You are here: Home » History » The Stolen Wealth of India During British Rule

The Stolen Wealth of India During British Rule

Though it is a bitter history of India, we Indians overcame that.

Everyone knows the history of India. But not all knows how much wealth it gave to this world. I don’t mean the literature and culture it taught to this world. I mean the real wealth, the money, the gold and diamonds stolen, looted by the British rulers, when they ruled India for nearly 200 years.

Image via Wikipedia

During the mid of 1770’s, the western countries, especially Britain had Industrial revolution and it was completely financed by the money looted from India. Even William Digby and British historian agreed that without the “Venture Capital” which was looted from Bengal, the Industrial Revolution might not have happened. In 1957, the Battle of Plessey happened among the Nawab of Bengal and British rulers. But Robert Clive defeated the effort of evicting the British rule. During this battle, Bengal got looted completely.

Image via Wikipedia

The looted money and wealth were then showered in the industrial revolution, which helped in the inventions like “The spinning Jenny” in the year 1764, “The water Frame”, a machine to spin cotton threads in the year 1769, “The Steam Engine” in the year 1785 and a lot more.

Image via Wikipedia

Apart from financing the British people to develop their inventions and economy, the wealth of India also helped Americans also to grow economically. During 19th century, USA levied heavy and stiff tariffs on any goods that are imported from Britain. Since Britain didn’t have any problem for wealth and money, as it was flowing from India, which they absorbed completely. So they didn’t care about the high taxes. So, the prosperity of India was shared with America also by the British rulers.

One more Englishman mentioned in his note about India, “Even after sucking the entire wealth of India, our government is still giving more sufferings to the people of India by forcing them to by their products like dresses which they wove by the inventions sponsored by Indian money. How people of hot country can wear a dress woven for a cold country like England?” and so on…

Anglophiles’ note of apology says “British colonial rule in India was the organized banditry that financed England’s Industrial Revolution”. The British rulers even took over the technology of India, along with money. Will Durant, an American Historian mentioned in his note “India was flourishing in Ship building besides the expertise of making steel and textiles. But all got ruined when British took over those technologies”.



Image via Wikipedia

Only few knows that the birth place of the world famous Kohinoor diamond (which means Mountain of Light), which is currently a part of the Royal British Crown Jewels, is India. This 105 carat diamond was the largest one at that time and it was kept by various Mughal Emperors. But it was later looted by the East Indian Company, which was then gifted to Queen Victoria when she was declared as “Empress of India” in the year 1877.

Image via Wikipedia

Roughly it has been estimated as one trillion dollar money that was looted by the British rulers in that 200 years ruling, apart from some other wealth like gold, diamonds and raw materials which got transported. India remains as a “Developing Country“.

Note: As I said earlier, though this is a bitter history, we Indians over came that and currently don’t have any hatred towards people of Britain. So, this is just a piece of old prosperous India’s story, I felt sharing.

You may also like to read this – Why India is still a developing country?

51
Liked it
User Comments
  1. chitragopi

    On October 17, 2009 at 11:56 am


    Hats off. The world should know.

  2. AMANDEEP CHAWLA

    On October 23, 2009 at 5:49 am


    BRITISH GOVERNMENT LOOTED INDIA TOO MUCH THEY DON’T LOOTED THE INDIAN WEALTH BUT THE LOOTED AND DESTROYED THE INDIAN GOLDEN CUSTOMS AND PEOPLE HAPPINESS. WE WANT TO ALSO LOOTED THE BRITISH WEALTH AND HAPPINESS AND WE DO THIS VERYMUCH.

  3. Vishal

    On October 24, 2009 at 2:46 pm


    i Hope some one some day can steal that diamond i think it may be a luck charm for our country and also a insult to England…

    Queen Vicoria was a like a hore or something tat can accept stoled items and that diamond contains so much blood and peace of a country!…Jai Hind

    Regards to thread owner…

  4. Remmyramesh

    On October 25, 2009 at 1:57 am


    Very interesting read!!

  5. Michael Dadona

    On October 31, 2009 at 8:09 am


    Must learn from Japanase how they did it after World War II and the Hiroshima/Nagasaki atomic bomb history. They crossover and conquered US by using economy tools, obviously giving a quarter and they take a three quarter portion.

    Meaning that, smart step is much needed rather than clever step which was proven done by Japanase to US people without any bloodshed history but true and through economy apogee.

    That is what Lakshmi Mittal and others are doing right now in UK and I salute his achievement from his hard working attitude. But, does the new Indian generation still love to be as a working machine in own country? From my point of view, the new Indian generation much like to be an employee (working machine) instead being an employer.

    Change the attitude, that is only the way and no other ways to exponentially getting the ‘payback’ form their previous looting in India. Must learn from Japanase how they ‘dictate’ US which was their previous enemy. Honda US and not US Honda.

    Another proof, China. What is it? Think about it?

  6. kashmla

    On December 14, 2009 at 6:38 am


    As has been noted by several historians of British-ruled India, the numerical presence of the British in colonized India was never very significant. Yet, the British were able to maintain a vast and stable empire in the Indian subcontinent for almost two centuries. They were able to recklessly exploit India\\\’s natural resources and drain the wealth of it\\\’s citizenry through the imposition of excessive and unreasonable taxes – all without unmanageable challenges to their political authority during much of their debilitating reign.

    Although there is no doubt that physical violence (including torture) were important elements of British domination in India, equally important were the successes of political strategies that took full advantage of rivalries amongst native rulers and cynically exploited divisions arising from caste, religion, class and other sectarian loyalties. Not only were the British able to garner the loyalty or acquiescence of the Indian Maharajas and other elements of the decadent feudal aristocracy, they were also able to command the support of influential sections of the British-educated new urban intelligentsia whose loyalty to the colonial empire remained unquestioned even as nationalist feelings and nationalist currents emerged with greater or lesser intensity after the defeat of 1858. Money-lenders and the landed gentry were particularly reliable allies of the British, and the new industrial class, though critical of British policies, was invariably constrained by it\\\’s conservatism in opposing British rule.

    Thus, loyalism became a powerful political trend in British India that either countered nationalist forces outright, or attempted to diffuse their impact and efficacy through calls for political moderation, non-violence and tactical restraint. Loyalist forces made frequent and fervent appeals to the Indian masses to be patient with the British, to be content with the slow pace of political reforms, and to be grateful for minor concessions concerning self-rule. Those who demanded a more radical and confrontationist approach with the British (such as Tilak) were branded as \\\”extremists\\\” and dismissed as unrealistic or utopian radicals.

    Rooted amongst sections of the Indian elite that feared the power of the restive masses, loyalism was not only a strong political force in Indian territories directly ruled by the British, but also had a profound impact on Princely India. Recognizing their importance, British administrators feted loyalist elements, rewarding them in accordance with their contribution to the stability of the Raj. In the decades that followed the 1857 uprising, loyalism showed up in a variety of forms (moderate or extreme), and the most anti-national of the loyalist tendencies served as a bulwark against all attempts at overthrowing or even diluting British authority in India. Not only did such elements collaborate dutifully in facilitating the sustained transfer of wealth from India to England, in their aggressively loyalist propaganda, they matched or even outdid colonial attacks on nationalist currents, spreading disinformation against even those that were politically quite moderate, and essentially reconciled to alien rule.

