[s]) as well as from local tyrants and warlords… and those who took orders from Moscow and lately from the operatives of Chairman Mao” (Italics Mine).

The tightly controlled mass media had few openings for alternative versions of reality to seep through the thick mist of official propaganda. Kerima Polotan-Tuvera published the Focus, a safe but interesting magazine. The daughter of sometime presidential representative Adrian Cristobal published the Review, a short-lived literary magazine.

Only few newspapers and periodicals were given permission to operate: the Evening Post of Kerima Polotan-Tuvera, the Bulletin Today of Gen Hans Menzi, and the Times Journal of Benjamin Romualdez. These newspapers were also known as “crony press” or “establishment press.”

The boldest publication during the martial law period was the Who Magazine of the Bulletin-owned Liwayway Publications, Inc. It was intended to be a personality periodical, but Menzi gave its editorial staff some liberty to write feature stories. It tackled stories about victims of human rights abuses, public sentiments regarding the real state of things, and indigenous communities resisting development programs. Some of its editorial columns were critical of the administration.

Who Magazine editorial staff and contributors were often summoned to explain the merits of their stories. Marcos himself expressed annoyance over the existence of the publication. But, Menzi was fond of the young journalists and that he defended them and the publication. The magazine was finally shut down after he died.

Nationalistic campus newspapers were the Pandayan of the Ateneo de Manila University, Balawis of the Mapua Institute of Technology, the Philippine Collegian of the University of the Philippines, Ang Hasik of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, and Ang Malaya of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – 1986 EDSA Revolution

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – 1986 EDSA Revolution

by Alixander Haban Escote

Three years before the 1986 EDSA Revolution, Mr & Ms, an inexpensive weekly magazine, sensationalized the assassination of Senator Benigno Aquino Jr., paramount political rival of Marcos, at the Manila International Airport on August 21, 1983. Aquino’s assassination ignited a fire of protests particularly in Ugarte Field in Makati and in Liwasang Bonifacio in Manila where the upper and the middle classes marched with the poor, the workers, the unemployed, and the professionals.

The continued publication and circulation of Mr & Ms encouraged Eugenia Apostol and Leticia Jimenez-Magsanoc to publish the Philippine Daily Inquirer, an opposition newspaper edited by Luis Beltran, on December 2, 1985. With the slogan “Balanced News, Fearless Views,” 40 editors, reporters, photographers, correspondents, and other editorial employees put out the newspaper on December 9, 1985. It was one of the two alternative newspapers that chronicled the flight of the Marcoses on February 25, 1986.

Earlier, We Forum, with Jose Burgos Jr. as the editor and publisher and Bonifacio Gillego as the writer, ran series of exposé on the alleged Marcos fake medals. Because of this, Marcos ordered the closure of the newspaper and the arrest of its editor and publisher. However, on December 4, 1981, the newspaper metamorphosed into Malaya, which ceased on December 7, 1982 and reopened on January 17, 1983.

The rampage of the new elite and the abuse of human rights did not only bleed the economy dry but also fueled rallies and demonstrations. The EDSA Revolution that prevailed on February 22-25, 1986 was a peaceful cry for freedom and independence, which, according to Senator Francisco Tatad, was “a beautiful revolution whose combatants include men, women, and children who had fun rather than fear and who thought that what they went through was a religious rather than a political experience.”

On February 25, 1986, Corazon Aquino24 was inaugurated as President of the Republic of the Philippines at the Club Filipino in Greenhills, San Juan before Supreme Court Senior Justice Claudio Teehankee. An hour later, Marcos conducted his own inauguration at the Malacañang Palace. Channels 2, 9, and 13 covered the ceremony, but they were cut off suddenly because their transmitters were taken by reformist troops. Without television, Marcos finally loses control. Marcos called Juan Ponce Enrile to offer him power in a provisional government, but the latter turned him down. Marcos called US Senator Paul Laxalt to ask for advice and he was told: “Mr. President, I think you should cut, and cut cleanly.” Marcos made a final call to Enrile asking for a safe conduct for his family. The Marcoses then packed hurriedly. At 9 p. m., four American helicopters fly the Marcoses from the Malacañang Palace in Manila to the Clark Air Base in Pampanga. The next day, they stop over at Guam, then fly to Hawaii.

Prominent newspapers during this period were the Business Day, the most respected business newspaper; the Malaya, the newspaper that strongly opposed martial law; the Bulletin Today, the newspaper that exists through bad and good times; theManila Times, the newspaper that came back before the snap elections; and the Philippine Daily Inquirer, the most read newspaper even after a few months of circulation.

Included were their Sunday magazines: Panorama, Inquirer Extra, Midday Malaya, Sunday Times Magazine, and Sunday Inquirer Magazine. The weekly newsmagazines were Veritas, We Forum, Veritas Special, and Mr & Ms Special Edition. Also included were News Herald, Manila Chronicle, Ang Pilipino Ngayon, Pilipino Daily Mirror, and the Philippine Tribune.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Contemporary Period

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Contemporary Period

by Alixander Haban Escote

After the 1986 EDSA Revolution, the press, which plays a potent role in the promotion of truth, justice, and democracy, and of peace, progress, and prosperity, was liberated from dictatorship. During this period, crony newspapers were closed and the National Press Club and the Philippine Press Institute were revived to professionalize mass media in the country.

During this period, significant changes, advances, and developments have taken place in Philippine journalism. Newspapers and periodicals have expanded in pages, sections, coverages, and circulations. They have become venues of sensitive issues like death penalty, charter change, juetengate scandal, and visiting forces agreement, and of diverse issues about the civil society, land reform, human rights, genders issues, and other areas that before the 1986 EDSA Revolution were previously ignored or minimally covered. Some investigative reports have led to further investigations, have enhanced transparency, and have reduced corruption in the judiciary, executive, and legislative branches of the government.

These developments are attributed to the continuing efforts of the newspaper and the periodical industry and their research and academic organizations: the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, which conducts rigorous research in the affairs of the state; the Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility, which upgrades professionalism and responsibility of media practitioners through seminars, workshops, and publications; the Philippine Press Institute, which conducts trainings and sponsors the Annual Community Press Awards that recognizes excellence among provincial newspapers and periodicals; and the Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication, which offers graduate studies in journalism and in communication management and conducts media research, interim training, and policy advocacy.

In 1998, there are 14 daily broadsheets and 19 tabloids published in Metro Manila. Among the broadsheets with the biggest circulations include the Manila Bulletin with a claimed circulation of 280 000 on weekdays and 300 000 on weekends and the Philippine Daily Inquirer with a claimed circulation of 260 000 on weekdays and 280 000 on weekends. Among the tabloids with the biggest circulations include the Abante with a claimed circulation of 417 600 and the People’s Journal with a claimed circulation of 382 000. Out of the 408 provincial newspapers and periodicals, 30 are printed daily, 292 are published weekly, and the rest are circulated either monthly or quarterly.

Today, based from the 2000 Philippine Media Fact Book, there are 559 print publications, 475 broadsheets, 45 magazines, and 39 tabloids and comics; 22 percent are published in the National Capital Region, 12 broadsheets, 17 tabloids, 32 magazines, 39 comics, and 5 Chinese newspapers. Among the broadsheets with the biggest circulations include the Philippine Daily Inquirer with a daily circulation of 257 416, followed by the Philippine Star, 251 000, and the Manila Bulletin, 240 000. Other broadsheets with their daily circulation are as follows: Today, 152 268; Kabayan, 150 000; Malaya, 135 193; Manila Standard, 96 310; Sun Star Manila, 87 000; Philippine Post, 78 218; The Manila Times, 75 000; Business World, 61 283; and The Daily Tribune, 50 000.

Among the tabloids with the biggest circulations include Bulgar with a daily circulation of 448 450, followed by the People’s Journal, 382 200, and the People’s Tonight, 365 811. Other tabloids with their daily circulation are as follows: Remate, 310 000; Abante, 260 000; Bandera, 253 523; Pilipino Star Ngayon, 250 200, People’s Bagong Taliba, 210 000; Balita, 175 725; Tempo, 160 000; Abante Tonight, 150 000; Isyu, 126 835; Saksi Ngayon, 100 000; Remate Tonight, 90 000; Balita sa Hapon, 35 000; and Sun Star Bulilit, 30 000.

