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# The Study of Age-structured Populations: Results

## The results from a study of human demography.

The net reproductive rate for individuals of both genders that lived in the 19th century was 8.01 offspring, the generation time was 27.71 years and the estimated intrinsic rate of increase was 0.075 individuals/individual/year as seen in Table 1. The net reproductive rate for individuals of both genders that lived in the 20th century was 8.54 offspring, the generation time was 31.22 years and the estimated intrinsic rate of increase was 0.06 individuals/individual/year as seen in Table 2. The net reproductive rate for males in the 19th and 20th centuries combined was 7.25 offspring, the generation time was 29.41 years and the estimated intrinsic rate of increase was 0.067 individuals/individual/year as seen in Table 3. The net reproductive rate for females in the 19th and 20th centuries combined was 7.30 offspring, the generation time was 29.33 years and the estimated intrinsic rate of increase was 0.068 individuals/individual/year as seen in Table 4.

 Total Data Age Class # Died Number Alive Birth Schedule survivorship schedule survival probability Age at death x SX b(x) l(x) g(x) l(x)b(x) l(x)b(x)x 0 0 232 0 1.00 0.95 0.00 0.00 0.1-9 9 11 221 0 0.95 0.98 0.00 0.00 10-19 19 4 217 2 0.94 0.94 1.87 35.54 20-29 29 12 205 6 0.88 0.95 5.30 153.75 30-39 39 10 195 1 0.84 0.90 0.84 32.78 40-49 49 19 176 0 0.76 0.78 0.00 0.00 50-59 59 39 137 0 0.59 0.69 0.00 0.00 60-69 69 42 95 0 0.41 0.45 0.00 0.00 70-79 79 52 43 0 0.19 0.28 0.00 0.00 80-89 89 31 12 0 0.05 0.25 0.00 0.00 90-99 99 9 3 0 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 100-109 109 3 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 SUM= 232 R0= 8.0129 222.0733 offspring G 27.7144 years r(est) 0.0751 indiv/indiv/yr

Table 1. A life table for individuals that lived in the 19th century with genders combined and with the net reproductive rate, generation time, and the estimated intrinsic rate of increase.

 Total Data Age Class # Died Number Alive Birth Schedule survivorship schedule survival probability Age at death x SX b(x) l(x) g(x) l(x)b(x) l(x)b(x)x 0 0 217 0.00 1.00 0.91 0.00 0.00 0.1-9 9 19 198 0.00 0.91 0.94 0.00 0.00 10-19 19 12 186 1.00 0.86 0.98 0.86 16.29 20-29 29 3 183 4.00 0.84 0.91 3.37 97.82 30-39 39 16 167 3.00 0.77 0.91 2.31 90.04 40-49 49 15 152 0.00 0.70 0.88 0.00 0.00 50-59 59 18 134 0.00 0.62 0.73 0.00 0.00 60-69 69 36 98 0.00 0.45 0.58 0.00 0.00 70-79 79 41 57 0.00 0.26 0.30 0.00 0.00 80-89 89 40 17 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 90-99 99 17 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100-109 109 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 SUM= 217 R0= 6.5392 204.1521 offspring G 31.2199 years r(est) 0.0601 indiv/indiv/yr

Table 2. A life table for individuals that lived in the 20th century with genders combined and with the net reproductive rate, generation time, and the estimated intrinsic rate of increase.

 Total Data Age Class # Died Number Alive Birth Schedule survivorship schedule survival probability Age at death x SX b(x) l(x) g(x) l(x)b(x) l(x)b(x)x 0 0 220 0.00 1.00 0.92 0.00 0.00 0.1-9 9 17 203 0.00 0.92 0.96 0.00 0.00 10-19 19 9 194 1.50 0.88 0.98 1.32 25.13 20-29 29 4 190 5.00 0.86 0.94 4.32 125.23 30-39 39 12 178 2.00 0.81 0.87 1.62 63.11 40-49 49 24 154 0.00 0.70 0.77 0.00 0.00 50-59 59 35 119 0.00 0.54 0.62 0.00 0.00 60-69 69 45 74 0.00 0.34 0.39 0.00 0.00 70-79 79 45 29 0.00 0.13 0.28 0.00 0.00 80-89 89 21 8 0.00 0.04 0.13 0.00 0.00 90-99 99 7 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100-109 109 1 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 SUM= 220 R0= 7.2591 213.4682 offspring G 29.4070 years r(est) 0.0674 indiv/indiv/yr

Table 3. A life table for males with centuries combined and with the net reproductive rate, generation time, and the estimated intrinsic rate of increase.

 Total Data Age Class # Died Number Alive Birth Schedule survivorship schedule survival probability Age at death x SX b(x) l(x) g(x) l(x)b(x) l(x)b(x)x 0 0.00 229.00 0.00 1.00 0.94 0.00 0.00 0.1-9 9 13.00 216.00 0.00 0.94 0.97 0.00 0.00 10-19 19 7.00 209.00 1.50 0.91 0.95 1.37 26.01 20-29 29 11.00 198.00 5.00 0.86 0.93 4.32 125.37 30-39 39 14.00 184.00 2.00 0.80 0.95 1.61 62.67 40-49 49 10.00 174.00 0.00 0.76 0.87 0.00 0.00 50-59 59 22.00 152.00 0.00 0.66 0.78 0.00 0.00 60-69 69 33.00 119.00 0.00 0.52 0.60 0.00 0.00 70-79 79 48.00 71.00 0.00 0.31 0.30 0.00 0.00 80-89 89 50.00 21.00 0.00 0.09 0.10 0.00 0.00 90-99 99 19.00 2.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 100-109 109 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 SUM= 229.00 R0= 7.2991 214.0546 offspring G 29.3261 years r(est) 0.0678 indiv/indiv/yr

Table 4. A life table for females with centuries combined and with the net reproductive rate, generation time, and the estimated intrinsic rate of increase.

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Introduction

Methods

Survivorship

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