    An archetype of such loyalist agents was Sir Salar Jung, (b, 1829, Prime Minister of the Princely State of Hyderabad in 1853), who wrote and spoke of the 1857 Mutiny with great hatred, and successfully employed Arab mercenaries on behalf of the British Resident, Colonel Davidson, in fending off mutineers in the Deccan kingdom. Leaders of the mutiny were shot dead or publicly executed. Local residents who attempted to plead on behalf of the mutinous soldiers were dispersed with canon fire.

    Like elsewhere in the country, the 1857 rebellion enjoyed considerable popular appeal in the Nizam\\\’s kingdom, and in Hyderabad, there was a clamor for war against the British. In one of his briefs in praise of British General Thornhill, Salar Jung acknowledged that Hyderabad was seeped in disaffection with the British, and seeing the grave danger to British rule, acted quickly to fend off the challenges to British colonial presence. His timely and brutal actions in suppressing the mutineers was of crucial import and was duly acknowledged by Sir Richard Temple who described as \\\”priceless\\\”, his services to the British Government.

    But Salar Jung was not alone in his opposition to the 1857 rebellion, which essentially took on the character of India\\\’s first War of Independence. When the troops of Indore and Mhow rebelled and joined the 1857 war against the British, the Holkar Raja felt compelled to apologize to the British for the behaviour of the troops under his command, and sought to affirm his loyalty to the British in no uncertain terms. Troops in Tonk, Kota, Gwalior, Bhopal and Bharatpur also rebelled, but their rulers remained staunchly loyal to British interests.

    Even former-rulers such as Nagpur\\\’s Rani Bakabai (whose Bhosle royal clan had been earlier humiliated by the British) nevertheless threatened potential mutineers in her territory with dire consequences. Following Nagpur\\\’s annexation, the British had confiscated almost the entire Bhosle treasury, transferring 136 bags of precious metals and jewels, and other cultural valuables, to British vaults. Palace animals were auctioned off, and much of the remaining personal jewelry of the Bhosle queens was auctioned off in Calcutta. However, Rani Bakabai and other senior royals were provided a pension, and this proved sufficient to buy their loyalty.

    Inspired by the rebellions in other cities – (such as at Meerut, Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Sagar and Jhansi), an iregular unit at Takli near Nagpur had rebelled, but other units remained passive allowing the British to overcome the rebellion. Dildar Khan, Inayatulla Khan, Vilayat Khan and Nawab Kadar Khan of the irregular cavalry were tried and executed.

    Although the masses of Nagpur were generally sympathetic to those who rebelled, the influence of the pro-British royals remained strong, and it was the pro-colonial orientation of many such Indian rulers that allowed the British to regain their confidence and regroup, and ultimately recover the territories they lost in 1857.

    But even as the first Indian War of Independence came to a tragic and bitter end, the Princely States that had sided with the British, (or remained neutral) were to discover that the British were no less capable of undermining them. New and more aggressively loyalist agents were employed to weaken the independence and financial viability of the Princely States.

    For instance, Sir T. Madhav Rao, (British appointed administrator of the state of Baroda) passed laws preventing the state from manufacturing or purchasing arms at will. He also pushed through laws increasing taxes on commodities of daily public use such as salt, and providing British manufacturers monopoly distribution rights. Additionally, Madhav Rao signed decrees requiring sizeable payments to the British for services that the state had no need of. Nepotism and corruption thrived in the Madhav Rao administration, and locals who may have objected to (or resisted) laws and decrees that were inimical to the economic interests of the state were kept out. Loyalist like Madhav Rao thus became instrumental in driving the people of the state into utter helplessness and dire poverty.

    Other loyalists were not as blatant, and attempted to couch their collaboration with the British administrators in a more reformist light. Sir Syed Ahmed (b. 1817) appointed a Member of the Public Service Commission by Lord Dufferin saw the British presence in India as \\\”beneficial to the scientific modernization of the country\\\”, and saw British presence in the subcontinent as a \\\”liberalizing\\\” factor.

    (Many others echoed such views, discounting the possibility that such advances could have very well been made by the Indian people themselves, under a political dispensation of their own choosing, and without the enormous economic drain caused by colonial rule. It is notable that countries such as Thailand, South Korea and Japan who escaped European colonization in Asia were able to adopt modern education systems and modern technology at a much faster pace than India).

    In writing about the \\\”Causes of the Indian Revolt of 1857\\\”, Syed Ahmed wrote that the people of India had \\\”misunderstood\\\” the intentions of the British, and failed to comprehend the \\\”good points\\\” of the British rulers. When the Indian National Congress was launched with it\\\’s rather limited goals of ensuring greater representation for Indians in the colonial administration and gradual transformation towards home-rule within the empire, Syed Ahmed opposed the movement, and in an 1887 speech to the Mahomeddan Educational Conference, discouraged Indian Muslims from joining the Congress. Although he projected himself as a liberal and secular reformer, he opposed common electorates for all Indians, arguing for separate electorates and compartmental elections for Muslims and other non-Hindus. Though it appears from his speeches that his views were not motivated by consciously divisive or communal intent, the effects of his propagandizing sowed the seeds for the elaboration and development of the highly pernicious two-nation theory, and ultimately to the bloody partition of the Indian subcontinent. Only late in life, did he begin to realize that the British colonial rulers were incapable of treating Indians with equality. It was then that he came to recognize the value of a body such as the Congress and began to express serious doubts and reservations about the role of the British in India. But by then the damage had been done – in his public life, Syed Ahmed (like many others) had served British interests only too well.

    Like Sir Ahmed, Sir Ali Imam (b. 1869 in an aristocratic Patna family), Sir Muhammad Shafi (b. 1869 in an extremely wealthy landed family with holdings throughout Punjab) and Rahimatulla Mohammed Sayani (b.1847) were other prominent loyalists who played an important propagandist role in defending the empire. Lauded for his great services to the \\\’Raj\\\’ by Lord Harding, Ali Imam (who eventually became a judge in the Patna High Court) tried to obscure the contradictions between the Indian masses and the colonial administration by projecting Indian nationalism as being entirely compatible with loyalty to the British Sovereign and pride in the British Empire.

    Muhammad Shafi attempted to argue that British and Indian interests were \\\”similiar\\\”. Even as Shafi championed the cause of reforms in the British administration of India, he emphasized \\\”India\\\’s fidelity to the Empire\\\” adding that the empire was \\\”Our Common Heritage\\\”. \\\”To my own countrymen I appeal with equal earnestness to recognize that our British fellow-subjects in India have as permanent an interest in her future well-being as ourselves, and are entitled to play, a leading part in her constitutional development. Let us realize that in their co-operation and good-will for India\\\’s regeneration lies our sure and certain success along the path of constitutional development. We too, should cast aside all distrust and, imbued with a feeling of mutual confidence, meet the British elements in this country more than half way. In union lies strength and with Indo-British union there is no height to which India may not rise.\\\” (Quoted from the concluding portion of a series of articles published in the Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore – Eminent Mussalmans, p222)

    The trend towards loyalism culminated in the persona of the Aga Khan (Sir Sultan Mhd. Shah, b. 1875, Karachi) who aggressively championed allegiance to the British in all it\\\’s war efforts (whether in Europe, South Africa or elsewhere), even stating that \\\”If they will only give me the opportunity, I will shed my last drop of blood for the British Empire\\\”.