Among the Sunday supplements of daily newspapers, Panorama of the Manila Bulletin has the highest number of circulation, 300 000, followed by the Sunday Inquirer Magazine of the Philippine daily Inquirer, 268 575, and the Starweek Magazine of the Philippine Star, 268 000. Among the entertainment magazines, Glitter has the highest number of circulation with 300 000, followed by the Pilipino Reporter News Magazine, 188 192, and the Woman Today, 184 900.

Other magazines with their weekly circulation are as follows: Kislap Magazine, 182 158; Sports Life Magazine, 179 997; Movie Flash Magazine, 177 850; MOD, 176 820; Star Talk Magazine, 163, 565; Moviestar, 153 829; Women’s Journal, 152-825; Woman’s Home Companion, 146 969; Mr and Ms Magazine, 140 665; Philippine Free Press, 138 759; Super Horoscope, 135 933; Chic Magazine, 135 933; Teen Movie Magazine, 133 779; Miscellaneous, 133 000; Mega Star, 130 942; Liwayway, 128 680; Sports Weekly, 126 286; Scoreboard, 102 000; Sports Flash Magazine, 101 164; Hot Copy Magazine, 97 246; Woman, 50 000; Chica-Chica Magazine, 20 000; Super Teen Movie Magazine, 17 000; and Intrigue, 12 000. China Times Magazine, which comes out monthly, has a circulation of 10 000.

Among the provincial press, there are 43 dailies; 3 in Luzon, 19 in the Visayas, and 21 in Mindanao. There are also 315 weeklies, 209 in Luzon, 30 in the Visayas, and 76 in Mindanao.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Historical Notes

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Historical Notes

by Alixander Haban Escote

Twenty-four important notes necessary in understanding a history of journalism in the Philippines.

  1. Marcelo Del Pilar is also the author of La Soberania Monacal, 1888; and Frailocracia Fililipa, 1889. Hilario was not actually his middle name, but Gatmaytan.
  2. The Iglesia Filipina Independiente was founded by Isabelo delos Reyes and Pascual Poblete, 1902; and was headed by Gregorio Aglipay as its first Pontifex Maximus or Obispo Maximo or Supreme Bishop.
  3. Vigan, before Ciudad Fernandina and later Heritage City of Vigan, is the capital of Ilocos Sur and the seat of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia. It is the third city in the Philippines founded by Juan de Salcedo, grandson of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi.
  4. Jose Protacio Mercado Rizal y Alonzo Realonda wrote Noli Me Tangere, 1887; and El Filibusterismo, 1891. He was executed in Bagumbayan, now Rizal Park, on December 30, 1896.
  5. Ferdinand Blumentritt, the “true brother” and “loyal friend” of Jose Rizal, made several studies about the country. He was born in Praque, Bohemia, now Czechoslovakia.
  6. Andres Bonifacio is the father of Philippine Revolution and Philippine Democracy and the founder of the Kataastaasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan in Tondo, Manila on July 7, 1892.
  7. Emilio Aguinaldo was the President of the First Philippine Republic. He was also elected as President of the Revolutionary Government and President of the Biak-na-Bato Republic. He proclaimed Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898.
  8. Rafael Palma was elected Senator of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, 1916; appointed Secretary of the Interior, 1919; and appointed member of the Independence Missions, 1919 and 1922. He was also the fourth president of the University of the Philippines, 1925-1933; a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, 1934-1935; and the Chairman of the National Council of Education; 1936-1939.
  9. Gen Douglas McArthur was the youngest Chief of Staff of the US Army. He served as the Military Adviser of the Philippine Commonwealth, 1936-1941; Commanding General of the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), 1941; Supreme Allied Commander of the Southwest Pacific, 1942-1945; and Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers for Occupied Japan, 1945-1951.
  10. Sergio Osmeña Sr. was the first Filipino national leader under the American regime as Speaker of the Philippine Assembly and the Second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, 1944-1946. He was the Vice President of Manuel Quezon when World War II broke out, and assumed the presidency upon the death of the latter in 1944. His secret agreement with US President Harry Truman on May 14, 1945 became the basis of the 1947 RP-US Military Bases Agreement.
  11. US Olympia is the flagship of Admiral George Dewey, the Commanding Officer of the US Asiatic Squadron during the Spanish-American War. For his victory, Dewey rapidly rose from the rank of Commodore to Rear Admiral and Admiral in the US Navy.
  12. Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina was the President of the Philippine Senate, 1916-1936, and the First President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, 1935-1944.
  13. Francis Burton Harrison was the American Governor General of the Philippines, 1913-1919, remembered for his Filipinization policy, i. e., replacement of Americans in the Philippine Civil Service with qualified Filipinos. His dying wish that he be buried in the Philippines was granted and that he was buried in Manila North Cemetery.
  14. Carlos Romulo y Peña was the first Filipino president of the United Nations General Assembly, 1949; and a member of the United Nations Security Council, 1958.
  15. The Battle of Bataan started on January 9, 1942 and continued until April 9, 1942.
  16. The University of the Philippines was established in 1908 by virtue of Act No. 1870 written by W Shuster Morgan, Secretary of Public Instruction and member of the Philippine Commission. Formerly located in Padre Faura in Manila, it transferred to Diliman in Quezon City in 1949 although the College of Medicine and Allied Medical Professions remained in Manila.
  17. President Ferdinand Edralin Marcos ruled the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. First elected in 1965, he was easily re-elected in 1969. Facing increasing civil unrest from the Communist Party of the Philippines headed by Jose Maria Sison and the Moro National Liberation Front headed by Hashim Salamat, Marcos suspended the constitution, declared martial law, and seized dictatorial powers in 1972. Accused of massive fraud in the 1986 Snap Elections against Corazon Aquino, Marcos and his family fled to Hawaii. He spent the last three years of his life fighting the lawsuits that tried to reclaim the large fortune he had accumulated improperly while in power.
  18. Malacañang Palace is the official residence of the Spanish and the American governors-general from 1863 to 1935 and of Philippine presidents from 1935 to the present. The name is said to have come from the words “May lakan diyan,” literarily, “there are noblemen residing there.” A violent rally in front of the palace on January 30, 1970 was described as the “Siege of Malacañang.”
  19. Plaza Miranda is the public square in front of the Quaipo Church in Manila. It was named after Jose Sandino y Miranda, Secretary of the Treasury of the Philippines from 1853 to 1854.
  20. The writ of habeas corpus is a written order, issued by a court, directed to the person detaining another, and commanding him to produce the body of a prisoner with the date and the cause of his capture and detention.
  21. Senator Benigno Aquino Jr. was the youngest foreign correspondent during the Korean War, the youngest adviser of President Ramon Magsaysay, and the youngest member of the Philippine Senate. His assassination at the Manila International Airport, now Ninoy Aquino International Airport, on August 21, 1983 galvanized popular opposition to the Marcos administration and brought his widow, Corazon Cojuangco, to the forefront, during the 1986 Snap Election.
  22. Martial law is the temporary imposition of a military government over a civil government. It is invoked when civil authority is inadequate to enforce law and to preserve order against rebellion and insurrection. It was also proclaimed in Taiwan, 1949; Thailand, 1958; and South Korea, 1972.
  23. EDSA is an acronym for Epifanio delos Santos Avenue, named after a Filipino historian and provincial governor of Nueva Ecija. Formerly known as Highway 54, which starts from Kalookan City to Pasay City, a stretch of it in Quezon City was the setting of the 1986 Philippine Revolution, hence 1986 EDSA Revolution.
  24. Corazon Aquino is the First Woman and Eighth President of the Republic of the Philippines, 1986-1992. With Salvador Laurel as his running mate, she led the opposition that overthrew President Ferdinand Marcos who went into exile in Hawaii after the 1986 EDSA Revolution. She first established a revolutionary government under a Freedom Constitution, which was replaced by the 1987 Constitution, drafted in 1986 and ratified in 1987.

Dealing with Breakups – Happiness Depends Upon Ourselves

Steps to overcoming the pain and hurt of a breakup, and how to find happiness again.

