10 Signs a Spirit Uses to Communicate with You

  1. Lights Flickering

    This is one of the most common signs. Spirits have the ability to interfere with light and electricity just because they are pure energy. I’m not saying that EVERY single time a light bulb flickers at home means that a spirit is around you, but if you check the bulb or the switch and everything seems to be fine and you can’t find an explainable reason, then is very possible there’s a spirit around you.

  2. Appliances Turning On and Off

    Again, the spirits are pure energy and they can manipulate electronic appliances as well, such as the TV, radio, microwave oven, etc. Most of the times they want to make you aware that they’re there and want your attention. If your TV turns on for no apparent reason, try to decode the reason behind it…what show or channel is on? Is it perhaps the favorite show your grandfather used to watch before passing away? Is the radio playing your grandma’s favorite old song?

  3. Chills or Cold Spots

    Sometimes you are in your room, reading a book or chatting online, and suddenly, you feel an awkward chill on the back of your neck, or you get sudden goose bumps through your arms even though is 70o. Degrees. Most of the people have experienced something similar at least once in their lifetimes and the reason of these phenomena is that spirits do not release heat because in fact they absorb it. As everybody knows, heat is energy in movement, and when spirits absorb it they leave a cold spot instead. They use that energy to move and perhaps, to turn on your TV.

  4. Dreams

    Perhaps this is the universal media through which spirits send you messages. But how do you know if that dream about you and your death relative was a real conversation or just the product of your subconscious? In fact, there are a few characteristics you should analyze after having a spiritual dream: It should be vivid
    It should be in color, not black and white or grayish
    It should be chronological or at least with a logical sequence It should have some sort of message with words, telepathy, or physical
    It should have left you confused, happy, peaceful or even fearful

  5. The Feeling of Being Watched

    A lot of us have felt this one! All of us have the ability to pick up spiritual energy once in while, especially when we are relaxed. You may ask, how to tell if this feeling is real or just a suggestive fear? Just ask yourself: Am I feeling this because I don’t like to be alone? Or is it because I recently watched something scary on TV? Remember that our mind play tricks on us very often. If the feeling of being watched came out of the blue, while you were singing, reading a book or just concentrated in something totally unrelated, then be sure that you are not alone!

  6. Voices

    A lot of times people have heard voices calling their names, laughing or chatter. This is very possible but very rare. Indeed, when people hear this voices in an unexplainable circumstance, they attribute them to ghosts. In this case let me make a distinction between a ghost and a spirit. A ghost is an entity that hasn’t cross over to the other side, while a spirit has done so. A spirit can come to the earth to visit relatives and gives us messages, which can also be heard through our ears, but as I said, these cases are rare. On the other hand, a ghost doesn’t know is dead or they can’t cross over because of unfinished business, and they can also try to communicate with you in a rather disturbing manner.

  7. Symbols

    Unfortunately this is the sign we pay less attention to. Spirits try to communicate with us in every unimaginable manner, and by using symbols they are sending us a message without scaring us. Have you ever seen a flying bird that suddenly reminds you of a friend you lost in your childhood? Or perhaps, you found an exact copy of a book at the bookstore that your grandmother used to read to you? What about that toy you thought was lost that your father gave you one Christmas? All of these are examples of symbols our spirits use to let us know… Hey, I’m watching over you!

  8. Scents

    This is another sign that can be confusing. We always keep memories about how our deceased relatives used to smell, perhaps of a distinctive colony or perfume they liked, or even because of a specific activity they performed. I’ve heard many stories where people are doing something and suddenly they smell that particular perfume, or cigarette odor. If your death relative used to work with cars and out of the blue you smell car oil, don’t be scared and say hi!

  9. Moving objects

    Spirits can have the energy to move an object in front of our eyes. However this is rather rare since they don’t want to scare us. This phenomenon is more attributed to ghosts. But many times spirits will do so if they have something important to tell us, especially if we are experiencing a rough time in our lives. Even though you may not see the actual movement, things can appear in different places the next morning or disappear from it usual location. Think about the actual meaning of that object to you, and how can it relate to your deceased relative.

  10. Apparitions

    Apparitions can be really scary, especially because of the context how movies portray them. Spirits don’t want to scare us, but sometimes they’ll appear to us to give us peace. When we see people we don’t know, there can be two possible explanations. It is a ghost or it is an angel, but that’s another story. Ghosts usually appear to scare us or at least to let us know they’re there. Angels appear to us to protect us. When a death relative appears to you, don’t be scared and try to talk to him/her. But don’t worry, since this sign is the rarest, rest assured that you won’t see a complete apparition, however don’t underestimate those “corner of the eye shadows”, because most of the times, it wasn’t your imagination.

Assorted End of The World Prophecies and Theories Reviewed

There are many predictions according to which on 21st December 2012 the world will end. This date is supposed to mark the end of a cycle of the Mesoamerican long count calendar which is claimed to be almost a 5125 years old cycle. Some people translate the significance of this date differently and say this date will mark the beginning of some changes and transformations. They think that Earth and its inhabitants will go through positive spiritual and physical evolution. This date is pretty much open to different interpretations, some say it will mark the end of the world others say it will mark a fresh start.
There are several concepts about how the end of the world will occur. Some advocate the concept that a plant called ‘Planet X’ or Niburu will collide with the Earth and will destroy the Earth and therefore cause the end of the planet. Originally this event was forecast to happen in the year 2003 but was then ignored because it did not occur in 2003. By the year 2012 the activity of sun is also predicted to increase. The sunspots might increase which will cause a serious rise in the temperature of the Earth’s surface. Nostradamus, who was a very famous clairvoyant, also foretold that the end of the planet will happen in December 2012. Lots of Nostradamus’s predictions have been proven right till now and plenty still have not occurred.

An Indian Guru, Guru Kaliki Bhagavan has promoted throughout the country that 2012 will be the end of the Kal Yug. Kal is AKA the degenerate age. Thousands of people accept that Guru Kalki Bhagavan is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. He has said that in 2012 the human species will be enlightened spiritually.