    Continuing in the vein of Sir Syed Ahmed, the Aga Khan developed Muslim sectarian and separatist ideas much further by calling for the creation of the All India Muslim League as a political counter-weight and foil to the Congress. He also argued for the establishment of a University that would cater exclusively to the nation\\\’s Muslims. In deepening divisions between India\\\’s Hindus and Muslims, the Aga Khan could not have served the interests of the British Empire any better and was justly rewarded with great accolades in the British Press and royal circles.

    However, not all eminent Muslims adopted a separatist approach. Badruddin Tyabji (b. 1844), who became President of the Indian National Congress in 1887 won the support of Indian industrialists when he argued against the abolition of import duties on cotton goods in 1879. A liberal reformer, he encouraged modern education for India\\\’s Muslims, and the lifting of Purdah for Muslim women when he became Secretary (and later President) of the Anjuman-i-Islam in Bombay in 1880 . In 1883, he campaigned to seek equal rank for Indians employed in British-run Indian administrative services.

    Tyabji was succeeded by Sir Pherozeshah Mehta (b. 1845) who headed the Congress in 1889. Like Tyabji, Pherozeshah Mehta also fought for equality for Indians in the colonial administration, and resisted European domination of the Indian University system, taking up the cudgels against Lord Curzon (who had won the editorial backing of the pro-colonial Times of India in his attempts at furthering the British domination of the Indian education system). Yet, Pherozeshah Mehta also repeatedly expressed his opposition to more radical nationalism and strived hard to keep the Congress on a loyalist track. The election of Mohd. Sayani (who had previously stayed aloof from the Congress) as President in 1896 underlined the loyalist hold on the Congress.

    Sayani had been an ardent admirer of the British, and criticized those who distrusted their motives and presence in India. In a passionate speech defending the British presence in India, he argued that \\\”a more honest or steady nation does not exist under the sun than this English nation\\\”. At a time when India was reeling from famines induced by British policies in India, he defended British Rule, describing it as generally based on \\\”law and sympathy\\\”, and having given India \\\”peace\\\”. Sayani also harbored the illusion that English capital would modernize and industrialize India, and make Indians prosperous, but in fact, the Indian economy experienced zero growth in the first half of the 20th century, and the flow of capital from England to India was never more than a trickle. (Quotes taken from a speech delivered during discussion of the Financial Statement of 1898-99).

    But throughout this period, it was Pherozeshah Mehta who became the main rallying point for loyalists in the Congress. Mehta led the charge in humiliating and isolating the more uncompromising nationalist currents. Most onerous was his diatribe against the young nationalist, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, whom he described as a dangerous \\\”extremist\\\”. In his attacks against Tilak, Mehta won the endorsement of the Times of India (who saw in Tilak, a serious threat to the cult of loyalism, and assiduously campaigned for the Congress to remain on the loyalist track). In 1910, in a key speech to Congress cadres, Mehta affirmed the loyalty of the Congress to British rule . The British were naturally appreciative of Mehta\\\’s politics, and duly rewarded him with knighthood. Although Mehta\\\’s strong opposition to Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal was not entirely popular within the Congress, the Congress remained generally wedded to the creed of loyalism, and only moderates such as Gokhale were able to find an influential voice within it.

    Gokhale epitomized the Congress leaders that emerged between 1895 and 1920. Acutely aware of the economic devastation that colonial rule had brought to the nation, they nevertheless repeatedly expressed their fidelity to the British – struggling only for political reforms and greater self-government within the empire.

    However, during the years of 1905-1908, there was an intense struggle for the soul of the Indian National Congress, with leaders like Tilak (and others such as Ajit Singh in Punjab and Chidambaram Pillay) fighting hard to intensify the struggle against British colonial domination.

  7. kashmla

    On December 14, 2009 at 6:38 am


    As has been noted by several historians of British-ruled India, the numerical presence of the British in colonized India was never very significant. Yet, the British were able to maintain a vast and stable empire in the Indian subcontinent for almost two centuries. They were able to recklessly exploit India natural resources and drain the wealth of it’s citizenry through the imposition of excessive and unreasonable taxes – all without unmanageable challenges to their political authority during much of their debilitating reign.

    Although there is no doubt that physical violence (including torture) were important elements of British domination in India, equally important were the successes of political strategies that took full advantage of rivalries amongst native rulers and cynically exploited divisions arising from caste, religion, class and other sectarian loyalties. Not only were the British able to garner the loyalty or acquiescence of the Indian Maharajas and other elements of the decadent feudal aristocracy, they were also able to command the support of influential sections of the British-educated new urban intelligentsia whose loyalty to the colonial empire remained unquestioned even as nationalist feelings and nationalist currents emerged with greater or lesser intensity after the defeat of 1858. Money-lenders and the landed gentry were particularly reliable allies of the British, and the new industrial class, though critical of British policies, was invariably constrained by it\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s conservatism in opposing British rule.

    Thus, loyalism became a powerful political trend in British India that either countered nationalist forces outright, or attempted to diffuse their impact and efficacy through calls for political moderation, non-violence and tactical restraint. Loyalist forces made frequent and fervent appeals to the Indian masses to be patient with the British, to be content with the slow pace of political reforms, and to be grateful for minor concessions concerning self-rule. Those who demanded a more radical and confrontationist approach with the British (such as Tilak) were branded as \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”extremists\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\” and dismissed as unrealistic or utopian radicals.

    Rooted amongst sections of the Indian elite that feared the power of the restive masses, loyalism was not only a strong political force in Indian territories directly ruled by the British, but also had a profound impact on Princely India. Recognizing their importance, British administrators feted loyalist elements, rewarding them in accordance with their contribution to the stability of the Raj. In the decades that followed the 1857 uprising, loyalism showed up in a variety of forms (moderate or extreme), and the most anti-national of the loyalist tendencies served as a bulwark against all attempts at overthrowing or even diluting British authority in India. Not only did such elements collaborate dutifully in facilitating the sustained transfer of wealth from India to England, in their aggressively loyalist propaganda, they matched or even outdid colonial attacks on nationalist currents, spreading disinformation against even those that were politically quite moderate, and essentially reconciled to alien rule.

    An archetype of such loyalist agents was Sir Salar Jung, (b, 1829, Prime Minister of the Princely State of Hyderabad in 1853), who wrote and spoke of the 1857 Mutiny with great hatred, and successfully employed Arab mercenaries on behalf of the British Resident, Colonel Davidson, in fending off mutineers in the Deccan kingdom. Leaders of the mutiny were shot dead or publicly executed. Local residents who attempted to plead on behalf of the mutinous soldiers were dispersed with canon fire.

    Like elsewhere in the country, the 1857 rebellion enjoyed considerable popular appeal in the Nizam\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s kingdom, and in Hyderabad, there was a clamor for war against the British. In one of his briefs in praise of British General Thornhill, Salar Jung acknowledged that Hyderabad was seeped in disaffection with the British, and seeing the grave danger to British rule, acted quickly to fend off the challenges to British colonial presence. His timely and brutal actions in suppressing the mutineers was of crucial import and was duly acknowledged by Sir Richard Temple who described as \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”priceless\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”, his services to the British Government.