As the great philosopher Aristotle once said, “Happiness depends upon ourselves.” You can’t rely on money, material things, or even other people to make yourself happy. In order to be happy during a relationship or after it has ended, you must be happy with yourself. A breakup is just one of the sticky situations in life that we all experience, some more than others.

Breaking Up With the Person You Love

Dealing with heartache and heartbreak is never easy, no matter the circumstances. You may have caught them cheating, and ended it yourself, or maybe one of you just couldn’t deal with the long distance relationship any longer. All you can remember are the memories you had together, and possibly the thoughts of a future you would have shared together. It can be a very painful experience and people have different ways of trying to cope. You may find yourself terribly unhappy and unable to enjoy the things you once loved. Here are some things you can do:

  1. Let Those Emotions Flow: letting go of a person who you care about can play a huge toll on the emotions. Every song you hear, place you visit, or conversation you have may leave you thinking of them. Grieving is the first step to healing. Keeping bad emotions inside is harmful to the body. It may take days, even months, but once you have dealt with your emotions you will be a happier person.
  2. Learn to Forgive: if things ended badly, you may be experiencing a lot of hurt and even anger. Reframe from sending hate mail via e-mail, or leaving nasty messages on their answering machine. Not only are you too good for them, but you are too good for that. Stop wasting your time! They don’t deserve your attention for another minute. Forgive them for the things they have done, and you will find it easier to move on to bigger and better things.
  3. Learn to Forget: It will take time. Time and time again you will hear someone say “you will heal in time.” Chances are you will not believe it at the time, but it is true. Once you learn to focus on the present and all that you have going for you, new wonderful memories will grow.
  4. Exercise and Eat Healthy: go for a run, join the gym, or attend a yoga class! Exercising gives the body, mind, and soul a natural high. It will leave you feeling refreshed and positive. Plus, you may just catch the eye of the person at the gym beside you!
  5. Stay Confident: don’t let your self esteem dwindle because someone dumped you. You’re fun, your beautiful, your the perfect match for someone out there! Confidence is key, not only to feeling great about yourself, but attracting future love interests for when you ready to join back in the game.
  6. Do Something Special For Yourself: after a painful experience you should treat yourself. After all, you deserve it. Go get that manicure you’ve been wanting, or that CD you’ve been dying to listen to. Do the things you enjoy most.
  7. Keep A Journal or Diary: write about the things that make you happy. Putting emphasis on the good things in life will boast your positive thoughts and feelings. Record the things you are grateful for. Are you appreciating all the beautiful things life has to offer?
  8. Go Out With Your Friends: chances are, you did not spend a tonne of time with your friends while you were in your relationship. Go out with your friends. If you’re feeling really down, talk about it with them, even ask them for advice. Just have fun! By the end of the night you will hopefully remember how great it is to be single.
  9. Get Back On the Road to Happiness: Remember, “happiness depends upon yourself.” You don’t need a boyfriend or girlfriend to be happy. There are plenty of things to be grateful for in life. Spend extra time with friends and family — the people who make you happy!

What Does Labour Have to Lose From a Left Turn?

by James Kelly

Why the British Labour Party abandoned its traditional socialist policies, and the lessons that can be applied to the party’s current predicament.

When the British Labour Party abandoned much of its socialist ideology in the 1990s, it did so for one reason – the pursuit of popularity, and by extension the pursuit of power. It had been in opposition for almost two decades, lost four general elections in a row, and the question that was being posed more and more volubly was “what”s the point of having the most wonderful policies in the world if you never have the power to put them into practice?’ The moment that came to symbolise this dilemma more than any other was the 1983 election, when Labour was led by its most left-wing leader since pre-war times, Michael Foot, and had a manifesto that made radical party activists purr with pleasure. The party went on to suffer its most crushing defeat since the 1930s, and came perilously close to slipping into third place in the popular vote. Perhaps not unreasonably, the lesson drawn by the “modernisers” in the party – including the young Tony Blair and Gordon Brown – was that Labour’s electoral woes were directly correlated to the party’s ideological distance from the centre of gravity in the country as a whole.

“June 9th, 1983, never again!” was the new leader Neil Kinnock’s battle-cry as he embarked on the slow and painful process of moving Labour onto the centre-ground of politics where it was felt it could achieve electability. The most dramatic indication of the sacrifices the party was prepared to make came when Kinnock himself shifted on one of his most passionately-held personal beliefs, and agreed to support the retention of the UK’s nuclear weapons. In an interview days before the 1992 general election, he even suggested that as Prime Minister he might be prepared in some circumstances to launch a nuclear attack – an extraordinary position for a man who had devoted much of his political life to the cause of unilateral disarmament.

But Labour still lost the 1992 election, its fourth defeat in succession. Did this give the true believers in the “1983 maxim” some pause for thought? Quite the reverse. The fact that the Conservatives’ parliamentary majority had been slashed to 21 was cited as proof that Labour’s ideological repositioning had gained some traction with the electorate. The fact that the Conservatives remained in power simply proved that the process hadn’t gone far enough yet. So “New Labour” was born, and in Tony Blair the party suddenly had a leader who was probably further to the right than many “conservative” political leaders in continental Europe. Yet so hungry were the party faithful for power, and so completely had they bought into the modernizers’ analysis of what was required to achieve that goal, they accepted every move Blair made as being necessary. It was sometimes mischievously suggested that if Blair had wanted to reintroduce capital punishment, the party rank-and-file would have let it through on the nod.

And in 1997, the Labour party did not merely return to power, but recorded the most comprehensive victory by any side in a British general election since the 1930s. Some pointed out there was considerable evidence that if John Smith, Blair’s immediate predecessor as Labour leader, had not died in office, he would still have been able to lead the party back to power from a more traditional centre-left position. But not by anything like the same margin, the modernisers retorted. It did indeed seem to be the final, irrefutable proof that Labour’s level of support went up in direct proportion to how far it had moved to the right.

But fast forward to the present day. Gordon Brown has persisted with the Blairite strategy of tacking to the right, and yet the latest opinion polls show Labour at its lowest level of support since records began, and thus by definition lower than at the party’s 1983 nadir. Gordon Brown is a less popular leader than Michael Foot. New Labour was founded on the principle that if you are shedding votes, you must ruthlessly shed your current ideology to win those votes back. As it is the more traditional Labour voters who have been deserting the party in droves – witness the Scottish parliament election last year – the obvious conclusion to draw is that the party must shift back to the left to regain some degree of support.

The objection to this analysis might be that Labour cannot hope to win the next election with its traditional supporters alone – it needs the entire New Labour coalition of 1997. Unfortunately, the hard truth is that this coalition is long gone, and the next election is almost certainly already lost. To adapt the question that was asked in the long years of opposition to fit present-day circumstances – “if you”re going to lose anyway, what’s the point of having power for the next two years if you’re not going to use it to achieve the things your party is supposed to believe in?’

10 Things Women Do Better Than Men

by MindIt

I am not a feminist, but I am amazed at the number of studies that have found women better than men in various skills. Here is a list of 10 skills where women seem to be doing better than men.

 

  1. Women drive better than men.

    Well this reverses a social myth – that women are bad drivers. Carnegie Mellon University researchers found after analyzing a lot of traffic data in 2007 that men are 77% more likely to die in a car accident than women, keeping the miles driven constant. So next time when your husband asks you to hand over the car keys, just give him this article.

  2. Women remember appearances better than men.

    Some would say, “Why not? Don’t women pay all their attention to appearances?” Well, say what you may, but only a loser complains about somebody for being better than him! Terrence Horgan, research fellow in psychology at Ohio State University, and her co-researchers found in a study that women are more accurate in describing appearances after seeing people once. The study was published in the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

  3. Women cooperate better than men.

    We can see this everywhere, but still if you want a citation, here it is. A study by Rolf Kuemmerli and other researchers at Edinburgh and Lausanne universities indicated that women cooperate better than men. In the research, based on games played by 100 Swiss students, women cooperated with others almost twice as much as men did.

