Fingerprints were in use since the time of Babylonians. these people knew that now two individuals had similar fingerprints. Its use decreased considerably once people learnt to sign their names.
The Czech Jan Evangelista Purkinje, noticed, while studying sweat glands, that the pattern of grooves and ridges are not the same in any two individuals. These sweat glands open out into the depressions of the grooves. This was so convincingly proved, that fingerprints were used in science, too. Dactyloscopy or taking of fingerprints in ink, was first used by a police officer in Argentina. Slowly dactylscopy came to be used widely, especially in judicial identification departments, throughout the world. The different fingerprints may be of three basic patterns the loop, the whorl and the arc. The frequency of these patterns vary according to origin. About 10-16 percent of the population of Pygmies and Brushmen of Africa, have arcs; whorls were present in 43 percent of Orientals and 16 percent of Occidentals. Around 52-76 percent of the populations in Europe and Africa and the Ainus of Japan have loops. The divisions of the population according to there frequencies somewhat correspond to the divisions made according to blood groups.