    But Salar Jung was not alone in his opposition to the 1857 rebellion, which essentially took on the character of India\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s first War of Independence. When the troops of Indore and Mhow rebelled and joined the 1857 war against the British, the Holkar Raja felt compelled to apologize to the British for the behaviour of the troops under his command, and sought to affirm his loyalty to the British in no uncertain terms. Troops in Tonk, Kota, Gwalior, Bhopal and Bharatpur also rebelled, but their rulers remained staunchly loyal to British interests.

    Even former-rulers such as Nagpur\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s Rani Bakabai (whose Bhosle royal clan had been earlier humiliated by the British) nevertheless threatened potential mutineers in her territory with dire consequences. Following Nagpur\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s annexation, the British had confiscated almost the entire Bhosle treasury, transferring 136 bags of precious metals and jewels, and other cultural valuables, to British vaults. Palace animals were auctioned off, and much of the remaining personal jewelry of the Bhosle queens was auctioned off in Calcutta. However, Rani Bakabai and other senior royals were provided a pension, and this proved sufficient to buy their loyalty.

    Inspired by the rebellions in other cities – (such as at Meerut, Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Sagar and Jhansi), an iregular unit at Takli near Nagpur had rebelled, but other units remained passive allowing the British to overcome the rebellion. Dildar Khan, Inayatulla Khan, Vilayat Khan and Nawab Kadar Khan of the irregular cavalry were tried and executed.

    Although the masses of Nagpur were generally sympathetic to those who rebelled, the influence of the pro-British royals remained strong, and it was the pro-colonial orientation of many such Indian rulers that allowed the British to regain their confidence and regroup, and ultimately recover the territories they lost in 1857.

    But even as the first Indian War of Independence came to a tragic and bitter end, the Princely States that had sided with the British, (or remained neutral) were to discover that the British were no less capable of undermining them. New and more aggressively loyalist agents were employed to weaken the independence and financial viability of the Princely States.

    For instance, Sir T. Madhav Rao, (British appointed administrator of the state of Baroda) passed laws preventing the state from manufacturing or purchasing arms at will. He also pushed through laws increasing taxes on commodities of daily public use such as salt, and providing British manufacturers monopoly distribution rights. Additionally, Madhav Rao signed decrees requiring sizeable payments to the British for services that the state had no need of. Nepotism and corruption thrived in the Madhav Rao administration, and locals who may have objected to (or resisted) laws and decrees that were inimical to the economic interests of the state were kept out. Loyalist like Madhav Rao thus became instrumental in driving the people of the state into utter helplessness and dire poverty.

    Other loyalists were not as blatant, and attempted to couch their collaboration with the British administrators in a more reformist light. Sir Syed Ahmed (b. 1817) appointed a Member of the Public Service Commission by Lord Dufferin saw the British presence in India as \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”beneficial to the scientific modernization of the country\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”, and saw British presence in the subcontinent as a \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”liberalizing\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\” factor.

    (Many others echoed such views, discounting the possibility that such advances could have very well been made by the Indian people themselves, under a political dispensation of their own choosing, and without the enormous economic drain caused by colonial rule. It is notable that countries such as Thailand, South Korea and Japan who escaped European colonization in Asia were able to adopt modern education systems and modern technology at a much faster pace than India).

    In writing about the \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”Causes of the Indian Revolt of 1857\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”, Syed Ahmed wrote that the people of India had \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”misunderstood\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\” the intentions of the British, and failed to comprehend the \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”good points\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\” of the British rulers. When the Indian National Congress was launched with it\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s rather limited goals of ensuring greater representation for Indians in the colonial administration and gradual transformation towards home-rule within the empire, Syed Ahmed opposed the movement, and in an 1887 speech to the Mahomeddan Educational Conference, discouraged Indian Muslims from joining the Congress. Although he projected himself as a liberal and secular reformer, he opposed common electorates for all Indians, arguing for separate electorates and compartmental elections for Muslims and other non-Hindus. Though it appears from his speeches that his views were not motivated by consciously divisive or communal intent, the effects of his propagandizing sowed the seeds for the elaboration and development of the highly pernicious two-nation theory, and ultimately to the bloody partition of the Indian subcontinent. Only late in life, did he begin to realize that the British colonial rulers were incapable of treating Indians with equality. It was then that he came to recognize the value of a body such as the Congress and began to express serious doubts and reservations about the role of the British in India. But by then the damage had been done – in his public life, Syed Ahmed (like many others) had served British interests only too well.

    Like Sir Ahmed, Sir Ali Imam (b. 1869 in an aristocratic Patna family), Sir Muhammad Shafi (b. 1869 in an extremely wealthy landed family with holdings throughout Punjab) and Rahimatulla Mohammed Sayani (b.1847) were other prominent loyalists who played an important propagandist role in defending the empire. Lauded for his great services to the \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’Raj\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’ by Lord Harding, Ali Imam (who eventually became a judge in the Patna High Court) tried to obscure the contradictions between the Indian masses and the colonial administration by projecting Indian nationalism as being entirely compatible with loyalty to the British Sovereign and pride in the British Empire.

    Muhammad Shafi attempted to argue that British and Indian interests were \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”similiar\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”. Even as Shafi championed the cause of reforms in the British administration of India, he emphasized \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”India\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s fidelity to the Empire\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\” adding that the empire was \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”Our Common Heritage\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”To my own countrymen I appeal with equal earnestness to recognize that our British fellow-subjects in India have as permanent an interest in her future well-being as ourselves, and are entitled to play, a leading part in her constitutional development. Let us realize that in their co-operation and good-will for India\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s regeneration lies our sure and certain success along the path of constitutional development. We too, should cast aside all distrust and, imbued with a feeling of mutual confidence, meet the British elements in this country more than half way. In union lies strength and with Indo-British union there is no height to which India may not rise.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\” (Quoted from the concluding portion of a series of articles published in the Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore – Eminent Mussalmans, p222)

    The trend towards loyalism culminated in the persona of the Aga Khan (Sir Sultan Mhd. Shah, b. 1875, Karachi) who aggressively championed allegiance to the British in all it\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s war efforts (whether in Europe, South Africa or elsewhere), even stating that \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”If they will only give me the opportunity, I will shed my last drop of blood for the British Empire\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”.

    Continuing in the vein of Sir Syed Ahmed, the Aga Khan developed Muslim sectarian and separatist ideas much further by calling for the creation of the All India Muslim League as a political counter-weight and foil to the Congress. He also argued for the establishment of a University that would cater exclusively to the nation\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s Muslims. In deepening divisions between India\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s Hindus and Muslims, the Aga Khan could not have served the interests of the British Empire any better and was justly rewarded with great accolades in the British Press and royal circles.

    However, not all eminent Muslims adopted a separatist approach. Badruddin Tyabji (b. 1844), who became President of the Indian National Congress in 1887 won the support of Indian industrialists when he argued against the abolition of import duties on cotton goods in 1879. A liberal reformer, he encouraged modern education for India\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s Muslims, and the lifting of Purdah for Muslim women when he became Secretary (and later President) of the Anjuman-i-Islam in Bombay in 1880 . In 1883, he campaigned to seek equal rank for Indians employed in British-run Indian administrative services.