  4. Women eat better than men.

    This is probably not so obvious, for rarely do we notice gender differences in eating habits. A survey involving 14000 Americans, conducted by University of Minnesota, revealed that men are more likely to eat frozen pizza and meat, whereas women are more likely to eat fruits and vegetables.

  5. Women perform better than men in timed tests.

    So if time is precious, women are better at preserving it than men. A study by Vanderbilt University researchers in 2006 found that women score better in timed intelligence tests than men. The study, published in the May-June issue of the journal Intelligence, didn’t find much difference in un-timed tests, which meant women had a quicker mind.

  6. Women perceive their relationships better than men.

    Talk about relationships and most men will frown. Now you know why – they know so little about their relationships! A Hebrew University of Jerusalem study, after surveying 97 couples in the United States, found that women are more perceptive than men in describing their relationships. The study, published in ScienceDaily, reported that women were much more accurate in describing the perception of their partners than men.

  7. Women communicate better than men.

    This is now scientifically proven and acknowledged. Louann Brizendine, neuro-pyschiatrist at the University of California at San Francisco, found in a study that women can process 20000 words a day compared to men’s 7000 words (Louann Brizendine,The Female Brain, Morgan Road Books). This difference, as per Brizendine’s study, is more biological than social, which starts as early as the fetal stage.

  8. Women learn better than men.

    That is why girls get better grades in school on an average than boys in many parts of the world. Dr Simone Kruger of Edge Hill University, UK, found in her research based on remote learners that women learners were more successful in sharing ideas and experiences with each other, and hence learnt more efficiently than men.

  9. Women invest better than men.

    You don’t believe it, do you? We all know fewer women invest in stocks than men do, but the few women who invest in shares do better than their male counterparts. A study by the National Association of Investors Corporation (NAIC) for the University of California found that women earn on an average 1.4% more than men in their share portfolios.

  10. Women cope with stress better than men.

    A study at the University of California, Los Angeles, published in the July 2000 issue of Psychological Review, found some biological and behavioral differences in the ways men and women cope with stress. It found that women tend to seek contact with others and social support when they are under stress, which is a psychologically much better way of coping with stress than the “fight-or-flight” approach of men.

Of course, there are other studies which indicate men are better than women in various skills. The point I want to make is not that women are better than men in everything, but that men should stop underestimating women after being proven wrong time and again.

Words About Life

Spiritual understanding of existence, karma, the difference between soulful life and ego-orientated life.

Indeed the universal implications must be known in order to have a controlled life. Indeed when such thoughts arise in the mind, feelings of insanity might arise as well. The universe works in sequences, rhythms, patterns and cycles. It could be frustrating realizing this concept, watching everything repeat itself could get annoying, especially when the ones around you don’t realize that humanity and the rest of the world are part of an endless cycle. The benefit of knowing this concept outweighs the negative aspect of it. Instead of complaining about the cycle, realize you start the motions. You can either start a negative or positive motion; the power lies in your hands.

If you start a negative motion it will repeat itself until you realize it and stop it, or else it will just spin and spin. Realize that you are a soul and not a body. The body is just the soul’s instrument, and when the instrument becomes old and rusty, doesn’t work as it used to, the soul discards the body and gets another one. There is no such thing as “death” really. It is only a moment in one’s life when the body becomes too weak to work anymore and is not a benefit for the soul any longer. One could say it is also a time when the soul’s mission is complete, however only for that period of time because it will return and have a new objective. Nevertheless, there is one general objective the all souls must strive to carry out, that is spirituality, to be connected to the supreme soul while having its presence on earth. However, through many births this objective in majority of cases has been neglected and forgotten.

Through many births the soul consciousness has been replaced by body consciousness, this means that the body rather than the soul governs actions. This means that majority of people will do things if there is a benefit for them. This means that anger, jealousy, egotism, arrogance, selfishness, ignorance, attachment to physical objects, thirst for power, lust, become apparent in one’s life. Those who live by soul consciousness would never live by such negative aspects. A soul sees everyone as a brother or a sister; the soul sees everyone as one. The soul sees everyone pure as crystal water. The soul will never fully attach itself to a physical object, knowing that physical objects sooner or later will crumble to nothingness.

It knows that by seeking happiness in physical objects, that happiness will last as long as that physical object or as long as one has an attachment towards it. It knows that happiness through materialism is temporal; through soul consciousness happiness is eternal. It is logical to consider the fact that when one is dependent on an external factor, the fulfillment will not last due to the fact that nothing is permanent. Therefore, if one is merely dependent on one’s internal nature, which is everlasting, the fulfillment is eternal. In order for this to occur, one needs to reach a certain spiritual plateau from which this internal fulfillment will arouse. By living with a body consciousness, a person will be living in an a illusion believing it is reality. The mental perspective of the world itself is an illusion.

The world you live in is the world that lives within your mind. Your perspective is only due to your state of mind, each mind equals a different world. However, by going back to soul consciousness, one awakes from their illusionary dream and sees the world with clarity and truth. By living a righteousness life and meditating and by reading spiritual material one can gain such clarity. Soul and body consciousness are of the same essence, tails and heads of a coin. Spirituality is not a religion, it is not a way of life, it is life, true essence of life. There are no rituals, no customs, no worship; all that is required is to live with a soul consciousness, to be righteous and to be aware of the universal laws. Spirituality is the core of religions, it is the core and the religions are the seeds, which have grown to be what they are due to their environment and time. In essence they are pretty much the same.

The problem is that they have been interpreted wrongly and manipulated; one must look upon without attaching oneself to it and with an open mind to see the meaning with a wider perspective. It is mostly written metaphorically and the meaning lies deeper, it is important not to take it literally. Most of the stories, which are taken literally have a certain meaning but lose their true meaning. For example, many will disagree with this but many will agree, it depends on the state of mind. The main figurehead other than God, of the Bible is Jesus. He has been portrayed as a son of God, as a messiah who came down to earth, he was indeed.

However, Jesus said that he is the son of God indicating that everyone else is a son or daughter of God. He didn’t say it to indicate that he is all powerful and that everyone must obey him. He also said that everyone could be him if they wanted. Furthermore, anyone who comes here, earth, to elevate humanity and to preach peace and love is a messiah. He came down to play his role; everyone has their role to play. This is an example of manipulation; the Christian scholars, the apostles got people to worship a man, like an idol, which is against their law. Yes he had spiritual powers but everyone can achieve them if they tried hard enough, perhaps to a lesser degree, that was one of the things Jesus preached about. Muhammad is very similar to Jesus, pretty much preached the same words. However, Muhammad said he is no God and must not be worshipped, that he is only a man. One does not need to seek out to find a meaning to life or to seek out to find truth, does not need a God to worship but only acknowledged, truth and meaning lies within oneself. There is a whole world waiting to be discovered within you. The purpose of life is to give it a purpose, the truth of life is hidden within you. Meditating is not a religious aspect, nor a Buddhist or Hindu practice.

It is a universal aspect; it is a natural method and a very powerful method of transforming the mind. It is not used to empower breath control or just to relax, even though they are part of it, but the main point is to enlighten the soul by connecting it to a higher source. Just close your eyes and watch how it brightens your soul and how the light envelops your mind. The absence of spiritual light leads to darkness, the negativity and sorrow in one’s life. While being internally dark, the words you speak and the actions you perform will release the darkness, resulting in more sorrow for yourself and the people around you. The outer world will be only a reflection of the inner darkness; things might seem meaningless and distressful. However, when the inner light is shinning the opposite occurs, being that darkness and light are complete opposites, one’s eyes glitter exposing the inner peace.

One’s actions and words are performed with care and love. By sharing the light with others and seeing people benefit from it and become happier results in more happiness inside. Due to the inner light, the outer world in result shines as well. One should realize that one’s actions are judged and are returned to him, this is the law of Karma. The family that you have, the friends, everyone you meet, the situation that you are in, the hard times you have the good times you have, everything in your life, it might sound unfair but they are all fruits of your creation. The seeds you plant are the flowers that you will get. There is no one to blame but yourself. It is more logical to blame yourself rather than God, after all He did give you free will, the way you use it is your choice. To blame God is to say that He is cruel and loves hurting people, that He is blood thirsty and loves to see people suffer This perhaps answers the question, why do innocent suffer; well perhaps they are not innocent after all.

