It is out of doubt that the capacity for learning is an integral part of that biological complex that is the human being.
Yet, it is also certain that the adaptation of man to his environment, unlike the animals, constitutes one leaded process, guided by the precedent generation.
To educate, to guide and to instruct the new generations are essentially human functions.
Usually they are performed mainly by the parents, but in all the developed communities that is one duty of the adult collectivity.
In the primitive civilizations, that education was done in a spontaneous and uninterested way.
In the most advanced cultures, the problem of the education was an object of considerations of philosophical type, formulating theories and establishing norms and ideas about the directives that the education of the man must follow.
Those tendencies became more evident in the Hellenic culture and, latter, in the humanist renaissance. The Roman proverb “healthy mind in healthy body”, inherit from the Greeks, synthesizes the ideal that was looked for: formation in all aspects.
During distinct epochs and under different cultural models, certain facets of the education took one special meaning: the culture of the intellect during the time of the Illustration, the feeling during the Romanticism, the formation of the character – cardinal principle of the Puritanism -, the manual skill and the technical vocation under the influence of the modern “pragmatism” etc.
Those shades in the improvements do not exclude the basic concept that the objective of the education is the formed man in all the aspects and disciplines.
One characteristic hallmark of the western historic thinking was to set the education in a chart almost exclusively individual, considering the isolated man in the centre.
In certain periods, during the Hellenism or in our century, have been considered, in the education of the youth, the social function, the capacity of being able to live and to work with other human beings.
Nevertheless, there is in the western culture the predominance for considering that man must enable to produce “by himself”, it means, to carry out the development of his dispositions and natural possibilities.