    Tyabji was succeeded by Sir Pherozeshah Mehta (b. 1845) who headed the Congress in 1889. Like Tyabji, Pherozeshah Mehta also fought for equality for Indians in the colonial administration, and resisted European domination of the Indian University system, taking up the cudgels against Lord Curzon (who had won the editorial backing of the pro-colonial Times of India in his attempts at furthering the British domination of the Indian education system). Yet, Pherozeshah Mehta also repeatedly expressed his opposition to more radical nationalism and strived hard to keep the Congress on a loyalist track. The election of Mohd. Sayani (who had previously stayed aloof from the Congress) as President in 1896 underlined the loyalist hold on the Congress.

    Sayani had been an ardent admirer of the British, and criticized those who distrusted their motives and presence in India. In a passionate speech defending the British presence in India, he argued that \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”a more honest or steady nation does not exist under the sun than this English nation\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”. At a time when India was reeling from famines induced by British policies in India, he defended British Rule, describing it as generally based on \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”law and sympathy\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”, and having given India \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”peace\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”. Sayani also harbored the illusion that English capital would modernize and industrialize India, and make Indians prosperous, but in fact, the Indian economy experienced zero growth in the first half of the 20th century, and the flow of capital from England to India was never more than a trickle. (Quotes taken from a speech delivered during discussion of the Financial Statement of 1898-99).

    But throughout this period, it was Pherozeshah Mehta who became the main rallying point for loyalists in the Congress. Mehta led the charge in humiliating and isolating the more uncompromising nationalist currents. Most onerous was his diatribe against the young nationalist, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, whom he described as a dangerous \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”extremist\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\”. In his attacks against Tilak, Mehta won the endorsement of the Times of India (who saw in Tilak, a serious threat to the cult of loyalism, and assiduously campaigned for the Congress to remain on the loyalist track). In 1910, in a key speech to Congress cadres, Mehta affirmed the loyalty of the Congress to British rule . The British were naturally appreciative of Mehta\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s politics, and duly rewarded him with knighthood. Although Mehta\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\’s strong opposition to Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal was not entirely popular within the Congress, the Congress remained generally wedded to the creed of loyalism, and only moderates such as Gokhale were able to find an influential voice within it.

    Gokhale epitomized the Congress leaders that emerged between 1895 and 1920. Acutely aware of the economic devastation that colonial rule had brought to the nation, they nevertheless repeatedly expressed their fidelity to the British – struggling only for political reforms and greater self-government within the empire.

    However, during the years of 1905-1908, there was an intense struggle for the soul of the Indian National Congress, with leaders like Tilak (and others such as Ajit Singh in Punjab and Chidambaram Pillay) fighting hard to intensify the struggle against British colonial domination.

  8. chupe le lo

    On October 15, 2010 at 12:04 pm


    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982.
    The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto, was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman.
    Initially, several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the Games. Despite these concerns, all members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the Games. A widely-praised opening ceremony helped improve the image of the games.[2][3] The concerns which were raised during the buildup to the Games were largely eclipsed by strong performance by Indian athletes, smooth running of the sporting events and a “spectacular” closing ceremony.[4][5][6] At the closing ceremony, the president of the Commonwealth Games Federation declared that Delhi had hosted a “truly exceptional Games”.
    The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3

  9. denis

    On January 19, 2011 at 9:08 am


    i am just concerned about kohinoor
    i dont like britishers & still have haterate for britishers………………………..

  10. N Prasad

    On April 3, 2011 at 3:16 am


    Although the British never used violence to the extent that the Spaniards did in there colonies, many countries, and there ‘indigenous’ people have suffered under the oppression of the British, Because of them, I myself have never had actually been to my motherland India, or met many of my long-lost family, who still reside there.
    So really, its not just bitter-history… alot of poeple are still, and will be for a long time, bitter about the British [raj].

  11. Amit parashar

    On May 25, 2011 at 2:53 am


    British empire committed a lot of atrocities on Indians and looted a lot of Indian wealth, they knew Indians will stand against their tyrannical empire and they will have to leave India.

    Establishing FREEMASONRY in India was one of their exit strategies to continue ruling Indian politics even after the fake Indian independence.

  12. Neo Hilter

    On July 5, 2011 at 5:48 am


    British Rule was the Golden Era in the History of India

    1. British put an end to Muslim rule in Delhi, Bengal, Hyderabad and Mysore, where Hindus were being killed at the rate of half-million million per year.
    2. British gave an equitable justice system that enlightened and reformed people. Before that there was only barbaric Islamic law under which non-Muslims have no rights. Or there was caste-based law under which only some castes have rights.
    3. British made available the modern education to all beginning in 1800. Hindu education was limited to Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. Hindus picked up the Modern education faster than Muslims. This left Muslims mudheads backward.
    4. British developed modern industrial infrastructure like roads, railways, bridges, buildings, industries, etc.
    5. Due better healthcare and trade per capita income as well as population of India started rising after 1800.
    6. In 1857 to 1860, Muslims were their main target, and British executed 200000 (this figure they admitted) Imams and 1 million Islamic criminals. Only 1 lakh Hindus were killed. Under Muslim rule abduction of Hindu women by Moslems was a common feature [Moslems used to keep non-Muslims as concubbines].
    7. Even though British used take away raw materials like iron, coal, cotton, etc. the general bureaucracy and administration are said to relatively corruption free.
    8. Without the British rule, by this time, 90% in India would have been muzzie-beastts with beards.

  13. shivansh

    On July 22, 2011 at 9:44 am


    british were theives they looted money of estimating 1 trillion dollars they were also cheeters they dont have the strength to fight free and fair so they used tricks to conquer india and looted it

  14. Andy

    On August 12, 2011 at 8:07 am


    The classic double standard!

    “All Indians are terriorists” OUTRAGE!

    “All British are theives” Fine?

    The decisions about how a country conducts its affairs is controlled by less than 0.5% of the population. Do you really think the general public of the time even knew where India even was!

    As a Brit living today, i obey the law, respect my neighbours, and pay my way. Im not prepared to be blamed for the actions of the dead. People need to worry more about how they live their own lives and stop blaming the past or everyone else for their problems.

  15. Asian

    On August 19, 2011 at 12:59 am


    Talking of double standards , the British who live in a world of hypocrisy and brag have set a very good example for double standards .

    Example:

    Dalhousie’s doctrine of lapse (if a kingdom does not have a male heir , the kingdom will belong to EIC) . If this stupid law was to be applied , why did EIC allow Victoria become the queen they should have applied that stupid doctrine there too and made Britain a property of EIC .

    In all , the British economy relied on organized banditry for nearly four centuries . When the call centers and IT Boom in far east has started to give services for a cheaper price , there British try to run amok accusing far eastern countries of trying to sabotage their economy.

    The British should understand the ancient far east principle , “Thou shall be paid back in the same coin Thou paid” , which their heavily egoistic and hypocrisy afflicted brains will never understand .

    British should rather be teaching double standards , treachery and organized banditry as University courses in Cambridge and Oxford to improve their economy from a possible meltdown.

  16. Shelley Kasli

    On December 27, 2011 at 4:45 am


    Globalisation is not a universal and secular creed…
    It’s just a hangover from the Colonial Era.