This is due to their past life or actions that they did in the past, the actions that they carried in their past life or what they did in the past have returned to them. This doesn’t mean that one has to suffer due to his actions forever; any negative situation is a sign that something needs to be changed. By changing your actions you change your present state, which changes your future. Nothing is coincidental, there is no luck or miracles, everything happens for a reason and everything has a meaning.

By going deep inside yourself you will find the real self. You will find your role and your purpose in life. Good things don’t come easy but bad things do, the harder you try the better the feeling when you get the result. It is a hard journey but the most important journey.

Limited Effects Theory

Paul Felix Lazarsfeld, an Austrian sociologist, influential methodologists, and one of the pioneers in mass communications, is recognized for his scientific investigations on the effects of media in the society and for employing surveys and experiments to gather empirical observations and generalizations.

In 1925, Lazarfeld obtained his doctorate’s degree in philosophy major in applied mathematics at the University of Vienna, where he founded a research institute for applied social psychology four years later. In 1933, he went to the United States and served as the Director of the Office of Radio Research at the Princeton University after receiving a research grant in psychology from the Rockefeller Foundation. In 1940, his project was transferred at the Columbia University where his office was renamed the Bureau of Applied Social Research.

With Hadly Cantril and Frank Stanton, Lazarsfeld is remembered for his detailed investigation of the radio habits of the American listening public. This investigation led to the famous radio broadcast of “War of the Worlds” in 1938. Orson Welles borrowed freely from H. G. Welles’s novel and created a radio drama that resemble to news stories. One out of six listeners believed that aliens had invaded the universe and eventually panicked. The invasion from Mars panic was seen by elite observers as a definitive proof of mass society theory, that is, if a radio program could induce such wide-spread panic, obvious and concerted propaganda messages could do much worse.

Lazarsfeld affirmed that many listeners acted hastily and that simulated news stories were trusted without question, especially the eyewitness reports and the interviews with phony experts. He also concluded that media audiences have one or more psychological traits that made them especially susceptible to media influence: fatalism, phobic personality, emotional insecurity, and lack of self-confidence.

At the Princeton University, Stanton, Cantril, and Lazarsfeld were part of a vanguard of social scientists who slowly formulated new views of how media influence society. They argued that media were no longer feared as instruments of political oppression and manipulation because the public itself was viewed as very resistant to persuasion and extremist manipulation. They believe that most people were influenced by others rather than by media; opinion leaders in every community, who, at every level of society, were responsible for guiding and stabilizing politics. Media were conceptualized as relatively powerless in shaping public opinion in the face of more potent intervening variables like people’s individual differences and group memberships.

Lazarsfeld pioneered the use of surveys and experiments to measure media influence, which, in turn, provided evidence that media rarely and indirectly influence individuals. He assumed that media effects were quite limited because in the more micro, or in the individual level, only a limited number of listeners were directly affected.

It should be noted, however, that Lazarsfeld and his colleagues, like Carl Hovland, were not theorists; they were methodologists. Unlike mass society theorists who assumed that media were quite powerful, they employed empirical social research methods like surveys and experiments to gather empirical observations and generalizations. They argued that media influence can be measured, observed, understood, controlled, and utilized for the benefit of the human race. They also argued that if the physical sciences permit people to control the physical world, the social sciences can also permit people to control the social world.

Lazarsfeld and his colleagues, while conducting their full-scale investigation of the effects of political mass communications in Eríe County, Ohio and in Elmira, New York during the 1940 and the 1948 presidential elections, respectively, found out that media were not as powerful as mass society theory assumed and that media influence over public opinion or attitudes was hard to locate. They also found out that people had numerous ways of resisting media influence and were influenced by many competing factors and that media influences were typically less important than social status, group membership, educational attainment, religious or political party affiliations, among others. These findings eventually led to the formulation or construction of the limited effects theory, also known as the indirect effects theory.

A paradigm, also called framework, provides a useful guide in research as long as its basic assumptions are accepted. Though a paradigm exercises great influence over the course of a research, a shift inevitably occur because no paradigm can provide adequate explanations for all observations. Also called theoretical innovation, a paradigm shift occurs when there are efforts to account theoretical limitations and when a new theory is formulated or constructed over and above a dominant theory. It is at this context that the limited effects theory is considered the paradigm shift of the mass society theory.

Formulated from “disciplined” data collections and data interpretations, the limited effects theory was gradually constructed using the inductive approach to theory construction. It assumed that media lacked or have limited power to instantly convert average people from strongly held beliefs, and that it negates, if not totally contradict, the mass society theory assumption that media have the power to reach out and directly influence the minds of the average people.

The limited effects theory gained popularity because it provided answers to the questions of troubled elites in the 1930s. When the propaganda theory threatened to challenge freedom and democracy, the limited effects theory argued that most people could not be directly influenced by typical propaganda messages.

However, the limited effects theory actually placed little faith in the rationality of the individual or in his ability to evaluate propaganda messages. During the 1950s and the 1960s, studies found out that most people are politically ignorant or apathetic and that only some people are politically active or involve because their collective wisdom and political knowledge were concentrated in the opinion leaders who are the mainstay of any political system and who play an important role in shaping or reconstructing the voting systems of the electorate.

Factors

  1. The refinement and broad acceptance of empirical social research methods was an essential factor in the development of the limited effects theory. This was so, because empirical social research methods were promoted effectively as the only “scientific” way of dealing and measuring social phenomena.
  2. People who advocated mass society theories were branded by empirical social researchers as “unscientific.” Mass society theorists were considered as doomsayers, political ideologues, biased against media, or fuzzy-mined humanists.
  3. Social researchers exploited the commercial potential of empirical social research method and gained the support of private industries.
  4. The development of empirical social research method was strongly backed by various private and government foundations like the Rockefeller Foundation and the National Science Foundation.
  5. After empirical social research methods showed that media were not as powerful and threatening as assumed by mass society theories, media companies were encouraged to finance more empirical social researches.
  6. Empirical social researchers were successful in introducing their approaches within the various social research disciplines – history, sociology, economics, political science, and social psychology – that shaped the development of communication research. Empirical social research was widely accepted as the most scientific way to study communication even though it proved difficult to find conclusive evidence of media influence.

Assumptions

  1. Media rarely have any direct influence upon individuals. Most people are sheltered from direct manipulation and that they do not believe everything they read, hear, or watch. This assumption negates, if not totally contradicts the assumption of mass society theory that people are isolated and vulnerable from direction manipulation.
  2. There is a two-step flow of media influence. Media could not influence people if the opinion leaders who guide them are not influenced by its messages.
  3. By the time most people become adults they have developed strong group commitments like political party or religious affiliations that media messages are powerless to overcome. These commitments make people to reject media messages although other group members are not present to help them.
  4. When media effects occur, they are modest and isolated. Large number of people will not change their votes although they are flooded with various media messages everyday.

Limitations

  1. Surveys can not measure how people actually use media on a day-to-day basis because they can only record how people report their media experiences.
  2. Surveys are very expensive and cumbersome way to study people’s use of specific media content like their reading of certain news stories or their viewing of specific television programs.
  3. The research design and data analysis procedures are inherently conservative in assessing the power of media.
  4. Subsequent research on the two-step flow has produced highly contradictory finding
  5. Although surveys can be useful for studying changes over time, they are a relatively crude technique.
  6. Surveys omit many potentially important variables by focusing only on what can be easily or reliably measured using existing techniques.

The FAA

The FAA, Boys and girls, we should be glad the FAA is looking out for us. Yes, it is s shame that some of their employees got too friendly with some of the airlines. However, adults do not “demonstrate acting reasonably” when trying to punish (the bad guy) – airline or the FAA inspectors by (going after the entire group) forcing the entire commercial system with “do it now” inspections! We have all seen the TV newsreels of mechanics measuring distances between tie (knots), to see if they are 1/4 of an inch off. Many on one plane are. Wow. As Charles Gibson asked one expert, is all this trouble reasonable for 1/4 of an inch? NO. Pure and simple. Is it true that commercial planes have had fuel line breaks that have caused catastrophic failures?

