The inventors of TV, telephone, frozen food, and railway engines changed the world for ever.
Joseph Lister was a British physician who introduced antiseptics into surgery in 1867. He started using carbolic acid dressings in his own surgery work and so cut down the incidence of sepsis which had been shown by Louis Pasteur to be caused by germs. Three years later he claimed that death from surgery had dropped from over 40% to under 15%.
He also replaced the original silk thread which was used to stitch wounds with cat gut. The cat gut could be sterilised and was readily absorbed into the body and this improved recovery rates from surgery even more.
Thanks to Lister, infection during surgery is unusual rather being the norm as it was in the mid eighteen hundreds.
John Robert Oppenheimer is know as the father of the atomic bomb. He was an American, theoretical physicist and widely known for his part as scientific director of the Manhattan Project which was the World War 11 attempt to develop nuclear weapons. His team first tested the atomic bomb in New Mexico, and Oppenheimer is said to have quoted from the Bhagavad Gita:
‘If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one. Now I have become Death, the destroyer of worlds.’
Clarence Birdseye is the American inventor who is considered to be the founder of the frozen food industry. In 1922 Birdseye started a series of experiment to see which methods of freezing produced the best fish. As a result of this Birdseye Seafoods Inc was formed. Basically, he has seen how the Inuit in the north had air frozen their fish in seconds in temperatures of -43C and noted how fresh it tasted on thawing. It was his quick freeze machine that really started the modern frozen food industry in 1924.
Hippocrates (460-370BC) was a Greek physician who was said to be the father of medicine as we know it today. He was the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. It was this school that first saw the study of medicine as a discipline of its own instead of part of theurgy a philosophy. He is credited with advanced a system for the systematic study of medicine.
Antoine Lavoisier was the father of modern chemistry. He was the first to recognise oxygen and hydrogen as elements in their own right and worked and wrote the very first list of elements. Unfortunately, because he was such a prominent French citizen, he was beheaded during the French Revolution.
Sir Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming was the Scottish biologist and pharmacologist who discovered the antibiotic, penicillin, in 1928. He made this discovery by accident when he noticed that fungus, in the laboratory, would not grow around a particular kind of mould. He isolated this as being from the penicillium genus.
William Caxton was an English engineer who had his own textile business and translated a popular French romance story into English. He printed it as the Recuyell of Historyes of Troye and it became the book ever to be printed in English. He set up a printing press and published over a hundred different titles, including works by Chaucer and Gower.
George Stephenson was an English engineer who built the first railway line in the world to use steam locomotives. His rail gauge which is the distance between the rails is four feet and eight and a half inches and this is still a standard size worldwide.
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell is credited with the invention of the telephone. In 1876 he was awarded the first US patent for the telephone. He is also known for pioneering work on hydrofoils and aeronautics. On his death on 2nd August 1922, all telephones in the US were silenced for one minute in tribute to the man who made them possible.
John Logie Baird
John Baird was a Scottish engineer who was credited with building the first working television in 1926. He used an electromechanical device to show black and white and color pictures on screen.
The first color TV transmission was made on July 3rd 1928.