    In its day, the company occupied and manipulated the interstices of a truly global economy. Tea from China was bought with opium from India; Indian and later British textiles (made from cotton grown in India) purchased slaves in west Africa, who were sold in the Americas for gold and silver, which was invested in England, where the sugar harvested by the slaves ensured a booming market for the tea from China. The big winners sat in the City of London. The more numerous losers could be found in every corner of the globe.

    - Mike Marqusee

    The Opium foundations of the BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF INDIA

    https://www.facebook.com/notes/india-for-sale/the-opium-foundations-of-the-banking-institutions-of-india/296603783691292

  17. BS

    On March 15, 2012 at 9:42 pm


    BRITISH looted, raped and subjugated Hindus.

    http://eau.sagepub.com/content/14/1/79.abstract

  18. Mike Veliath

    On April 20, 2012 at 10:34 am


    Youre argument that the Industrial Revolution was financed by India is very badly thought out, as most great inventions of the time were by lone peoples who had no ties or access to any of the wealth Britain got through business accument with India. And if India truely financed the revolution then how was it able to spread to France and Germany so quick, neither of them had Indias wealth yet managed to achieve it, thus voiding this whole argument. Britain gives India millions upon millions every year to help develop the country (something they also did massively when they were there – who else would build a country the worlds third biggest railway system?)
    Britain has already paid back vast amounts, argumably much more than was ever acquired through business.
    Lets look at ex members of the British empire, USA, Canada, AUS, India, notice anything? Yes they are all the worlds most successful regions on average.

  19. Graham

    On August 17, 2012 at 7:18 am


    If this garbage were true shouldn’t someone be asking the question – how did 300 million Indian people allowed themselves to be so exploited by about 20 thousand British and an equal number of military personnel. Perhaps the Indians were sheep, or little fluffy kittens – or complete morons to allow this to happen.

    Or more likely, this is a load of bullshit. Indians were willing participants, and many exploited their people unmercifully, especially poor people – just as they do today, and grew extremely rich in the process. The British Empire was a trading empire. You might just as well suggest an Indian shopkeeper who buys goods at 10 rupees and sell them at 12 is a looter.

    Still, such stories make a good excuse for the fact that India still has a third of the world’s poorest people, and has a thoroughly exploitative culture tainted with corruption from top to bottom.

    On the whole, a silly, badly researched, biased article that has little basis in reality.

  20. Priyanka

    On October 20, 2012 at 7:25 pm


    ‘How so many Indians allowed themselves to be so exploited’, India always used to be a place comprised of so many different religions, languages, cultures, beliefs under one roof. Its not at all easy managing such a massive diversity satisfactorily, so thats an acceptable fact. Due to the same India was always open to all possible open threats of getting exploited by an outsider, having such evil vision and intentions in the history. Thankfully India is one now and credit for this goes to britishers, as they gave us a reason to unite to ask them to leave our country. You see, cleverness is the quality of a trader doing plain simple business, but thieves are mastered with such inborn assets such as making people fool. Museums in france still depicts the story very well that how infested were the europeans with poverty and hunger before beginning their world wide loot; it was this time that they mastered the skills of murdering, looting and cheating people, so as to survive….. it used to be basically a big ‘Ghetto’ and breeding ground for people who created a sham company called east India company to conduct their global business of cheating people at mass scale.
    If clean business is what is called to provoke people on the name of religion, bribery, divide and rule policies then this is what the great britishers have done during their long ‘global business trip’. Only thing was the fact that every other person or nation who had trusted them and let them perform their business became an absolute looser. Tell me, does this happen in the real business situation, until and unless the other party is an absolute ‘moron’. The word is the trust and respect which a person gives to another when somebody comes to his door for simple plain business. Hitting someone’s vulnerable points on the name of business so much that it starts bleeding heavily, and then run over with all his possessions, calling them your business lottery, and then calling the poor guy a third world creature. Hey, come on who made him the poor, and its whose money upon which you have covered your real characters and calling yourself as ‘civilized first world people’.
    The britishers build train system, tax system, and every other thing in india so as to control and further exploit the already devastated indian slaves for eternity in an organized manner; at-least that is what they have thought off. But Hitler gave a lot more damage to britishers then what they had ever expected. After world war-II in the chaotic atmosphere, they got decided to concentrate re-building their economy and hence left india.
    The once precious gems carved massive structures of the ‘Red Fort’, situated at Old Delhi (India) and so many others, still are standing as an evidence of the open house loot, the east india company has done (sorry, please call it Business) and the britishers are flourishing upon and declared themselves the first world citizens. Not only the wealth the british have looted but they had destroyed indian medicine science Ayurveda, education system and replicated their own worded systems, specifically been designed to extract revenue benefits from the inferior slave population. Oh come on mate, its all-right, you are clean, we are only talking about the history.
    Good thing is being a third world country, with so much bad done and given, India is growing and has learnt to beat dodgy people in their own grounds and to do ‘Business’ with thieves cautiously.

  21. Sahil Khan

    On November 26, 2012 at 7:12 am


    It is a nice and helpful site but not too deep.

  22. Prashanth Bharadwaj

    On November 28, 2012 at 7:02 am


    Says who? I ( not only me, All youths of this generation, who were born Indians in free India) hate them to the core from bottom of the heart and not afraid to say so. the so called proud british does not deserve any thing for which they are proud of because none of them actually belong to them, nor were earned by them. Osama bin laden and his family- are billionares. They earned their wealth by doing business and the other ladens still do. He was said to be a certified civil engineer and was noted for his brillient presence of mind, but he was only regarded a terrorists and never regarded anything beyond, and was not even respected as a human in majority countries.
    So were the Brits. They are even worse. Originally pirates stealing was in their blood for a centuries before they came to india. When they could not find enough sailers to loot they started to sail to other countries and started looting for surrvival and thats how they entered. Fearing they would not be allowed inside India if they said they were thiefs and pirates, they used the word trade and they said they were Traders who have come to do business.
    After getting permission to enter they setteled in calcutta and established a small town for them. After quite some time they did not even produce or trade even a single product ( Since till then they never had any single technology, or a idea or even a little investment) the then Moghul Emperor Aurengazieb after realising they dont have neither the means nor the capacity to do any business ( cause all that they did till then was stealing) summoned them to leave. When they were forced to leave they came to know the wealth, and resources of India and the capacity of that country to sponsor the whold world they decided to get back to India after the Moghul’s fall and do the only thing they could properly do – to Loot, steal and organised a systhematic plunder of wealth, gold, diamonds and resources and the restis history..

    We are quite now not because we think Brits are superior or rich or even techlly and milittarily strong or effective, it is because what they are now is not thir Originallitty It is merely accumulation resources of gold, wealth and silver and money they looted, stole mainly from India. And the only possible way to replace the resources once they get drained would be another invation and occupation and establish another British Empire and another colonial era for atleast 1 century must be maintained.

