Sukhoi – IL-28.
Work on the establishment of IL-28 SV Ilyushin began after the completion of Il-22/Il-24 in volunteering at a time when KB ANTupolev has built front-line bomber (later called the Tu-14), the official Air Force orders. Comparative analysis of various options for the defensive armament of bombers showed that with only one rear gun installation in conjunction with the relevant maneuver the aircraft can effectively repel the attacks of modern fighter aircraft from the back of the hemisphere and to ensure the protection of the machine. Creation of the first in the USSR dvuhpushechnoy electro-stern installation IL-K6 and identified key layout features of the IL-28.
She embodied the positive features of the KU-W and CG-4 and has been deprived of their shortcomings. Installation Il-K6 was firing angles of 70 ° left and right, 40 ° down and 60 ° upward. In normal operation, the drive arms moved at a speed of 15-17 ° per second, and in extreme mode – at speeds up to 36 ° per second. Drive power Il-K6 ensure its effective use in flight speed of more than 1000 km / h. With profound combat effectiveness Il-K6 had a relatively small weight (340 kg) and maximum external moment 170 kgm. Compared with her stern installation B-29 bombers and Tu-4 had a significantly lower firing angles (30 ° right and left, and 30 ° up and down), their maximum external moment was equal to 50 kgm, while the mass of the mass Tower Il-K6 almost 50 kg. Later a tower IL-K6 installed on other domestic flights.
The adopted scheme of defensive arms and the crew allowed to drastically reduce the geometric dimensions of the IL-28 compared with IL-22: a new plane was nearly 3.5 meters shorter, and the area of its wings fell to 13.7 sq.m. Accordingly, reduced weight and airframe, which allowed to use a power plant of two turbojet “Rolls Royse Nene”. From TR-1 are mainly characterized by high reliability and 25-30% lower specific fuel consumption, however, and had a significant disadvantage – more midship. The latter, as well as the desire of designers to remove the maximum air intakes of engines from the ground surface to prevent suction of foreign objects with unpaved runways led to the abandonment of pylon placement of engines and to install them in the nacelles, tightly pressed to the bottom surface of the wing. To obtain the necessary alignment engines configured in the anterior parts of the engine nacelles. The large diameter centrifugal compressor and a relatively small diameter of the exhaust nozzle of the turbojet engines enable relatively easy to solve, and another, very important for front-line bomber problem associated with the provision of broad gauge and cleaning of the main landing gear legs with larger wheels. Fastened to the force’s nacelles a frame rack with a simple mechanism, first used by another attack aircraft IL-10, in the process of harvesting is rotated 90 °, and the wheels fit in the flat space behind the compressor under the exhaust pipe.
The crew was placed in a pressurized cabin, with the pilot and navigator for emergency escape vehicles can benefit ejector seats up. Landing gear has been optimized for use on unpaved runways. To reduce takeoff designers should consider the possibility of using two solid-fuel boosters SGP-1500-15 draft and 1600 kg and the time of 13 seconds, discharged after the separation of the aircraft from the ground. IL-28 was equipped with the most effective at the time the air-heat the PIC and the latest set of air navigation and radio equipment: autopilot AP-5, ARC-5 compass, radio altimeters high and low altitudes, systems ‘blind’ approach GSP-48, and then SP-50, the defendant gosopoznavaniya, command and liaison stations.
Draft Project Il-28 Ilyushin approved January 12, 1948, and already 8 July 1948 by test pilot VK Kokkinaki raised in the first flight of the Il-28, equipped with two turbojet “Rolls Royse Nene”. December 30, 1948 the factory began testing IL-28 with serial domestic engines RD-45F – license version of the English engine. But the destiny of the plane was delayed until May 14, 1949, when it was decided the Council of Ministers to increase the flight speed of the IL-28 to 900 km / h through the installation of more powerful engines, VC-1 with a takeoff thrust of 2,700 kgf. Within three months, August 8, 1949 first flew on IL-28 with engines VC-1. In just six years of production in the USSR (1949-1955 gg.) Was built 6316 IL-28 of various modifications at the three largest aircraft factory: № 30 in Moscow (the head), № 64 in Voronezh, and the number 166 in Omsk.
Simultaneously with the IL-28 were tested by experienced bombers “73″ and “78″. According to the Veterans EDB, AN Tupolev, seeing for the first time in the parking lot the IL-28, asked the experts who worked on the plane: “And whose is the illegitimate child?” After a careful inspection of the car, got acquainted with its data and after a long time pronounced something to their employees. Indeed, the desire of the creators of “73″ and 78 “to keep these aircraft defensive armament scheme piston TU-2 led to an unjustified increase in the number of mobile firing points and, accordingly, to increase the crew size of the aircraft, increasing its weight, complexity of the power plant. Subsequently, these machines have been modified to “81″ with one cannon fodder plant and the main crew of three.