The magnetic poles of Earth are shifting continuously. It has been recorded that the North Pole is shifting towards Siberia. Due to this shifting of the magnetic poles severe changes in climate are happening. The shifting of the magnetic poles is causing in the magnetic flux which in its turn is also causing the liquefying of ice caps. The melting of ice caps is normally accredited to only global temperature increases but the change in magnetic flux is one more reason which is causing the ice to melt. The changing magnetic flux is also causing a large amount of magma activity. This magma activity is causing the motion of tectonic plates which is increasing the frequency of quakes. The Bible scriptures say that a war will happen in the middle east and something will occur which will melt the flesh. This may be translated to be a holocaust due to a nuclear bomb. Also in the Book of Revelation it is written that mountains will become valleys and valleys will become mountains. Conditions of serious cold will triumph and there’ll be starvation.

These days there are a number of catastrophes all around the globe. There are famines and droughts all over. These events can be regarded as a sign of the end of the planet which is coming.

Eight Most Notable Unsuccessful Attempts to Kill Hitler

The 2008 Tom Cruise movie “Valkrie” tells a story on how a military conspirational group led by Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg planned to assassinate German dictator and fascist Adolf Hitler. This attempt was not the first plot to kill Hitler. Here are some of the most notable plots.

The 2008 Tom Cruise movie “Valkrie” tells a story on how a military conspirational group led by Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg planned to assassinate German dictator and fascist Adolf Hitler. This attempt was not the first plot to kill Hitler. According to National Geographic, there were 42 discovered plots to kill Hitler and none was successful. Here are some of the most notable plots.

Maurice Bavaud (Munich, 9th November 1938)

Eight Most Notable Unsuccessful Attempts to Kill Hitler
Maurice Bavaud

 
Being a Swiss Roman Chatolic citizen and having attended Saint Ilan Seminary in Brittany France, Bavaud believed that Hitler was a thread to mankind and most importantly to Chatolic church in Switzerland and Germany. Bavaud became obsessed with the idea of killing Hitler and planned to do the assassination himself.

Bavaud planned to shot Hitler when marching in a parade called “Reichskristallnactht” in the city of Munich on 9th November 1938 . By posing as a Swiss reporter, Bavaud managed to get a VIP seat. Unexpectedly, Hitler changed his marching position to the far end of the street instead of in the middle. Bavaud tried to pull out his gun from inside his pocket but just when Hitler marched past him, the entire bystander reached out their arms for the Hittler’s salute, thus hindering Bavaud from taking the shot. But even if he made the shot, it would have failed anyway since the distance between him and Hitler was too wide to make the shot deadly.

After his first failure, Bavaud tried to follow Hittler’s move in order to get close enough to him. His attempts were never successful. Finally he ran out of money and took a train trip to Paris without buying ticket. The conductor turned him over to the police. Upon the discovery of the gun amongst Bavaud’s belonging, the police turned him over to the Gestapo. Swiss government had done nothing to save him. On 14th May 1941, Bavaud was beheaded by guillotine.

 Georg Elser, (Burberbraukeller, Munich, 8th November 1939)

Eight Most Notable Unsuccessful Attempts to Kill Hitler
Georg Elser

Image via DamnInteresting

Elser was a German citizen who was afraid that Hitler would bring devastation to Germany. He had no religious motive, instead he mainly concerned about labour issues. Elser despised restricted worker’s freedom, poor working condition and low wages. His skill as carpenter and previous working experience in a watch factory gave him the ability to build a wooden time bomb.

Elser planned to assassinate Hitler when giving annual speech in Burberbraukeller, a large beer hall in Munich, which was one of the gathering places of Nazi Party. Elser got this idea when he was attending the 1938’s Nazi gathering in that place and noted that the event was poorly guarded. In November 1938 Elser came to Munich and managed to stay inside Burberbraukeller. Every night he crawled into a hollow space behind a column where Hitler would give his speech. His bomb was so carefully made. Until today it is still consider a work of art. On 5th November 1939, the 50 kg bomb was completely installed. Elser set the bomb to explode at 21.20 on 8 November 1839.

Unexpectedly, in the last moment, Hitler decided to take late night train to get back to Berlin as Munich Airport was closed due to bad weather. Consequently he had to end his speech at 21.07. Thirteen minutes earlier than anticipated. At exactly 21.20 the bomb exploded killing 8 people and injuring more than 60 others. Elser’s assassination plan that would have changed history was failed. At the time of explosion, Elser was already on his way to Switzerland. He was arrested by the police when trying to cross the border. Elser was transferred to Munich and interrogated by Gestapo. He finally confessed. He was shot to death in 1945 only three weeks before the end of war in Dachau concentration camp.

Polish Army (Warsaw 5th October 1939)

In September 1939 Hitler’s troops invaded Poland. Polish Army, however, managed to continue their underground activity during the war. The underground army planned to assassinate Hitler during a Victory parade in Warsaw by planting a bomb in Square Charles de Gaulles. The bomb failed to explode.

Soviet Inteligence (1940s)

Eight Most Notable Unsuccessful Attempts to Kill Hitler
Olga Checkova

Image source : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olga_Chekhova

The soviet recruited Olga Checkova, a Russian-born actress who fled to and gain recognition in Berlin, as spy. Checkova was recruited due to her good relationship with Hitler. Soviet intelligence asked Checkova to introduce Hitler to two assassins. The plan was abandoned when the Russian started to win the war.

Foxley Operation (1944)

Eight Most Notable Unsuccessful Attempts to Kill Hitler
Hitler’s Berghof.

Image source : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berghof_(Hitler)

British Government through its Special Operation Executive (SOE) also planned to assassinate Hitler. The SOE first planned to put bombs in train that Hitler travelled in. This plan was abandoned because Hitler’s train schedule was never predictable and too irregular. The second plan was to poison Hitler’s food and beverage while he was travelling by train. Once again, this plan was abandoned as the SOE would require an inside man. The third plan which was considered the most acceptable was to assign a sniper to shot Hitler.