    And to replace the huge, large wealth they possess now is possible only if they have either China or India as their colony, which is not possible at all even at this stage, cause it would not be a British Dream, but a Nightmaire. It is now noted that The British Reserves for a third decade in a row is eroding and now the rate of decline is likely to increase year after year. And so it is inevitable that one fine day they will be back to square 1, to their rightfull and original place in this world, and at the same time India ( and China) would have surpassed every other nation becaquse both India and China have the means, and resources (mainly due to area and population) to relinquish the consumed resources because of huge area the natural resources will re occur in much faster phase when compared to any nation in the world.. So why waste time, money and resource to use it against Britan when they themself are inevitable to be killed themselfs…

  23. Prashanth Bharadwaj

    On November 28, 2012 at 7:02 am


    Says who? I ( not only me, All youths of this generation, who were born Indians in free India) hate them to the core from bottom of the heart and not afraid to say so. the so called proud british does not deserve any thing for which they are proud of because none of them actually belong to them, nor were earned by them. Osama bin laden and his family- are billionares. They earned their wealth by doing business and the other ladens still do. He was said to be a certified civil engineer and was noted for his brillient presence of mind, but he was only regarded a terrorists and never regarded anything beyond, and was not even respected as a human in majority countries.
    So were the Brits. They are even worse. Originally pirates stealing was in their blood for a centuries before they came to india. When they could not find enough sailers to loot they started to sail to other countries and started looting for surrvival and thats how they entered. Fearing they would not be allowed inside India if they said they were thiefs and pirates, they used the word trade and they said they were Traders who have come to do business.
    After getting permission to enter they setteled in calcutta and established a small town for them. After quite some time they did not even produce or trade even a single product ( Since till then they never had any single technology, or a idea or even a little investment) the then Moghul Emperor Aurengazieb after realising they dont have neither the means nor the capacity to do any business ( cause all that they did till then was stealing) summoned them to leave. When they were forced to leave they came to know the wealth, and resources of India and the capacity of that country to sponsor the whold world they decided to get back to India after the Moghul’s fall and do the only thing they could properly do – to Loot, steal and organised a systhematic plunder of wealth, gold, diamonds and resources and the restis history..

    We are quite now not because we think Brits are superior or rich or even techlly and milittarily strong or effective, it is because what they are now is not thir Originallitty It is merely accumulation resources of gold, wealth and silver and money they looted, stole mainly from India. And the only possible way to replace the resources once they get drained would be another invation and occupation and establish another British Empire and another colonial era for atleast 1 century must be maintained.

    And to replace the huge, large wealth they possess now is possible only if they have either China or India as their colony, which is not possible at all even at this stage, cause it would not be a British Dream, but a Nightmaire. It is now noted that The British Reserves for a third decade in a row is eroding and now the rate of decline is likely to increase year after year. And so it is inevitable that one fine day they will be back to square 1, to their rightfull and original place in this world, and at the same time India ( and China) would have surpassed every other nation becaquse both India and China have the means, and resources (mainly due to area and population) to relinquish the consumed resources because of huge area the natural resources will re occur in much faster phase when compared to any nation in the world.. So why waste time, money and resource to use it against Britan when they themself are inevitable to be killed themselfs…

  24. Prashanth Bharadwaj

    On November 28, 2012 at 7:02 am


    Says who? I ( not only me, All youths of this generation, who were born Indians in free India) hate them to the core from bottom of the heart and not afraid to say so. the so called proud british does not deserve any thing for which they are proud of because none of them actually belong to them, nor were earned by them. Osama bin laden and his family- are billionares. They earned their wealth by doing business and the other ladens still do. He was said to be a certified civil engineer and was noted for his brillient presence of mind, but he was only regarded a terrorists and never regarded anything beyond, and was not even respected as a human in majority countries.
    So were the Brits. They are even worse. Originally pirates stealing was in their blood for a centuries before they came to india. When they could not find enough sailers to loot they started to sail to other countries and started looting for surrvival and thats how they entered. Fearing they would not be allowed inside India if they said they were thiefs and pirates, they used the word trade and they said they were Traders who have come to do business.
    After getting permission to enter they setteled in calcutta and established a small town for them. After quite some time they did not even produce or trade even a single product ( Since till then they never had any single technology, or a idea or even a little investment) the then Moghul Emperor Aurengazieb after realising they dont have neither the means nor the capacity to do any business ( cause all that they did till then was stealing) summoned them to leave. When they were forced to leave they came to know the wealth, and resources of India and the capacity of that country to sponsor the whold world they decided to get back to India after the Moghul’s fall and do the only thing they could properly do – to Loot, steal and organised a systhematic plunder of wealth, gold, diamonds and resources and the restis history..

    We are quite now not because we think Brits are superior or rich or even techlly and milittarily strong or effective, it is because what they are now is not thir Originallitty It is merely accumulation resources of gold, wealth and silver and money they looted, stole mainly from India. And the only possible way to replace the resources once they get drained would be another invation and occupation and establish another British Empire and another colonial era for atleast 1 century must be maintained.

    And to replace the huge, large wealth they possess now is possible only if they have either China or India as their colony, which is not possible at all even at this stage, cause it would not be a British Dream, but a Nightmaire. It is now noted that The British Reserves for a third decade in a row is eroding and now the rate of decline is likely to increase year after year. And so it is inevitable that one fine day they will be back to square 1, to their rightfull and original place in this world, and at the same time India ( and China) would have surpassed every other nation becaquse both India and China have the means, and resources (mainly due to area and population) to relinquish the consumed resources because of huge area the natural resources will re occur in much faster phase when compared to any nation in the world.. So why waste time, money and resource to use it against Britan when they themself are inevitable to be killed themselfs…

  25. Prashanth Bharadwaj

    On November 28, 2012 at 7:02 am


    Says who? I ( not only me, All youths of this generation, who were born Indians in free India) hate them to the core from bottom of the heart and not afraid to say so. the so called proud british does not deserve any thing for which they are proud of because none of them actually belong to them, nor were earned by them. Osama bin laden and his family- are billionares. They earned their wealth by doing business and the other ladens still do. He was said to be a certified civil engineer and was noted for his brillient presence of mind, but he was only regarded a terrorists and never regarded anything beyond, and was not even respected as a human in majority countries.
    So were the Brits. They are even worse. Originally pirates stealing was in their blood for a centuries before they came to india. When they could not find enough sailers to loot they started to sail to other countries and started looting for surrvival and thats how they entered. Fearing they would not be allowed inside India if they said they were thiefs and pirates, they used the word trade and they said they were Traders who have come to do business.
    After getting permission to enter they setteled in calcutta and established a small town for them. After quite some time they did not even produce or trade even a single product ( Since till then they never had any single technology, or a idea or even a little investment) the then Moghul Emperor Aurengazieb after realising they dont have neither the means nor the capacity to do any business ( cause all that they did till then was stealing) summoned them to leave. When they were forced to leave they came to know the wealth, and resources of India and the capacity of that country to sponsor the whold world they decided to get back to India after the Moghul’s fall and do the only thing they could properly do – to Loot, steal and organised a systhematic plunder of wealth, gold, diamonds and resources and the restis history..

    We are quite now not because we think Brits are superior or rich or even techlly and milittarily strong or effective, it is because what they are now is not thir Originallitty It is merely accumulation resources of gold, wealth and silver and money they looted, stole mainly from India. And the only possible way to replace the resources once they get drained would be another invation and occupation and establish another British Empire and another colonial era for atleast 1 century must be maintained.