Yes. Is it also true that airplanes carry miles of lines of this or that? Yes. Maybe we need to go back a few decades. What must head mechanics and their charter or scheduled airlines do to become licensed-permitted, to fly under the protective wing of the FAA? “They must put together [the airlines] a description of their planes and their intended fight maintenance program and it must minimally match that of the manufacturer of the airplane to at least not violate the warranty and for safety, keep the plane in its best possible condition. Are these manufacturer rules or guidelines critical? They can be. Engine temperatures, weight distribution, amount of fuel capable of being carried, top safe speed, …the list goes on.

Can these minimums or maximums be challenged? You bet. They are guidelines since there cannot be an exact science regarding metal failure unless it is a proven fact that all metal such as steel, fails to keep its shape after y temperature. Or the engine is shown to put out no more than x amount of thrust regardless the amount of fuel given to it. When the thickness of a windshield is discussed, or wire width, or materials, it is all best guesses. Computers calibrate the components in a plane that crashed and the reason for the crash confirmed. It is a hypothesis as to what causes a crash. And usually the hypothesis is a good one; too much weight from ice, no fuel and controls refusing to work, etc. So, the FAA and the manufacturer have to guess “best guesses.” I want that. What I don’t want is to have a best guess become a rule and that rule, if violated, to disrupt the entire nation. The FAA has fall guys and the airlines have fall guys. No one wants to take the responsibility for errors.

Or, the error of one group like now and here, is assumed to be the error of many groups [airlines] as in a syllogism. If an FAA officer found a plane with inadequate inspections, the officer can stand by and inspect a plane. I agree with that. That is logical and not harmful to anyone. To, however, make the hypothesis that “if this plane is not current on its inspections, then all the planes are technically unsafe.” That is an absurd conclusion. Why is that so? An example; when many airplanes are sold, the sales comes with a caveat; this plane is past its inspection time. This means that it cannot be used for commercial purposes or to safely take trips without going through a specific level of inspection. It is safe and when the new buyer gets it to home base, it is to be put through inspection. For safety sake. The plane does not know there are no passengers. The no passenger rule is an FAA rule. Does this mean that airlines should ignore maintenance time frames and pull planes out of service regardless of their need in flight schedules? NO. What is more logical is to take a doubt situation, like wires, and direct the airline to remove one or two planes from “available to fly status”, get them inspected and while that goes on, let the rest of the fleet fly. When the one or two are inspected, direct the next 2 planes to be inspected. NOT take out a fleet or ½ of a fleet to inspect them all at one time. And here is why: a. The plane is automatically inspected by the pilot before each flight. B . The airplane has its senior mechanics and inspectors available prior to each start-up and can examine the plane to see if it has any worry components or levels of operations that are suspect. A cracked engine or fuselage is a dangerous thing and a plane with those ailments would not be on the tarmac with passengers. A broken wire tie has no meaning

A mis-distanced tie has no meaning. Remember, there are guides because every component has to have a time of maintenance and a rule created by which it must be judged. With many airplane components, these rules are arbitrary. Some rule must be created since FAA flies on rules. A component cannot have “no review needed.” Every component must be inspected. In fact, some components must be replaced even though they are working fine; this is because, via computer models, a component might begin to get weak and perform under 80% efficiency and the airplane might require 90% efficiency for all components all the time. Now we just have to tell the components that. The FAA needs to become alert to the idea that it is a guide body and if the flying public is so mad they choose to drive or take the train, the FAA will no longer have a purpose for being. So, FAA; common sense, please!

Racism

Racism stop it!  

You hear that a lot don’t you? In schools, on TV even in your own house, but do any of you really understand the true meaning? Or is it just a word that keeps repeating in your head. I bet that most of the students here have made a racist remark or maybe did something that was racist in their life. You might have noticed it, but you did.

Racism what is it? What does it mean? Well, racism means attitudes practices and other factors that disadvantage people because of their skin race or ethnicity. Racism can be directed in any one of those suggestions.

Racism is sometimes very obvious, examples such as graffiti or physical violence can be seen easily. Racial and ethnic jokes are widely spread. For instance the other day when I had a pizza, some kid asked nicely if he could have a piece because he asked nicely I gave him a piece, then he’s like give me another piece, so I said no, lastly he said why are you being a Jew and left. That was criticizing and racist. The guy had no right to call me names, in fact he had no right to criticize the Jews. How are Jews mean? They give you stuff, they lend you stuff, only if your nice to them. Same goes to the other religions.

Racism exists at three main levels, which are institutional, cultural and individual racism. Institutional racism takes the form of the practices, customs, rules and standards of organizations including governments that disadvantage people because of their race, color, or ethnicity. An example of this is back in the day when Martin Luther King Jr. a black man stood up for his people because the American government were cheating the black people from sitting on the bus – the rules were if the seats on the bus were full any black person sitting on a seat has to automatically get off the seat and give it to a white person.

Cultural racism is the cultural values that disadvantage people because of their race, color or ethnicity. An example of this is a when a beautiful, women walks by a man thinks she’s also trustworthy. It shouldn’t be how a person looks like to know if their trustworthy, it should be their personality.

Lastly individual racism, an example of individual racism are the beliefs of racial stereotypes, meaning that people actually believe that some races are better than others and even the belief that people can be classified according to their race. Like if you see a black person, you would automatically think that they’re good at playing basketball, or about Asians people give them the stereotype of being smart, even geniuses. Lastly what about Arabs when somebody sees an Arab walking by they point them out as a terrorist.

RACISM – STOP IT!

10 Top Websites for Brain Training

You have probably seen media reports about the emerging understanding of the benefits that mental exercise brings. Studies have shown that a routine of mental activities can increase your alertness, agility of thought and creativity. Your brain’s health is an important contributor to your quality of life as you age and there appears to be a correlation between your level of mental stimulation and your risk of dementia/Alzheimer’s in later life.

Brain training video games intended to help you keep your brain fit, such as Nintendo’s Brain Age, which offers to train your brain in 10 minutes a day, have sold millions of copies. However you don’t need to splash out for an expensive games console and software. There are plenty of free online and interactive resources to help you get the benefits of training your brain. Below is a round-up of ten of the best:

  1. Brain Metrix

    A website dedicated to brain training with a collection of brain training games and exercises

  2. Sharp Brains

    Lots of brain fitness resources, including exercises.

  3. Braingle

    Braingle claims to have the largest collection of brain teasers, riddles, logic problems, quizzes and mind puzzles on the internet with over 12,000 items which have been ranked by the site’s users.

  4. Queendom

    Games and exercises to get your mind into shape.

  5. Games for the brain

    Quiz, memory and brain games to train your thinking.

  6. Brain Gym® Exercises

    Some simple physical exercises which boost the brain, based on the work of Paul E. Dennison, PhD.

  7. Matica Brain Gym

    Flash based Brain Gym.

Brain Work-outs

In the past, researchers believed that our genes were the main determinants of brain development. Now an increasing number or studies shows that conditions in our suroundings can influence our internal brain plan during early life and in later years. Researchers say the evidence could not only initiate personal behavioral changes, but also could launch new behavioral therapies and medications that repair or expand the brain.

If your physical activity centers on typing, then your leg muscles will never rival Arnold Schwarzenegger’s. Likewise, if your mental exercise is radically low, then your brain will probably be on the scrawny side, according to a new view of brain development.

For years, researchers underestimated the role that worldly experience played in brain formation. In the same way a person is genetically pre-destined to have blue eyes, the brain, they assumed, was internally programmed to bloom into a precise shape that held a specific map of nerve cells or neurons. This mission, they thought, was completed within the first few years after birth.

But now a spate of studies shows that mental exercise can have profound effects on mental capacity.

Environments that offer exposure to complex experiences boost the components that process information in the brain. Brain cell survival increases, the neural appendages that receive communication signals grow and the connections between cells multiply. Some of these changes occur not only during the brain’s early growth stage, but also in later years. A severe lack of mental exercise and even stressful experiences, however, limit the brain plan. The new research is leading to:

The identification of the most malleable brain areas and an understanding of the roles of age, gender and stress.

  • The discovery of brain chemicals that execute the changes.
  • Behavioral techniques and medications that could improve normal brain development as well as repair damaged brains.

