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American History From 1820 to 1865

From the Missouri Compromise to Lincoln’s Assassination.

In 1820, the Missouri Compromise was passed. This made it so that Missouri would become a slave state, Michigan a free state, and any state south of the southern Missouri border would become a slave state. It was passed because the Southerners felt that the North would have more control of Congress if this wasn’t passed. In the same year, there was the election with no competition. The Election of 1820 had 2 Democratic-Republicans running. They were John Quincy Adams and James Monroe. It was made so that James Monroe would win but not completely. This would make it so that Washington was the only President to win unanimously. The Adams-Onis treaty offered Spain $5 million for Florida. The United States gains Florida and Spain got part of the Louisiana Purchase. In 1823, a document called the Monroe Doctrine was written by John Quincy Adams. The Monroe Doctrine stated that European countries could not interfere with the Western Hemisphere’s political affairs.

The election of 1824 was very controversial. All four candidates, Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, and Henry Clay, were from the Democratic – Republican Party. Although Andrew Jackson received the most electoral votes, he didn’t get enough required to win the election. The decision went to the House of Representatives to vote on. Henry Clay, the head of the House of Representatives, convinced the House to vote for John Quincy Adams. In return for this, Adams promised the position of Secretary of State to Clay. This deal went through and was referred to as the Corrupt Bargain.

In 1828, the Tariff of 1828, later called the Tariff of Abominations, was passed. The North was protected by this tariff while the South suffered. This was the start of the Nullification Crisis. During this time period John C. Calhoun secretly wrote the South Carolina Exposition. The Election of 1828 now comes up. John Quincy Adams ran for the National Republican party and Jackson ran for the Democratic Party. Jackson won, and this begins a new era of Democracy, called Jacksonian Democracy. He called is victory the Revolution of 1828 because it was a shifting of power from the east to the west. The Webster-Hayne debate started out as a debate over the sale of western lands, and was eventually turned around by Daniel Webster into a debate over nullification. He said how it would break up the Union, and lead to secession and civil war.

South Carolina became very upset over the Tariff of 1828. They held two votes over the issue of nullifying it. Both times it was nullified, and in lieu of this the federal government passes the Tariff of 1832. South Carolina was still upset of this tariff and they nullified this tariff also. Henry Clay made the Compromise Tariff of 1833, which avoids civil war. Clay also convinces Congress to pass the Force Bill. This bill stated that the President could use the military to enforce tariffs.

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