    And to replace the huge, large wealth they possess now is possible only if they have either China or India as their colony, which is not possible at all even at this stage, cause it would not be a British Dream, but a Nightmaire. It is now noted that The British Reserves for a third decade in a row is eroding and now the rate of decline is likely to increase year after year. And so it is inevitable that one fine day they will be back to square 1, to their rightfull and original place in this world, and at the same time India ( and China) would have surpassed every other nation becaquse both India and China have the means, and resources (mainly due to area and population) to relinquish the consumed resources because of huge area the natural resources will re occur in much faster phase when compared to any nation in the world.. So why waste time, money and resource to use it against Britan when they themself are inevitable to be killed themselfs…

  26. Prashanth Bharadwaj

    On November 28, 2012 at 7:02 am


    Says who? I ( not only me, All youths of this generation, who were born Indians in free India) hate them to the core from bottom of the heart and not afraid to say so. the so called proud british does not deserve any thing for which they are proud of because none of them actually belong to them, nor were earned by them. Osama bin laden and his family- are billionares. They earned their wealth by doing business and the other ladens still do. He was said to be a certified civil engineer and was noted for his brillient presence of mind, but he was only regarded a terrorists and never regarded anything beyond, and was not even respected as a human in majority countries.
    So were the Brits. They are even worse. Originally pirates stealing was in their blood for a centuries before they came to india. When they could not find enough sailers to loot they started to sail to other countries and started looting for surrvival and thats how they entered. Fearing they would not be allowed inside India if they said they were thiefs and pirates, they used the word trade and they said they were Traders who have come to do business.
    After getting permission to enter they setteled in calcutta and established a small town for them. After quite some time they did not even produce or trade even a single product ( Since till then they never had any single technology, or a idea or even a little investment) the then Moghul Emperor Aurengazieb after realising they dont have neither the means nor the capacity to do any business ( cause all that they did till then was stealing) summoned them to leave. When they were forced to leave they came to know the wealth, and resources of India and the capacity of that country to sponsor the whold world they decided to get back to India after the Moghul’s fall and do the only thing they could properly do – to Loot, steal and organised a systhematic plunder of wealth, gold, diamonds and resources and the restis history..

    We are quite now not because we think Brits are superior or rich or even techlly and milittarily strong or effective, it is because what they are now is not thir Originallitty It is merely accumulation resources of gold, wealth and silver and money they looted, stole mainly from India. And the only possible way to replace the resources once they get drained would be another invation and occupation and establish another British Empire and another colonial era for atleast 1 century must be maintained.

    And to replace the huge, large wealth they possess now is possible only if they have either China or India as their colony, which is not possible at all even at this stage, cause it would not be a British Dream, but a Nightmaire. It is now noted that The British Reserves for a third decade in a row is eroding and now the rate of decline is likely to increase year after year. And so it is inevitable that one fine day they will be back to square 1, to their rightfull and original place in this world, and at the same time India ( and China) would have surpassed every other nation becaquse both India and China have the means, and resources (mainly due to area and population) to relinquish the consumed resources because of huge area the natural resources will re occur in much faster phase when compared to any nation in the world.. So why waste time, money and resource to use it against Britan when they themself are inevitable to be killed themselfs…

  27. Prashanth Bharadwaj

    On November 28, 2012 at 7:02 am


    Says who? I ( not only me, All youths of this generation, who were born Indians in free India) hate them to the core from bottom of the heart and not afraid to say so. the so called proud british does not deserve any thing for which they are proud of because none of them actually belong to them, nor were earned by them. Osama bin laden and his family- are billionares. They earned their wealth by doing business and the other ladens still do. He was said to be a certified civil engineer and was noted for his brillient presence of mind, but he was only regarded a terrorists and never regarded anything beyond, and was not even respected as a human in majority countries.
    So were the Brits. They are even worse. Originally pirates stealing was in their blood for a centuries before they came to india. When they could not find enough sailers to loot they started to sail to other countries and started looting for surrvival and thats how they entered. Fearing they would not be allowed inside India if they said they were thiefs and pirates, they used the word trade and they said they were Traders who have come to do business.
    After getting permission to enter they setteled in calcutta and established a small town for them. After quite some time they did not even produce or trade even a single product ( Since till then they never had any single technology, or a idea or even a little investment) the then Moghul Emperor Aurengazieb after realising they dont have neither the means nor the capacity to do any business ( cause all that they did till then was stealing) summoned them to leave. When they were forced to leave they came to know the wealth, and resources of India and the capacity of that country to sponsor the whold world they decided to get back to India after the Moghul’s fall and do the only thing they could properly do – to Loot, steal and organised a systhematic plunder of wealth, gold, diamonds and resources and the restis history..

    We are quite now not because we think Brits are superior or rich or even techlly and milittarily strong or effective, it is because what they are now is not thir Originallitty It is merely accumulation resources of gold, wealth and silver and money they looted, stole mainly from India. And the only possible way to replace the resources once they get drained would be another invation and occupation and establish another British Empire and another colonial era for atleast 1 century must be maintained.

    And to replace the huge, large wealth they possess now is possible only if they have either China or India as their colony, which is not possible at all even at this stage, cause it would not be a British Dream, but a Nightmaire. It is now noted that The British Reserves for a third decade in a row is eroding and now the rate of decline is likely to increase year after year. And so it is inevitable that one fine day they will be back to square 1, to their rightfull and original place in this world, and at the same time India ( and China) would have surpassed every other nation becaquse both India and China have the means, and resources (mainly due to area and population) to relinquish the consumed resources because of huge area the natural resources will re occur in much faster phase when compared to any nation in the world.. So why waste time, money and resource to use it against Britan when they themself are inevitable to be killed themselfs…

  28. sandeep david

    On January 23, 2013 at 3:21 pm


    the problem is with the indian history text books. they did not give a nuetral opinion of the british rule in india, never did they make mention of the good things the british did. So these stupid indian youth think that what they read in those text books is true..In my opinion the british did absolute justice and never in history could we find such a fair-minded people.

  29. Jayeshkumar Roy

    On March 22, 2013 at 6:35 pm


    Lets hope the Indian People realise all this happened because the
    British played the age old trick of divide and conquer. And made fools
    of Hindus and Muslims and Punjabis etc etc.

    They all still playing this trick today with South Korea
    and North Korea etc etc.

    I’m a Gujerati born in the UK, now a Jehovahs Witness because through
    research I have found the Bible New World Translation to be the TRUE
    GODS WORD. I have found all the hindu scriptures to be false.

    And we a closely running out of time, the Bible shows we are moving
    towards the end. Do a free Bible Study in India with Jehovah’s Witnesses, do your own research and then make your own mind up of TRUE or FALSE.

    Bible supported by Historical facts and archaelogy, Hindu Scriptures supported by nothing just myths
    and legends made up, by satan the great deciever.

    Who has seen the living God, that has made an idol of him, no one, in fact the bible states god hates idol worship. Is any man/woman clean enough to perform puja? I mean clean in every sense, i do not thing so. Please USE YOUR BRAINS people. THINK and be saved for the end is near, only those who believe in Gods Son Jesus, who was sent to die for us all, so we may have life. If you believe in this then you will be saved and also doing God’s will.

    Do you know what that is ? its defintely not praying to idols and then raping women on buses i can assure you? Sorry for the harsh words but its TRUE.

    Yours Truthfully, Jayesh Roy

Post Comment
Powered by Powered by Triond
-->