Family background as primary and Social Agent has important role to play in child academic performance. Family size, type and parent academic background have major to play in child upbringing especially in Third World Country.
Family background is the foundation for children’s development. A family is refer to group of people knitted together by blood ties on marriage bond. Family maybe nuclear or extended. Every member of a family have a say or role to play in a child upbringing. A child first contact to with the world is his immediate family. The family in turn nurture the child to make him presentable to the wider society. The nurturing includes:
- Guiding and protecting the child against harmful object
- Teaching and inculcating in him culture of his people
- Provide a platform for the child to achieve self-actualization
- Provide his physiological needs
- Give him love and affection
A family is the primary agent of socialization that introduces the child to other agents of socialization. In this view family background which includes; family type, size, socio-economic status, educational background, play important role in child social integration.
Family Size and Students Academic Performance
The size of the family in which a child grows affect his intellectual development. In a large family, a child may not be given maximum attention especially in his academics. The issue of home works, payment of school fees, attending Parent Teachers Associations and many more may not be convenient for the parents as they have to cater for many children while children are well catered for and perform better in small size family. The case of large family is more prevalent in third world countries which make it difficult for children from this country to perform optimally in their academic pursuit. In a study conducted, 61% of students say their parent do not take care of them while the remaining percentage says otherwise. 67%, 59%, 70% say their parent buy them textbooks, follow their academic progress and have free access to their fathers because they are few in numbers. The negative effect of family size on intelligence were more pronounced among low and middle socio-economic status than high socio-economy status parent with few children devote more time, money and affection to their academic performance.
Family Type and Students Academic Performance
Though, there are many type of family in third world countries but can be congressed under two major type which are monogamy and polygamy. In most third world countries polygamy is more prevalent. In a study conducted 56% of respondent says their father marry more than one wife. Thus make it competitive for children to contest for limited resources available and parent’s affection. In a situation whereby a man marries two or more wives at a time, it tends to lead to unequal treatment of children, jealousy and survival of the fittest. For a child to succeed in life, he has to struggle, which may be detrimental to his academic performance. Because of unplanned children, father caters for certain numbers of children from each wife, often the first son. Other children have to be carter for by the mother whom he may be financially incapacitated.