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Henretta’s American History Chapter Two Notes

These are book notes for Henretta’s American History.

CHAPTER 2: THE INVASION AND SETTLEMENT OF NORTH AMERICA, 1550-1700

 

THE RIVAL IMPERIAL MODELS OF SPAIN, FRANCE, AND HOLLAND

 

            New Spain: Colonization and Conversion

                       

§  Southern and western U.S.

§  Francisco Coronado discovered Grand Canyon, Pueblo natives, and Kansas grassland (he was searching for gold)

§  Hernán de Soto invaded southeast, including Florida + Alabama, but found no gold

§  French protestants settles in Florida, massacred by Spanish

§  Spanish establish Fort St. Augustine, first permanent settlement

§  Other settlements and Jesuits wiped out by natives

  •  
    •  Franciscans

§  Spain then focuses on Christianizing natives with Franciscan missions

§  Missionaries wiped out Indian culture with force (had support from Spanish soldiers)

§  Prevented polygamy (marriage to multiple wives)

§  Forced labor of natives, usually broke Spanish laws for natives

§  More forceful and violent than Jesuits

  •  
    •  Pueblo revolt

§  Pueblos lost faith in Christianity because of diseases

§  Resisted a Spanish expedition, were severely destroyed

§  Spain then established Santa Fe and continue to reduce Pueblo population

§  Popé, a shaman, organized a rebellion, tried to remove influences of Christianity

§  Eventually agreed with Spanish to defend settlements from Natives in exchange for no forced labor and freedom of religion

§  Intermarry with Spanish and make mestizo children

 

            New France: Furs, Souls, and Warfare

 

§  Jacques Cartier claimed land on Gulf of Saint Lawrence

§  Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec as a fur trading post, struggled because of too few inhabitants

§  Most people like Huguenots and peasants were prohibited from migrating, others did not like it and left

§  People such as Jacques Marquette and Robert la Salle search for sources of fur, travel south down Mississippi to Louisiana.

§  New Orleans established 1718

  •  
    • Iroquois

§  Lots of deaths from diseases and bartering of guns

§  Iroquois travel south and use guns to fight other tribes

§  Raids and attacks destroyed tribes, such as the Hurons

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