The first hint that mental stimulation was needed to bolster brain development surfaced in the 1960s. Researchers found that animals reared in an environment filled with interactive stimuli, including toys, grew a thicker and heavier cerebral cortex than those raised in an empty laboratory cage.

Evidence began to snowball. For example, young male rats that frolicked in cages resembling playgrounds acquired more branches on their neurons and interconnections than rats that were sealed in isolated cages. Some of these brain differences also arose when the experiment was performed on middle-aged rats.

Recently another study revealed for the first time that experience can increase neuron survival. Young female mice spent several months in an environment filled with tunnels, toys and running wheels. The mice developed more neurons in a brain area that is important for memory and performed a learning and memory task better than did isolated mice. Currently, the researchers are testing whether the change also occurs in older mice and monkeys as well as in other brain areas and the spinal cord.

Other studies are revealing factors that can alter or counter the positive influences of a stimulating environment. For example, research shows that in some brain areas, such as the hippocampus and visual cortex, gender can affect the level of cell changes. Other studies on monkeys show that stress has the ability to stop new neuron development.

While researchers continue to interpret how all the pieces fit together, some scientists also are beginning to test a stimulating environment’s ability to repair brain damage. In one case, researchers found that children raised in severely isolated conditions, where they were rarely touched or spoken to, had alterations in their brains and deficits in brain function. But submerging the children in intensely stimulating environments appeared to bring back some functions.

In animal studies, other scientists discovered that an extremely stimulating environment could not only increase the number of connections in the brains of normal rats but could also repair some of the damage rats received when they were exposed to alcohol during the developmental period corresponding to the third trimester of pregnancy in humans. The environment required the rats to travel over rope, narrow beams and linked chains to reach food.

Scientists believe that the research will lead to new behavioral and molecular therapies for brain disorders — as well as provide ammunition for your parents’argument that you should stop slacking off and mentally challenge yourself. While you’re at it, get to the gym.


The images above reveal the brain activity of a normal child (left) and an institutionaiized romanian orphan who was negiected in infancy (right). The blue and black tones show that brain areas such as the temporal lobes, which oversee emotion among other functions, are practically inactive in the romanian child compared to the healthy child.
Image from Children’s Hospital of Michigan.

Reprinted from the website of:
Society for Neuroscience
1121 14th Street, Suite 1010
Washington DC 20005
Phone: (202) 962-4000.

10 Ancient Gods of Beer

These are the world’s ten known Ancient Gods of beer:

  1. Silenus


    In Ancient Greek mythology, Silenus is the God of beer and a drinking companion. He is usually associated with his buddy, Dionysus. He is often featured as a bald and fat man, with a big beer belly. He is normally drunk and it is said that he had to be carried either by donkeys or satyrs (in Greek mythology, satyrs are wood-dwelling creatures with the head and body of a man and the ears, horns, and legs of a goat).

  2. Dionysus


    Dionysus is famously known for being the Ancient Greek God of intoxicating drinks like wine and beer. He is also known as the Liberator as he liberates oneself with the intoxicating power of alcoholic drinks. He is the son of Zeus and considered Silenus his tutor.

  3. Ninkasi


    The picture here is from a beer ad named after the Sumerian Goddess.

    Ninkasi is the Ancient Sumerian Goddess of beer and brewing. It is said that she provides the world with the secret to make beer. In Sumerian culture, she is also known for her power to satisfy human desire.

  4. Osiris


    In Ancient Egyptian culture, Osiris is the God of agriculture. He is also known as the God of beer. A Greek historian from the time of Julius Caesar once wrote that, “Osiris taught the people how to brew the beverage which is made of barley, which is not greatly inferior to wine in odor and potency.”

  5. Aegir


    In Norse mythology, Aegir is actually the God of the sea. It is believed that he has the control of the storms and turbulent seas. He is also known as the God of beer and brewing.

  6. Tezcatzontecatl


    In the Aztec tradition, Tezcatzontecatl is the God of pulque (a traditional alcoholic beverage made of fermented juice of the century plant, and similar to beer). He is also associated with drunkenness and fertility. A monument built like a pyramid was built on top of the Tepozteco Mountain for the worshiper and now, this place has become a well known archaeological site.

  7. Mbaba Mwana Waresa


    In Zulu mythology, Mbaba Mwana Waresa is the Goddess of beer because it is believed that she created the first beer for human comsumption. She is also known as the Goddess of rain and the rainbow. She is celebrated for her search of true love.

  8. Yasigi

     

    In certain African cultures, Yasigi is the Goddess of beer, dance and masks. Her statue portrays her as large-breasted female holding a beer ladle while dancing.

  9. Radegast


    In the Czech mythology, Radegast is the God of hospitality and mutuality. According to the legend, he is credited for the creation of beer.

  10. Raugupatis and Ragutiene


    In Ancient Baltic and Slavic mythology, Raugupatis is known as the God of fermentation. Raugutiene is Raugupatis partner and she is known as the Goddess of beer.

White Supremacy in America: The Ku Klux Klan

Throughout its 150-year history, the KKK has managed to remain a violent, homegrown terrorist group whole sole purpose was terrorization of classes of people that scared them: African-Americans, Catholics, Jews and all immigrants.  They attempted to justify murder, kidnapping, and intimidation by claiming white supremacy.

Their entire purpose was to propagate violence and intimidation among minorities, catholics and jews, and had no problem with expressing their ideas publicly.

There were three different periods of time in which the Klan was at large; they died out and then restarted themselves many times.  The first Klan was started by a man named Nathan Bedford Forrest and a group of Confederate soldier veterans (Ingalls 389). They were based in Pulaski, Tennessee and formed the KKK in 1865. In its early stages the Ku Klux Klan was very secretive. Because it was so secretive, it was very disorganized. It had no ranks or means of secret communication.

Until it gained more power and was more recognizable, no one knew who was behind the Klan’s attacks. The attacks were mostly directed towards disarming freed slaves who received firearms due to the Civil War. In one Florida county Klansmen killed over 150 blacks. The first Klan fell when Congress passed the Force Bill, or “Bloody Bill”, in 1871, which allowed the President to use the federal militia against the Ku Klux Klan. The KKK disappeared soon afterwards (Ingalls 389, 390).

The second Klan was founded by William J. Simmons in Atlanta, 1915 (Ingalls 389, 890). Simmons had served in the Spanish-American War and started the Klan with a group of men, all either from the former Klan or were young white supremacists. By the mid-1920s the Ku Klux Klan had reached six million members and had members as far north as Canada . In some areas 40% of white males were involved in the Klan. For a while the Klan was lead by David Ernest Duke, a state representative of Louisiana.

Klansmen hung a Jewish man from a tree because he was accused of the rape-murder of a young girl. Many lawsuits were filed against the Klan because of this . The Klan began to fall in the 1930s because of bankruptcy and a scandal involving the Grand Dragon of Indiana, D.C. Stephenson. Stephenson raped a young girl on a train. The girl did not die but suffered severe bite wounds all over her body. One spectator said that it looked like she “…Had been attacked by a group of vicious dogs.” By 1944 the Klan had died out completely (Ingalls 390).

The third Klan was restarted in Atlanta, in 1946. This time it was founded by Samuel Green. After Green died in 1949 the Klan split into independent groups. In the 1960s violence from the Ku Klux Klan increased due to the civil rights movement. In 1965 the FBI designed project COINTELPRO to take down the Klan. Klansmen became frightened and the Klan lost membership. Klansmen hung Michael Donald, a black man, due to accusations of sexual assault. Again, the Klan was slammed with lawsuits. The Klan lost even more membership.

The Klan is still active today at about three thousand Klansmen .Most Klans are now in the South. Some notable Klan groups are the Bayou Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Church of American Knights of the KKK, the Imperial Klans of America, Knights of White Kamelia, and the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.

Although the Klan still has remained a white supremacist group despite the fact that they died out many times, they hardly ever practice their beliefs and have midnight conventions as it would be extremely illegal. Today the Klan is regarded with fear, and for good reason. They killed thousands of innocent people.

