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Islamic Spain and The Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire, Islamic Spain, War.

  The following paragraph is about the Visigoth Kingdom of Spain and the Arab conquest. 
The Arabs had controlled most of everything and by 700 they had controlled everything. But 
they still were not done, so they went out searching for new lands, and they found the 
Visigoths. At this time the Visigoths had just got a new king, Roderick. He was having 
troubles establishing control over Spain. By 711 the Arabs arrived near Gibraltar with 
approximately 7000 troops. They then defeated Roderick and killed him in battle. This was 
the end of the Visigoth Kingdom. The Arabs were very sincere with Spain, they did not force 
them to change their religion. Soon after that they conquered the whole Iberian Peninsula. 
They made Cardoba the capital and governed in the name of their Caliph.
 In 756, things changed for the Arabs. Abd-al-Rahman of the Umayyad Caliphate in 
Damascus crossed North America and landed in Spain. He defeated the local Arab governor 
and declared himself as the leader of the Spanish Territory. Then his descendants and he 
ruled for the next three centuries.

When the Arabs had just come to Spain, they were impressed by its rich agriculture resources. They compared it to paradise. When the Romans were in Spain they built aqueducts to deliver water for irrigation. The Arabs repaired it and expanded it to dryer parts of Spain. They also used water wheels to scoop water from streams and irrigation canals and used them on fields, because of these changes many new plants where discovered to the Arabs. Some of the new crops where pomegranates, sugar cane, bananas, coconuts, corn and rice.

When the Arabs had come, Spain controlled the Christians and made them into a long narrow strip along the northern coast. When these areas were beginning to expand southward the Christians called the expansion The Reconquista, because they were bringing Muslim areas under the Christian rule once again. This expansion would eventually become a religious war.

Castile is one of the most powerful kingdoms in northern Spain. The Castilian kings wanted to control other principalities directly, or at least obtain tribute funds from them. After the city of Toledo failed to pay the tribute money, Alfonso VI of the Castile kingdom decided to conquer Toledo.

The Almoravids were conservative Muslims of West Africa. They had begun to expand their territories in the middle of the eleventh century. By the summer of 1086 the Almoravid army arrived in Spain and defeated the army of Alfonso VI of the Castile Kingdom. By 1090 and 1108 the Almoravids conquered all of southern Spain and Portugal. But they were not able to capture the city of Toledo.

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