India achieved her Independence through non-violence movement for which even after Independence India made minimum expenditure in defense budget. But after Chinese aggression in 1962 and subsequent Pakistan’s attempt of invasion in 1965 and 1971 apart from the aggression of 1948 in Kashmir, India increased the defense expenditure and to day India is one of the largest Arm Force in Asia.
1. The Indian Armed Force and its Function:
The Indian Armed Forces is a unified military of the Union of India comprising the Indian Army, the Indian Air Force, the Indian Navy and various other paramilitary forces. The total troop strength of the Indian army is around 2.5 million involving active 1.3 million and 1.2 million reserves. It is the second largest standing army in the world. The present Chief of Army Staff is General Deepak Kapoor assisted by his deputy Lt Gen Noble Thamburaj. Maintaining of peace, security within the country, patrolling boarders and conducting counter terrorist operations are the primary objective of the Indian Army. Beside these Army also conducts rescue and humanitarian operations during calamities and disturbances. The Indian Army doctrine defines the role of the Indian Army as – (i) Primary Role: Preserve national interests and safeguard sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of India against any external threats by deterrence or by waging war. (ii) Secondary Role: Assist Government agencies to cope with ‘proxy war’ and other internal threats and provide aid to civil authority when requisitioned for the purpose. At the time of independence of India in 1947, the British Indian Army was divided into two parts to serve the newly formed nations of Union of India and Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Almost immediately after independence, tensions between India and Pakistan began to grow in regard to princely state Kashmir and that led to three full-scale wars between the two nations in year 1947, 1965 and 1971 respectively. Indian army participated in UN peace keeping operations in different places of the world with pride and reputation. The Indian Army participated in the operation of the inclusion of Hyderabad in 1948 and Goa, Daman and Diu operation in 1961 and faced the Chinese aggression in 1962. [ India's Surface to Surface Nuclear Missile]
http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2008/11/12/article-1084999-0272CE03000005DC-64_468×323.jpg [ Surface to Surface Nuclear Missile}
2. Netaji Subhas Bose and Indian National Army(INA):
INA (Indian National Army), who fought against British force during Second World War to liberate India, formed under the guidance of Netaji Subhas Bose but its veterans were not allowed to join the Indian Army after India’s independence in August 1947. Even then within India, INA continued to have a strong hold over the public psyche till as late as 1947.