From a prisoner of war who had been part of Hitler’s security guard, the SOE obtained information of Hitler activities at the Berghof, a vocational place regularly visited by Hitler. It was revealed that at 10 AM everyday, Hitler would take his private walk around the woods, unguarded and out of sight of sentry posts. A Nazi flag visible from a nearby café was put up every time Hitler was there. The SOE planned to send 2 men wearing a German uniform by parachute into the area surrounding the compound.

Although Churhill favored the plan, not all SOE’s executive supported it. Many still believed that with the war almost over, it would not be a good idea to assassinate Hitler. Killing Hitler would make him sort of a martyr to some Germans and Nazism would probably live on. No decision was reached and the plan was never executed.

Henning Von Tresckow (1941 – 1944)

Eight Most Notable Unsuccessful Attempts to Kill Hitler
Henning Von Tresckow

Image source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henning_von_Tresckow

Tresckow came from a Prussian noble family with long military tradition. He didn’t like the cruelty shown by Hitler’s regime in particular when Hitler started the mass shooting towards Jewish woman and children. Tresckow made numerous attempts to kill Hitler from 1941 – 1944.

In August 1941, Tresckow and his cousin Schlabrendroff planned to kidnap Hitler when travelling to Heeresgruppe Mitte. The plan failed because of high security. On March 1943 Tresckow concealed a plastic bomb in a package purportedly contained cognac bottles and tried to place it in Hitler’s Condor plane. The bomb failed to explode because the luggage compartment where the package was located was not heated. The low temperature had prevented the bomb from detonating. Schlabrendroff retrieved the package from the plane to prevent the discovery of the plot. A week after this failed plot, Tresckow made another attempt to blow Hitler. This time, the execution of the plan was on the hand of Gersdorff, Tresckow’s friend and ally.

Rudolf von Gersdorff (March 1943)

Gersdorff intended to do a suicide bombing. He carried 8 ounces C2 bomb and hide it in his pocket. He was a tour guide when Hitler visited Zeughaus Berlin to inspect Soviet captured weapons. His plan was to throw himself around Hitler after Hitler made his speech and blew the bomb that would surely kill them both. The bomb was set to explode within 10 minutes after the detonator was activated. Unexpectedly, Hitler ended the tour sooner than expected. Probably because he felt Gersdorff,s anxiety. Gersdorff managed to diffuse the bomb in a public lavatory. He evaded suspicion and become one of few German Military anti Hitler plotter who survive the war.

Claus Von Stauffenberg (20 July 1944)

Eight Most Notable Unsuccessful Attempts to Kill Hitler
Claus Von Stauffenberg

Image source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henning_von_Tresckow
Born into an aristocrat Catholic family; Stauffenberg felt uneasy towards Hitler’s ill-treatment of Jews. Finally, his personal sense of justice and religious morality made him turn against Hitler.

Stauffenberg named his assassination plan “Valkrie Operation”. This is perhaps the most famous plot to kill Hitler. Stauffenberg planned to conceal two bombs in a briefcase and put it in the briefing room in Wolfsschanze, one of Nazi’s Headquarters, when Hitler held a meeting there on 20 July 1944.Because there was not enough time to arm the second bomb before the meeting began, only one bomb was successfully carried into the briefing room. Stauffenberg placed the briefcase as close as possible to Hittler and hurriedly excused himself. Unexpectedly, after his exit from the room, Colonel Brandt moved the briefcase away from its intended position.

The bomb exploded. Stauffenberg watched the explosion and convinced himself that no one could have survived the blast. He was wrong. He was in Berlin to initiate a military coup against Nazi’s leaders when he heard the news that Hitler suffered only minor injury. Scientist believes that the existence of windows on the walls of the meeting room had reduced the power of explosion. Moreover, the wrong placement of the bomb caused a heavy and solid oak conference table to form a shield that protected Hitler. Modern computer simulation shows that if only the second bomb were also used, the blast would have killed Hitler. Stauffenberg was shot to death.

Besides the above attempt, there are still numerous plots to kill Hitler, from bombing to poisoning. Although all have failed, it shows the world that not all German citizens or their military supported Hitler’s conduct and ideology.

Top 3 World’s Most Expensive Beer

    1. 1. Vielle Bon Secours:

      This tops the list of the world’s most expensive beer, costing around £500 (equivalent to around $1,000) per bottle or about £39 (equivalent to around $78) per pint. It can only be found in a bar called the Bierdrome in London.

 

  1. 2. Samuel Adams’ Utopias:

    This beer is brewed by the Boston Beer Company, using the brand name of Samuel Adam’s Utopias, named after one of the founding fathers of the USA. This comes second in the list of the world’s most expensive beer which costs around $100 per bottle (24 oz) or about $67 per pint, sold in copper bottles resembling the copper brewing kettles which are used by brewers for hundreds of years.

    Top 3 World’s Most Expensive Beer

    The alcohol content is 25%, making it the strongest beer in the world (listed in the Guinness Book of Records). The process of making this beverage can take up to 12 years, giving it the unique and rich flavors. It is said that the production was limited to 8,000 bottles per year.

  2. 3. Tutankhamen Brew:


    The recipe of this brew is prepared according to the recipe and brewing method discovered by a team of University of Cambridge archaeologists/Egyptologists in the Queen Nefertiti’s Temple of the Sun in Egypt. The brewery found in the corner of the said temple is believed to have been built by King Akhenaton who is King Tutankhamen’s father. This is also the place where King Akhenaton queen, Nefertiti worshiped.

     

    The archaeologists sought expert advice from Scottish and Newcastle Breweries, Edinburgh and the beer is brewed in the Cambridge laboratory, costing around $52 per bottle. The production is also limited and the edition is also numbered.

10 Signs You are Dating a Narcissist

There are degrees of narcissism. Some are more severe than others. Some are merely annoying egomaniacs. Others are axe murderers. But if you are in a relationship that has left you feeling frustrated and you’re not sure why, you may well be with a narcissist. Here are a few signs to watch for.