IL-28 are widely spread outside the USSR. They consisted, or consist of up to now on the Air Force or Navy Afghanistan, Algeria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, East Germany, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Yemen, China, Korea, Morocco, Nigeria, Poland, Romania, Syria, Somalia, Finland, Czechoslovakia . The planes were built in series in China and Czechoslovakia (under the designation B-228). In the 50’s. significant amount of IL-28 was delivered to China, including the torpedo-armed torpedo FAT-52. Following the deterioration of relations between the USSR and the PRC in the aircraft factory in Harbin, was organized by the repair of IL-28, as well as manufacturing spare parts for them. Since 1964 there began the serial production of the bomber, the Air Force received the designation of China H-5 (Harbin-5). The first production machine flew in April 1967 in September the same year was created variant H-5 – medium tactical nuclear weapons. His first test with the disposal of nuclear bombs was held Dec. 27, 1968 was mastered serial production and training and fotorazvedyvatelnoy (HZ-5) modifications of the H-5. China was second after the Soviet Power in the number of park IL-28. All versions of the aircraft is in service with China and now. China actively exported H-5 in other countries.
Lead engineer for testing IL-28 was VN Bugajski, later chief designer of aircraft missile. Since participation in the development of working drawings of the aircraft started his career GV Novozhilov, the current General Designer of the AK. SV Ilyushin. For creation of IL-28 SV Ilyushin Design Bureau and a group of designers has been awarded the Stalin Prize.
Codename NATO designation – Beagle (Hound).
Modification of aircraft:
Il-28U: trainer version of the bomber. Its conceptual design was approved by the Ilyushin 14 October 1949, a total of five months, March 18, 1950, VK Kokkinaki plane lifted into the air. At the Il-28U cockpit instructor was organized on-site cabin navigator. The pilots of the regiment under the command of Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel AA Anpilova less than a month at Il-28U mastered the aircraft, and May 1, 1950 military IL-28 for the first time took part in an air parade on Red Square in Moscow. The very same Il-28U for the first time “lit up” on the celebration of Day of aviation in Tushino in 1951. The aircraft was adopted by the Soviet Air Force and was built at the factory serial number 30 in Moscow. Codename NATO designation – Mascot (Mascot).
IL-28R: reconnaissance aircraft designed to perform tactical and operational air reconnaissance in the interests of fronts, armies, navies and air. The first test of the aircraft complied with VK Kokkinaki April 19, 1950 Zvodskie tests were completed at the end of June 1950, and after successful completion of state testing the aircraft was adopted by the Air Force. His first production was maximized at the factory number 30 in Moscow, but in 1953 they began to build a plant number 39 in Irkutsk, before producing torpedo bombers Tu-14.
The equipment consisted of a day photographing three AFA-33 with a focal length of 100, 75, 20 cm and an AFA-RB for the route, planned and future surveys. Night photography is provided by two aero-Nafa-3c and a set of flares, which could include FOTAB-100-60, FOTAB-50-35, SAB-100-55 and SAB-100-35. The equipment housed in the bomb bay in the automatic sweep installation AKAFU and special fotootseke in the rear fuselage. Containers aerial cameras warmed with warm air, selected from a heating and pressurization of the cockpit.
In response to increased to 22720 kg maximum takeoff weight of the size of the main pillars of the wheels has been increased. Instead of placing on the serial bomber air cleaning systems and landing gear on the IL-28R was applied hydraulic system, thereby dramatically reducing the time of the operation – up to 8 sec. Was a system for promotion of the wheels main pillars in the air before landing. Of the two nose guns were left, one on the left side. When you fly over the sea in the middle of the fuselage of the IL-28R could be placed lifeboat LAS-3, which was carried out by removing control from the cockpit or aft gunner.
Further development of the IL-28R have electronic reconnaissance aircraft, aerial cameras which have been replaced by a special radio equipment. Distinguishing feature of these machines were the radome under the central part of the fuselage.
The development of radar detection demanded inclusion in the military formations of bombers electronic warfare aircraft. On the basis of IL-28 such machines were created by the installation in the bomb bay of equipment to disperse chaff or production of active interference. Refinement aircraft was carried out on remzavodah.
IL-28t: Torpedo. In 1950-51 gg. in the EDB was designed, built and tested a prototype torpedo IL-28t. Its main difference from the bomber was to increase the length of the bomb bay from 4270 mm to 6430 mm, which could now be suspended serial torpedoes and mines: one torpedo 36ANU types 45, 45, 36AV, TAC, PAT; one mine type “Hammer” , AMD-1000, etc. Aiming at low torpedo was carried out with the help of sight IVC-45, the lower part of which extends beyond the contour of the fuselage and closed spherical fairing. With minor alterations of IL-28t can be used as a bomber with a bomb load as a serial machine. Increasing the length and placement of bomb bay in the fuselage and rescue boats LAS-3 identified a decrease in capacity of the internal fuel tanks, and to preserve the old flight range IL-28t equipped PTB on wingtips. IL-28t successfully passed the factory and state tests, but the series is not built. The reason – too long debugging torpedo 45-36MAN, which was put into service only in 1956 under the designation 45-56NT. In addition, even new dimensions of bomb bay IL-28t not allow it to increase the number of torpedoes FAT-52 on the inside of the suspension.
