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Comparing Egypt and Mesopotamia

A comparison between the geographical and cultural aspects of Mesopotamia and Egypt.


            Egypt and Mesopotamia had many similarities when it came to their geographical aspects, but they also had many differences. To begin, both Egypt and Mesopotamia were located on the banks of major rivers. They were different in the fact that Mesopotamia was located between two rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, while Egypt was located near only one river, the Nile River.  They were also very different because Mesopotamia was located on a flat plane, were as Egypt was located in the Nile valley. In addition, the Egyptians climate was not nearly as irregular as the climate in Mesopotamia.

            In comparing the cultural aspects of these two civilizations, I first think of their varying religious beliefs. In both places, they believed that the environment reflected the choices and actions of their gods. In Mesopotamia, they felt that their gods were unforgiving, envious, and hateful beings. This view developed from the many natural obstacles they were burdened with. The Egyptians on the other hand, believed that their gods were good, kind beings. Egypt and Mesopotamia were alike in the fact that they had a system of social classes. Egypt was ruled by one main leader, the pharaoh, who was viewed as a god as well as a monarch. Mesopotamia was also ruled by one central leader but theirs was the king. In Mesopotamia, the role of women changed over time. Women were never given the same jobs as men but they were valued the same in the beginning. Later, as men gained power, women became more dependent on men, but they still had legal rights. In Egypt, women had a much higher status than they did anywhere else in the world at that time. Women weren’t limited to working only in the home; they just weren’t allowed to have certain occupations that were meant for men. Despite all of the rights that Egyptian women had, only a seldom group of women could read and write. As you can see, there are many similarities between ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, but there are also many differences.

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