Narcissis, as many know, was the legendary character who fell in love with his own reflection. A narcissist is someone who, usually due to childhood trauma or over-doting parents, has become obsessed with himself. Some cases are so severe that the person becomes disconnected from reality and fails to maintain mutually beneficial relationships with other people.

I had a few indications that the guy I was dating was pretty self-centered, but frankly I didn’t think about it much. Then one day, I was at his house, standing beside him in the kitchen, and he was putting butter on a roll. He turned to walk away, taking a bite out of the roll, and left me standing there. At that time, we had only been dating a couple of months.

A big red flag went up. To me, it seemed abnormal to prepare the roll and eat it, while offering me nothing. This might not seem like a big deal, but it was combined with a couple of other things that gave me the first inkling that I was dating a narcissist.

My family is rife with narcissists, so I grew up thinking selfish behavior was normal. To this day (despite years of therapy) I display a high tolerance for self-centered people. As a result, I attract these relationships like a pair of black pants attracts cat hair.

There are degrees of narcissism. Some are more severe than others. Some are merely annoying egomaniacs. Others are axe murderers. But if you are in a relationship that has left you feeling frustrated and you’re not sure why, you may well be with a narcissist. Here are a few signs to watch for.

Lack of Empathy

Because a narcissist is, by definition, someone who is completely self-involved, he has little or no ability to perceive how someone else is feeling. Worse, when feelings are explained to him, he doesn’t care. It’s his feelings that matter. Understandably, this opens a Pandora’s Box of problems within relationships.

Social Ineptitude

Some narcissists can’t pay attention to what others are saying. My most recent one had a habit of walking away in the middle of a conversation, or lapsing off to watch T.V. while someone was talking to him. If I had anything to say to him, I always had to be careful there were no electronic distractions, such as T.V., radio, etc. I had the best luck with keeping my statements succinct. At a party, he would project his own thoughts, but never asked questions of others. As a result there was no give and take. “The conversation,” my brother said after meeting him the second time, “falls flat.”

Despite this, a narcissist is not necessarily a jackass in public. In fact, many of them have a meek and likeable public persona. This makes it very difficult to explain to others about the self-centered evil that lies within them. In fact, the duplicity can be so extreme that you can begin to question your own sanity. The narcissist, as one person put it, can seem, “like a werewolf”.

Delusions of Grandeur

 I attended a parade with a narci once, and he told me that he could picture himself being Grand Marshal one day. He hadn’t done anything remotely close to earning this honor, but he wasn’t kidding. Does your date exaggerate his achievements and accomplishments? Does he seem to build himself up? This is a common trait in Narci. If you feel he could use a big dose of humility, then this is one thing to watch for.

Requires Excessive Admiration

Narci is often quite good at fishing for compliments, and finding ways to get respect and admiration from those around him. Beware though, of a lack of reciprocity, which is mentioned below (see #10).

Sense of Entitlement

Whether it’s the best seat in a restaurant or the biggest slice of pie, Narci requires special treatment, and feels he deserves it. There may not seem to be any rational reason for why he should be first in line — he just always expects to be.

Preoccupied With Fantasies

Everyone has dreams. But Narci is obsessed with his own inner world. He has visions of unlimited success, power, brilliance or ideal love. He may engage you in the beginning, thinking you will help him fulfill these fantasies. As soon as he realizes you are flesh and blood, you become, basically, dog meat.

Exploitative

Narci has no hesitation about exploiting and manipulating the talents of others. Is there something he wants from you? Then he is probably being nice to you — for the time being.

Center of the Universe

Narci maintains an attitude that demonstrates the world revolves around him; and you must cater to his ideas, needs and desires. Most of us are happy to oblige someone these things. But Narci will keep taking from you without filling your well. And be forewarned, when the well runs dry, he will have no more use for you.

Withholding – Controlling

If a narcissist finds out what you like, he is sure to take it away from you. For instance, I told my most recent narci that I love going to the movies. Guess what happened? We never attended another one. I suspect this is more a “dog in the manger” thing than intentional cruelty. The narcissist does not want to be mean, necessarily. He just wants the world to revolve around him and his desires, his activities. If it is something you want, it isn’t something he wants, and therefore not worth his time.

Doesn’t Reciprocate

If you have made the horrible mistake of telling a narcissist you love him, beware. You will be punished. Because he is actually filled with self-loathing, Narci has contempt for those who love him.

This can be especially tough for people who have a generous nature. I like telling people I love them, and the compulsion is very strong when I feel that way. But the nicer and more generous you are to a narcissist, the more you will be rebuked. In this confusing and haphazard existence, a narcissist behaves best with those who set limits on him. Do not show any sign of vulnerability, because that gives him license for contempt.

You will find that none of your needs are met. You will receive no appreciation or gratitude for anything you do. You will never receive a compliment. You are a tool, a pawn, an object. Narcissus is not capable of any generosity of spirit. Sadly, he is incapable of the type of introspection necessary for change.

The bad news is, narcissists don’t change. Narci is stuck in his own universe, and his reality is completely different from ours. He is doomed to remain forever gazing at his own reflection, loving — and hating — only himself. Don’t hate the narcissist for being what he is. Educating him is fruitless because he simply lacks the capacity for self-examination. If anything, he deserves pity.

The good news is, because you have asked the question, you have the ability to save yourself. My advice is, “Run for your life!” Life is too short to be sacrificed for someone who won’t ever — who can’t ever — appreciate you.  Move on to better and brighter things.

Tiananmen Square 2

A Moral Fight to an Unreasonable End.

In 1989, the people of China were fighting the injustice of their communist government in Tiananmen Square. Their rights were being oppressed and they wanted the ability to run their own lives. The students at the protest had elected representatives to speak up against their communist leader. They wanted China to accept the reforms they protested for, but more than that they wanted the rest of the world to realize that China’s communist government was ruining the country. The protestors of Tiananmen Square used reasonable means of protesting to gain the rights that they did not have because they were never trying to harm anybody in their process of achieving freedom. To gain these liberties, the people protested together at Tiananmen Square, wrote petitions against the government, and went on a hunger strike.