It was decided to equip the Il-28 maritime aircraft exterior racks DB-4 on the sides of the fuselage. They IL-28 (also received a code “T”) could be for three torpedoes PAT-52: one for internal suspension and two outside. When using steam-torpedo aircraft could carry two torpedoes type 45-56NT on the outside of the suspension. At outdoor holders could hang mines AMD-500. Testing of the aircraft ended only in 1955 was expected to convert to the versions of some of the Il-28 maritime aircraft, but this was not done – torpedo variants of IL-28 in the second half of the 50’s. ceased to satisfy the requirements of the fleet, and in 1956 it was decided to re-mine and torpedo aircraft of Tu-16.
IL-28PL: When the office of IL-28 in naval aviation was drawing to a close, at the Baltic Fleet aircraft 769-th mine-torpedo Regiment (MTAP) fitted out as an antisubmarine torpedo AT-1. Machines received the designation IL-28PL. Successful adaptations to admit it was impossible, because the duration of the flight was quite sufficient for anti-submarine warfare. It was expected that these aircraft will operate on a call. Considering a proposal for a similar aircraft modernization of two regiments of the Baltic, but this did not happen.
IL-28SH: Forward. Relatively small combat load of fighter-bombers of the time forced the military experts refer to the idea of attack aircraft based on Il-28. It was decided to place weapons on pylons under the wing, even at the expense of flight data. In the spring of 1967, even before the famous “Six Day War in the Middle East, have been prepared for such an option TTT IL-28. In accordance with the modified aircraft was supposed to have on average the same depth of hostilities, as the Su-7, but surpass it by the number of lesions by 2-3 times.
IL-28, equipped with underwing pylons for suspension of various weapons, intended to action from low altitudes on the accumulations of manpower and equipment of the enemy, as well as a single small targets such as rocket launchers, tanks, etc. Under the wing of the aircraft pylons set 12 (at 6 under each console), which were suspended: 12 blocks UB-16-57, or 6 heavy NAR C-24, or hanging cannon gondolas, or cluster munitions and aerial bombs.
State testing of this option, sometimes referred to as IL-28SH, were launched in autumn 1967 to assess test, the aircraft could be recommended for assault action with small and extremely low altitudes. Despite the relatively close installing pylons on both sides of engine air intakes, the volley firing 192-name NAR-5, or six C-24 at all proven in testing the flight envelope to work the power plant did not influence. (It should be noted that the launch of C-24 with MiG-27 and Su-25 caused the instability of their engines with axial compressors up to stop that at one time restricted the combat capabilities of these aircraft).
The advantage of the aircraft were a good view from the cockpit crew members and the possibility of combat with unpaved runways. Speed of IL-28SH to a height of 200 m was limited to 660 km / h, fuel consumption in flight near the ground increased by 30-50%. Tactical radius of action with a load of twelve UB-16 was 295 km. Preparing aircraft for combat flight did not exceed 4 h. However, due to lack of armor protection of the crew and vital systems, but also because the established means of salvation did not provide emergency escape vehicles at extremely low altitudes, it was recognized that the plane was not in fully meets the requirements of the attack aircraft, and work on it in the OKB stopped.
Il-28LL: Flying Laboratory. In 1952, at the conclusion of a radar station “Sokol” (designed in SRI-17, the chief designers AB Slepushkin and GM Kunyavskii), designed for advanced two-seat fighter-interceptor Yak-120 (in a series of Yak-25, later was equipped with radar “Sokol”, received the designation RP-6) and La-200, it was necessary to her working out on a real airplane. While La-200 had been crafted under the placement station, thus making the La-200B, SA Lavochkin proposed to continue fine-tuning “Falcon” in the normal configuration on the machine the middle class. The choice fell on fulfills all requirements of the IL-28. To place the operator at the station and the aircraft was cut off the nose of the cabin on the navigator. The design of the bow had to be strengthened, because at a fair arm was to hang a station vesivshuyu almost half a ton.
At a specially-equipped “twenty-eighths” conducted extensive research to simulate the complex equipment and gear for the first manned flight into space. In particular, the Il-28U were conducted flight test and perfecting the catapult device and system recovery astronaut spaceship “Vostok”.
Il-28ZA: Zondirovschik atmosphere. Modification of the IL-28 for meteorological research in the atmosphere.
IL-28P: Zip. As part of the Soviet IL-28 was prepared for the needs of the GVF. They dismantled weapons and sighting equipment except PSBN. The aircraft had the designation IL-20 or IL-28P. They have been trained pilots, technicians and support staff of various ground services for the operation of jet aircraft, and the end of 1954 Aeroflot crews began regular service on those machines, mail and cargo.
IL-28C: Continuing work to improve the IL-28, the Bureau has developed a project to equip the new engines VC-5, and swept wings.