Key points to remember about the Ku Klux Klan are that there was three times the Klan was active and they were a very violent organization. The Force Bill had a huge impact on the KKK and if it was not for that bill then the Klan would still be very large and dangerous, and the Klan was mostly based in the South.

Chinese Immigration Research Project

Who were the hardest workers on the Transcontinental Railroad? The Irish? The former slaves? No, it was the Chinese immigrants. Without Chinese Immigration, It would have taken many more years to complete. Although at first hated, Chinese immigrants grew to be respected by their many contributions to American society. The Chinese endured a hard voyage from China only to find backbreaking work. The immigrants started coming in the mid 1800’s and were treated horribly until the 1940’s. Even though they experienced anything from racist laws to anti-Chinese riots, the Chinese immigrants still managed to accomplish astonishing feats.

In China, There were two types of people: the very wealthy and the very poor. Rich people owned big houses. They had many servants, maids, and butlers. They practiced many beauty methods. The most painful was the binding of little girls’ feet. Small feet, called “lily feet”, were considered a mark of feminine beauty. It literally turned the girls into cripples. The poor people had nothing close to the life of a rich person. Many were rice farmers. At least they had something to eat. Those even poorer went hungry for days and had to resort to stealing from the farmers. The poor made up the majority of the Chinese population. Those people brought their hopes and dreams to America.

Beliefs made up an enormous part of life in China. The three main religions were Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Buddhism originated in India. Many people didn’t worship Confucianism, but still acknowledged it. The majority of the people worshiped Confucianism. These beliefs were started by Kong Fu Zi, who is better known by his Latin name, Confucius. Family honor also played an enormous role in China. Parents believed that children owed a debt to the parents for raising them. This “debt” could be repaid in many ways. One way would be to take care of their parents when they grew old. Another way was to send money to their parents, which many immigrants did. This was an essential part of Chinese lifestyle.

All men in China had to wear the same hairstyle. They shaved their forehead, and wore a long braid on the back of the head. The braids were called a queue. All men were required to wear them from the 1600’s to 1911. In the 1600’s, the Manchu Empire captured China. Queues symbolized loyalty to the Manchu rulers. Those who didn’t comply were committing treason and either imprisoned or executed. Without their queues, Chinese immigrants could not return to China. If it was cut off, they would have to grow a new one, which could take many years. After the overthrow of the Manchu government, in 1911, many Chinese people, in both China and America, cut off their queues in celebration of freedom.

The Opium Wars were a crucial element in immigration from China. China wanted to stop importing opium to China. The opium was turning many people in to mindless wanderers. When the British refused, the Chinese attacked merchant ships. The British retaliated by sending an armada. China was defeated and opium trade continued. China was no longer a closed nation. People could immigrate to other countries. Chinese immigrants flooded into California and the West Coast.

The immigration station most Chinese immigrants went to was Angel Island. It was like Ellis Island for the West Coast. However, immigrants could be detained for years. To express their sadness, immigrants carved poetry onto the walls. In the 1800’s and early 1900’s, the poems were dismissed as graffiti. The conditions were much worse than Ellis Island. Angel Island is no longer an immigration station and is now a national monument.

There were not many jobs available to Chinese immigrants that came in the mid 1800’s. The immigrants either became miners, laundrymen, or opened restaurants. Most of the miners came because the Gold Rush of 1949. They heard rumors of “Gold Mountain”, a land where gold could be picked up off the ground. Most of the miners lived in San Francisco. Unlike the white miners, the Chinese miners didn’t argue and fight. They were cooperative and pooled their money together to buy new mines. Miners lived in conditions that were usually very dirty. Being a laundryman was worse than being a miner in some ways. Laundrymen worked over 14 hours a day. It was comparable to being a slave. Laundries popped up all over the west coast. Miners and laundrymen needed food, so immigrants opened restaurants. The Asian food is still eaten today.

In America, Chinese immigrants settled in areas that became known as Chinatowns. The biggest one was in San Francisco. It attracted every Chinese person in California. New immigrants could often meet relatives or friend in Chinatowns. People went there because it was like their old life. People spoke Chinese, wore Chinese clothes, kept Chinese customs, and ate the same food. The food was much healthier than the American food. It consisted of many fruits and vegetables. They boiled their tea (killing any germs in the water). Many parts of the Chinatown were filthy. People crammed in rooms to save money. The conditions were like this until the Earthquake of 1906. It destroyed the San Francisco Chinatown. This played a crucial role in Chinese immigration. Not only did the new Chinatown was much more hygienic, but also the immigration records were destroyed. Chinese immigrants claimed they were born here. This might not seem important, but it played a part in Chinese immigration.

Anyone born in this country is a citizen. The law states that any citizen of the U.S. can bring their offspring into the U.S. Many of the new “citizens” brought “paper sons” to America. Paper sons were usually the son of the immigrant’s friend. The paper sons had to be interrogated about their “father”. The immigrant and the paper son agreed on answers. The interrogation could last for hours. If he failed the test, he would be deported and sent back the China. Many Chinese boys came to America this way. “Hoping to catch a paper son in a lie, immigration officers asked specific questions, like `how many steps were in your father’s house?’.” The only reason for all the deceit is only because of the Chinese Exclusion Act.

In 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed. It was the first time an immigration limitation was passed on a certain group. It was signed by President Chester Arthur. It was ended in 1942, when China and the U.S. were allies in WWII. The wife of a Chinese general came to the U.S. She promoted the war. She also asked for the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act and it was repealed.

Many Americans hated the Chinese immigrants. There were many reasons why Americans hated them. Some hated the Chinese because they were more successful than some Americans. On the other hand, others hated the Chinese because they looked so different. Some participated in anti-Chinese riots. Many Chinese immigrants were lynched. Others were severely injured. The worst riot lasted three days. The National Guard was called in, but even that wasn’t enough. Eventually, the Navy was called in, and the riot was broken up. These weren’t the only bigoted acts. Racist laws were passed to give the Chinese a hard time. The Sidewalk Ordinance prevented people from carrying poles with baskets on the ends. It was deliberately aimed at the Chinese. The Cubic Air Ordinance required every adult in San Francisco to have 500 cubic feet of living space. In addition, the Foreign Miners Act taxed all foreign miners if they owned gold mines. This deterred some miners from buying mines. Perhaps the most ruthless law was the Scott Act. It added to the Chinese Exclusion Act. It announced that all Chinese immigrants outside of the U.S. couldn’t come back in. At this time, about 20,000 immigrants were in China visiting their family.

Many people changed their attitudes towards the Chinese during WWII. WWII united China and the U.S; they had a common enemy: Japan. Many Chinese-Americans joined the military. Because at first they experienced racial prejudice, most of the Chinese-Americans were cooks. The few that actually fought were respected in the Army. Some even made it to be the Squad Leader. Because the Chinese were allies with the U.S. and the Japanese were its enemies, many stereotypical thoughts emerged. Chinese faces were said to be “kindly and honest”, and Japanese faces were said to be “cruel and arrogant”. This began an era of equality to the Chinese.

Chinese-Americans achieved great accomplishments. There were many important people. Michael Chang is a former professional tennis player. He was the youngest person to win a Grand Slam. He was also the first American to win the French Open in 34 years. Another important Chinese-American is Yo Yo Ma. He is a exceptional cellist who went to Juilliard School of Music. In addition, another Chinese-American is I. M. Pei. He is a renowned architect. He has designed the glass pyramid in from of the Louvre museum in Paris. Other buildings designed by him include the National Gallery of Art and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio. Furthermore, Jerry Yang founded Yahoo!. It is now a leading Internet brand. There are countless more significant people, but it is too many to list on paper.

Chinese Americans have made an enormous impact on American society. Like many of the immigrants from other countries, the Chinese immigrants were mostly poor. However when they got here, many were detained fro years at Angel Island. Those who did manage to get to the mainland received hate and prejudice from Americans. When the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed, Chinese immigration was restricted. Some Chinese immigrants lied to the government, and said they were born in the U.S. That way, they brought their children or “paper sons” here. Even so, the children had to pass a difficult interrogation. The Chinese finally proved themselves in WWII, when they fought with the U.S. Life would be very different without the impact of Chinese-Americans.