The first way that the college students of China protested against their government was by gathering at Tiananmen Square. First, in April 17, 10,000 students had met up at Tiananmen Square to protest. This shows that so many people of China wanted a change in government and that the government was ruling unfairly. They were not trying to harm anybody by gathering together. They were only there to mourn for the death of Hu Yaobang and to protest for a democracy. Also, these students began to sing hymns that had lyrics that fought communism and promoted democracy. This portrays the fact that the people were so propelled by their beliefs of a need for democracy that they were compelled to sing out their feelings for a new government. Once again, they were not trying to kill anybody with their singing. They were only trying to let out their emotions to the world to let others know what they desired. Finally, the students carved out a giant statue that stood for liberty and democracy. This reinforces the fact that they wanted a democratic government because they were trying to mimic the Statue of Liberty to get the rest of the world and the US to notice their plea for a fair government. In the end, the government did notice their protesting, but the people of China did not gain anything out of it. They were only massacred later on for their insolence and betrayal against the government even though the students had not tried to harm anybody.

The second thing the students did was to make petitions and posters to protest against the government. Petitions are a moral way to call against the injustice of a nation because nobody is harmed in doing so. First, on the first day of the gathering at Tiananmen Square, the students immediately began to make a petition of demands that they wanted. It was a way to get the world to realize that so many people wanted a change in government. Second, the students began making posters and banners that called for freedom, democracy, and enlightenment. They hung them up on the imitation Statue of Liberty to attract the attention of the government. They also wanted the people of the world to see those banners and realize how badly the people of China wanted a democracy. Finally, on May 9, the students petitioned for the freedom to report the protest to the world. They wanted to tell everybody that the government was oppressing them. None these tactics worked because they angered the government and ended up being slaughtered in their own protesting grounds.

Finally, the students that were protesting went on a hunger strike. On May 13, the students began a hunger strike in order to get the government to meet with them. In a sense this was an unmoral tactic to force the government to notice them because they were risking human lives, but the end justifies the means and their reason for a hunger strike was moral. Then on May 14, the students were allowed to talk to the government leaders because the hunger strike convinced the government to talk with them. Unfortunately the negotiations failed and the students were left with nothing. They had a chance to make changes to China, but a stubborn Communist Government prevented them from doing so. Finally in May 18, Li Peng tried to stop the students from their strike, but the students won’t stop their protesting and the government prepared for martial law. The length of the hunger strike most definitely forced the government to take extreme means to stop the strike. After all, if the government let the people die from starving themselves, the international press would print bad reviews on China to the rest of the world. This means that the people of China brought the massacre upon themselves when they tried to protest by the means of a hunger strike.

The student protestors at Tiananmen Square were never trying to harm the government from the start because that would not have solved anything and that means that the protestors’ tactics of fighting for their cause was just. All three of their tactics to protest against their government were moral, but going on a hunger strike brought about their protest’s failure. The government could not afford the deaths of human lives that they would not be able to cover up later, so their final resort was to use martial law. Although the protestors used just ways of fighting, the government they were fighting only did whatever it could to stop the protesting.

Bibliography

Primary Sources

Chinoy, Mike. “Two Decades in the Heart of the Dragon: China Live.”

This book told me that on the students sang hymns to try to protest for a democracy (185), and that on April 17 the students began their petition of demands for the changes they wanted in their government (188). Also it told me that on May 9, the students tried to petition for the freedom to report about the protest to the world. And finally, it said that the students made posters and banners that had freedom, democracy, and enlightenment written on them (190).

Peng, Li. “Li Peng and Others Meet Representatives of the Fasting Students.” Tiananmen Chronology. 18 Dec. 2008 .

This site told me about all 3 of the specific examples on the tactic of hunger strike. It said that the people began a protest on May 13 to try to meet the government, that on May 14 the students talked to the government, and on May 18, Li Peng tried to stop the students’ hunger strike.

Secondary Sources

“‘History written in Blood.’” Hong Kong Alliance. 18 Dec. 2008 .

This site told me that on April 17, ten thousand students had gathered at Tiananmen Square to protest and that by April 18, there were tens of thousands of students there. Also, it told me that they had made an imitation Statue of Liberty to protest against their communist government.

Best Evidence for The Ancient Astronaut or Ancient Alien Theory

Do you believe in the Ancient Astronaut or sometimes called the Ancient Alien theory?  For anybody unfamiliar with this theory; it basically states that beings (aliens) came to Earth in the ancient past to help shape our society and brought us civilization as we know it today.  Humans that came into contact or witnessed these beings believed them to be Gods and ended up passing stories down every generation concerning the Gods from the sky.

So, do people seriously believe in this theory?  And what and where is the best evidence?  Ever since Eric Von Daniken’s book Chariots of the Gods was published almost 40 years ago, there have been hundreds of thousands (possibly millions) of people that really believe that at some point in our past we have been visited.  Von Daniken and many other authors have continued to write about these ancient astronauts and their books are always top sellers.  Even the History Channel has a 5 part series (possibly could go to 8 parts when finished) about Ancient Aliens coming to Earth.  So that sums up the popularity of the theory with the public but what about the evidence?  There are tons of things that people bring up as evidence for this theory but I am going to focus on some of the more popular ones here.  Below is a list of the best evidence so far with this theory………

1.)    Nazca Lines – Pictographs of living animals (even people) and insects, straight lines, and plants.  All of these pictographs can only be seen from flying over them. There even appears to be a runway.  Possibly for beings in spaceships?

2.)    Mahabharata and Ramyana – Ancient Indian Epics (poems) that talk about a great battle with men in flying machines and large powerful weapons.  Written over 2000 years ago.  Are they just a good story or did they witness something in the sky back then?

3.)    Ancient buildings and the construction of them.  Questions still remain on structures such as Stonehenge, the Great Pyramid and many South and Latin American sites on how they were built.  Many of these sites have proven to be as precise or even better than what we can do today. Seen below is PumaPunku.  Did these beings show us how to do this?

4.)    Small gold figurines found that closely resemble modern day aircraft.  Once again were these toys or someone’s imagination or possibly aircraft that these ancient people were witnessing?

5.)    Legends in every religion in the world describing Gods or holy people in flying machines, miraculous technology, and beings coming from the Sky.  Was it God or aliens though?

6.)    Cave art in Italy and Australia and others around the world that closely resembles a person with a suit on similar to what our modern astronauts wear.  Did these ancient people witness these beings from space in spacesuits?

7.)    Pictures in Egyptian hieroglyphics with what appears to be a helicopter, a plane, a rocket and even a light bulb.  How much technology did the Egyptians actually have and where did they learn it from?

So, there you have some of the best evidence to support the Ancient Astronaut theory.  I know this list is not complete and I could list many more things that support this theory but this does give you the general things that people look for to support it.  So, what is your decision on the theory?  One thing is for certain and that is, no matter if the theory is true or not, it has certainly caught everyone’s attention and will continue to be a hot topic for years to come……..

A Giant Awakes in Nantes

Nantes, the home town of Jules Verne, is situated in western France.  Here, near the river Loire a giant deep-sea diver sleeps gently, waiting for his task to begin.  Sadness marks his face even as he sleeps.  He has been searching the world over for his missing niece and although he may not know it, the end of his search is coming.  The diver or scaphandrier as he is known in French will be paraded through the streets of this historic city at the beginning of the Estuary 2009 arts festival.  The biannual festival gives the French mechanical marionette street theater company Royale de Luxe the opportunity to unveil their latest creation.

He wakes and his helmet is placed on his head by his human helpers. This would well be considered a little too high for many but the performers seem oblivious to the height.  Royale de Luxe was founded in 1979 and is actually based in Nantes, making this a return to the city that bore the company.  They have, however, performed all over the world, as far away as Chile and Australia.  You may remember the Sultan’s Elephant strolling through the streets of London in 2006.  An associate company, La Machine created last year’s spectacular ‘Princesse’ a massive visiting spider in Liverpool when in was European City of Culture.  Here, however, a giant returns home.

He rises, perhaps in the hope that his long quest will soon be over. The Giant, now equipped in deep sea diving gear and his little niece, the Little Giantess have featured in the works of the theatre company before.  However, they have been away for a while with some information about which the world had previously been unaware.  As with any Royale de Luxe performance there is a long and some would said drawn out back story.  In 1912 the Titanic went down to the bottom of the ocean.  Unknown to us, however, was that in its hold a giantess was held captive, the mother of the Little Giantess.

From a distance he looks small, but only if he were an ordinary person paying a visit to a Lego theme park.  As he steadies himself he can resume his long search.  The enormous diver is the scouring the earth for the Little Giantesse.  She was captured in Iceland which was at the time the home of the giants, each having his or her own particular task.  The Little Giantess was to wake up the geysers of Iceland when a message needed to be sent.  You may wonder what on earth geysers and messages have in common but little known to the outside world the geysers were used to transmit signals between the giants, much like the smoke signals of American natives.

The mechanics behind this piece of street art are staggering and more than a little scary.  How much the gentlemen forty meters above the ground are being paid is unknown but whatever it is, it is not enough.  But where does the deep-sea diver properly come in to the story?  He is the brother of the giantess who drowned on the Titanic.  Originally he had been busy doing his own job – sawing up icebergs – to realize that his sister and her daughter were missing.  His statistics are something extraordinary as well.  He stands at nine and a half meters and a width of almost three.  Weighing in at two and a half tones it takes thirty operators to control his movements.

In his past he has travelled the seabed for years and eventually he found the wreck of the Titanic.  He buried his sister near the sunken ship.  While there he discovered a mysterious box full of mail from the Titanic.  He now had two new goals in life – the task of finding his niece and to deliver the mail.  Since then he has wandered the earth in search of the Little Giantess.  Still wearing the diving outfit he used to search the bed of the ocean, this festival marks the end of his search.

The momentum of his stride is enough to pick up two grown men off their feet and dangle them through the air.  As with all of the Royale de Luxe open air spectacles little was given away before the day of the event, in this case Friday 5 June.  All anyone knew was that the giant would wake up at 1.30 in the afternoon on the Tblisi Deck of the town.  He made his way, astonishing the crowds on the way with his sheer scale.  He was forced to stop twice on his route, however, not far from the hospital.  However, a huge crowd waited for him at the Place Gloriette and he did eventually make it.

Will he ever find his niece? Well, tomorrow is another day, after all.  However, this spectacle represents altogether another wonderful performance by the massed ranks of Royale de Luxe and a wonderful start to the Estuary 2009 Festival in Nantes.

Postscript.  The good people of Nantes and the world had to wait until the day after to see whether or not the giant was reunited with his niece.  It seems, now that it has happened, only fair to share with you the end result of his epic search.  The picture below speaks for itself.

The author would like to thank Flickr user misterstf for permission to use the wonderful photographs contained in this article.

L’auteur voudrait remercier misterstf sur Flickr pour la permission d’employer les photographies merveilleuses contenues en cet article.

Defend the Constitution: Help End Discrimination Against Non-Theists

When he was a kid, one of my best friends joined the Boy Scouts of America. He was a model Scout for the duration of his membership, but that membership was suddenly revoked after about six months—not for misconduct or failure to complete program requirements, but because his Scout Master saw that he identified himself as agnostic on his Myspace.

Such discrimination against non-theists (people who don’t affirm the existence of gods) is surprisingly widespread in the U.S. Many organizations such as the Boy Scouts, who call themselves private even though they benefit from public funds, have discriminatory policies that bar non-theists from membership. According to former Eagle Scout Steve Cozza, “when they want to discriminate, they act as a private organization; when they want money or the use of publicly-funded buildings, venues, or property, they act as a public organization.” Worse than this is our theistic oath of office requirement for federal officials. Congressional representatives, military officers, and other federal employees are often forced to take an oath of office ending with the phrase “so help me God,” and this can prevent well-qualified candidates from serving–just for sticking to their principles. Yet perhaps the worst example of discrimination against nonbelievers is theism as qualification for holding public office being written into numerous state constitutions. The constitutions of South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Maryland, and other states contain clauses that exclude people who do not acknowledge the existence of God or a Supreme Being (phraseology varies) from holding office. In spite of the Supreme Court’s 1961 ruling that such clauses violate the federal Constitution, they are still used to deny those who are not monotheists (which includes those with polytheistic and atheistic religions, like paganism and Buddhism, respectively) the right to serve in state governments.

A dismaying number of Americans are unaware of this problem or just don’t care enough to do something about it, although there are many simple ways to help make it clear that such discriminative policies are both inconsistent with the Constitution and unacceptable to the American public and to help bring them to an end, such as:

  • Writing letters or emailing state and federal representatives about our concerns regarding such discrimination and calling on them to take legislative measures to prevent it and repeal iniquitous clauses.
  • Organizing rallies or petitions in support of equal opportunities for non-theists.
  • Joining organizations such as the Freedom From Religion Foundation and American Civil Liberties Union, or donating to such organizations, or simply taking action online by sending pre-fabricated emails to leaders and lawmakers through their websites.
  • Forming new organizations that promote tolerance and equity among theists and non-theists alike.
  • Sharing concerns about discriminatory policies with groups like the Boy Scouts, petitioning them to admit prospective members regardless of religion or lack thereof, or legally challenging them if rejected for beliefs or lack thereof.

If we all take decisive action, we can bring about the end of discrimination against nonbelievers and fulfillment of promises of U.S. Constitution, made in the First and Fourteenth Amendments. According to the First Amendment, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” This implies the freedom to choose any religion or no religion. According to the Fourteenth Amendment, “no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States… nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction equal protection of the laws.” This implies equal opportunities for all, theists and non-theists alike. Clearly, these promises have yet to be fulfilled. However, this can change–and it will, if the historical trend of human progress continues. But such progress is never achieved without effort.

Thus, I urge you all to join me and groups like the FFRF and ACLU in taking action to help end discrimination against non-theists. Hopefully, our collective actions will lead to the dawn of an era where people like my old friend, the would-be Boy Scout, will not have to fear persecution for not sharing the beliefs of the majority.

10 Facts You Didn’t Know About Mesopotamia

These are some of the strangest facts involving the worlds first civilization!

1. Mesopotamian Religion did not believe in the after-life. They believed that all good and bad people go under-ground as ghosts and eat dirt.

2. Their religion also believed that they were servants of god. If you were to ask a person today why they are here they would say because god loves me. Back in Mesopotamia they would say to be a servant of the gods. Talk about population control!

3. Mesopotamia invented the wheel, plow, irrigation systems and the sailboat!

4. Priests would read the livers of chickens or lambs to see what the gods wanted for sacrifices.

5. Priests controlled the irrigation systems and also had more power than the king and queen!

6. Mesopotamia was the very first civilization.

7. The Mesopotamian king ordered the construction of the Hanging Gardens for his wife because she grew up in the mountains and was homesick!

8. Mesopotamia was made up of individual City-states controlled by different powers. They would eventually attack each other and end up under 1 ruler. The people would retaliate and go back to being city-states. This process was repeated many times.

9. Each City-state had its own god!

10. In the Mesopotamian religion there are 4 main gods of Earth, Water, Air and the Heavens. And there were 3,000 lesser gods and each represented an everyday item like a pickaxe. If you were mining and the pickaxe slipped and fell on your foot, the god of the pickaxe hated you!

So there you have it.  The Egyptians were not the only super interesting civilization in the ancient history.

Choice AND Life

by Athar Aamir Khan

Dear friends, I think for all of us life is something that we all relish, acknowledge and perhaps appreciate as well. Life as we know seems to have its own way of living. It hates monotony, and comes like a colourful dilemma, showing bursts of ups and downs, riches and rages, merry and worry and hyssop and hysteric. It often takes us just a moment to realise how every second of our lives relishes and screws us at the same time.

It seems difficult to understand why is it that we find no choice other than accepting life exactly the way it embraces us. Is it that we are really caught in the shackles of our own life or is it that we are only in the loquacity of some gab?

So, greater than life there is something else that we all are striving for and that is the life of choice. I don’t know about life of choice but I feel we definitely can think of choices in life. Our own perception and attitude often drives our senses in our choices.

Be it good or bad, we can acknowledge the possibilities in life and search for some merit in every new situation. Life itself is short; why not enjoy even diversions for the sake of some venture in life.

We need to accept that the grandiosities of today do not guarantee tomorrow’s success. It is just normal to react to unfavourable circumstances unfavourably. After all we are creatures of prejudices and have pre-conceived notions. Our greatest security itself lies in our insecurity.

It is very true that we always find our happiness and sadness buried in our desires but at the same time it is always in our hands to reshape our desires and make our lives self-satiated and the lives with choices.

Hope that we all break our own shackles and fly with the colours of life beyond all desires, means and ends.

The Mortuary Temple of The Pharaoh Queen Hatshepsut

A thousand shades of sandy-brown. Only two miles from the Nile and all hint of green is gone. It is easy to see why the ancient Egyptians called the desiccated ground either side of their narrow fertile strip the Red Lands, from which our word ‘desert’ is said to derive. And since the sun set in the west the western desert was the land of the dead. Here, on the opposite side of the Niles from the great cities lie complexes of tombs and mortuary temples, none more spectacular than the mortuary temple of Hatshepsut, the Pharaoh Queen.


View of the mortuary temple complex

Hatshepsut was one of the few female pharaohs, reigning for about 21 years up to 1458 BC, in the period of ancient Egypt known as the New Kingdom, the time when the Egyptian Empire grew to its greatest extent. A daughter of the old pharaoh Thutmose I by one of his main wives, she married one of her half brothers as his main wife, bolstering his claim to the throne (he was the son of the pharaoh by a minor wife). Her husband / half brother became Thutmose II but he soon died and his son by a lesser wife became the official pharaoh, Thutmose III, with his Hatshepsut as regent because he was still a child.

Hatshepsut seems to have become rather fond of power and soon styled herself pharaoh instead, holding onto the throne even when her son reached the age of majority. Apart from being one of the few female pharaohs, she is famous for sending a large trade expedition to the ‘Land of Punt,’ which brought back many different exotic goods, illustrated on the walls of the temple.

 

The inscriptions from her time aren’t detailed enough to say for definite where Punt was, but leading contenders are Somalia and Ethiopia, with Arabia as another possibility. What is definite is that during her time Egypt was rich and well connected in trade. Wall paintings of piles of goods make it clear what a variety there was to be had for those with the wealth.

 photo 2Hatshepsutboatpainting.jpg

Wall painting from the temple of piles of grave goods

Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple nestles at the bottom of the cliffs that separate the Nile valley from the high desert plateau beyond. It is built in a series of layers, each a large open square, leading up to the main buildings right up against the cliffs. These consists of a long central open corridor with statues of Hatshepsut in the form of the god Osiris and several individual temples to the side.

The main corridor, with statues of Hatshepsut in the form of the god Osiris

It was common for pharaohs, who claimed to be half divine by birth and to ascend to the divine when they died, to depict themselves in the form of gods. Nothing illustrates the quiet alien concepts of their religion and philosophy more than this. Imagine the fuss nowadays if a ruler depicted himself or herself in the form of a god!

One should remember that this is a mortuary temple and not a tomb. Hatshepsut was never buried here. This place was where she would have been prepared for burial and where, for years afterwards, priests would pray for her soul. The concept is similar to a medieval king dedicating a chapel and paying for a priest to sing masses for his soul after his death.

What is truly astonishing about the place is colour of the painted wall carvings, dulled only slightly by the passing of three and a half millennia. One moment, the centuries seem to lie lightly, the merest veil of fine Egyptian gauze separating now from then. The next, the full weight of all those years hits you, and you gasp with wonder.

Effective Pre-K and Kindergarten Classroom Management

Moving-Clip System: A Chart with Super Day (Happy Face) and Bad Day (Sad Face)

This is a great system to help the students regulate their own behavior. Each time when an individual student is mis-behaved, the teacher will ask him/her to move his/her clip down one level. The wall chart has 4 levels. Each student has his/her own clip with a name on it. They all start the day with the clips being placed on the top of the chart at the Super Day level (Happy Face). When each individual is being asked to move the clip when he/she mis-behaves, the clip goes down one level. They are given 4 chances during the day: from “Super Day” to “Good Day”, then to “OK Day” and the bottom is “Bad Day”.

If they ever move the clip in any given day, they are grounded and won’t be able to trade in the stars for a treasure chest toy even if they reach the 20-star reward level right on that day. But this system starts a brand new day each day, so they will still get the chance to go get a treasure chest toy if they don’t move the clip the following day. It is like your account has to be in good standing in order to receive the reward.

Image by author

Using Signals or Sign Language

The teacher has taught the class to use some hand signals for the need to use the bathroom and to go for a sip of water. The sign language of the letter “W” is for water, and “R” is for restroom. This way you can eliminate the students from talking to express their needs. Sometimes when one starts talking, the whole class can end up going out of control fairly quickly. This is an effective way to keep them quiet and yet not to ignore their demand.

Make Every Activity to be Associated with a Song

Create or find a song for clean-up, line-up, etc.  When the play time is finished, students are asked to put away the toys and to clean up the room and they use a clean-up song to engage with this activity. And when they need to line up, they will sing the line up song. In every action they do, they sing altogether and this actually allows them to get the job done quickly and smoothly.  I think music often works the wonder to help the kids to get motivated and to get their attention to follow through the entire process and you will get the end result from what it is needed to be done.

Take Time to Relax and Refresh with Music, So the Students Can Get Their Attention Back to Focus on the Teaching Again

One day I learned from our teacher, Mrs. Fristad, that there are times during the day in the class that you may find some students seem to start loosing their focus. Then you can start leading a song, let the students all stand up to stretch, to move around, jump and sing-along. After a short break like that, you can be sure to get their attention and focus back on track again. I learned a great deal from this. Dealing with young children, they easily loose their focus and their mind may just wander around. Singing together can let their steam out and they can then start to re-focus again. Learning can easily revolve around music. Students and the teacher all have fun together and this will boost up the spirits within the classroom and it goes a long way!

Here is a great example you may want to try:

Ancient Warriors: Nine Deadly Weapons Blast From the Past

Those ancient warriors may not have been the most subtle fighters around, but they they sure had some bad-ass weapons. I guess for the ancients, desperate times called for desperate measures, as you will see from these murderous military weapons.

  1. Triple Morning Star


    This Ancient Weapon known as the Mace comes from the Medieval Age. This weapon was very deadly and consisted of a wood or metal shaft with a mounted head of bronze, copper, wood, or steel. The mace was carried and used by both foot soldiers and Calvary men. Maces were very effective in battle and could puncture even the heaviest of armor. This was a barbaric weapon and left battlefields filled with torture and blood.

  2. Hawaiian Throwing Axe


    This Hawaiian Throwing Axe was a deadly hand held weapon that could be used at both short and long range. This weapon was made out of wood and shark teeth had the power to take men’s limbs off. This weapon was mainly used when opposing Hawaiian armies closed upon each other. They were then thrown at the opposing troops to help soften enemy ranks before close combat. They could also be used in hand to hand combat and had the muscle to rip open skin as if it was butter. This was a very dangerous weapon and is not something you would want to go up against.

  3. Hunga Munga


    The Hunga Munga is an African tribal weapon that is way ahead of its time. It is a handheld weapon and contains a metal pointed blade with a curved back section and separate spike near the handle. This weapon was used in fighting between African tribes and was often times throw in a rotating motion causing deep wounds and even death. Its variation of blades allowed it to be used as more then a weapon. It was used as a tool in farming and even in building structures. It was a great all around tool and has been found all throughout Africa. Today you may have seen the Hunga Munga in the show Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Buffy uses it once in a while to fight off evil demons that she faces.

  4. Throwing Star


    The throwing star known as the shuriken which means “a dagger hidden in a palm” were used and invented by the Japanese. The stars had much variation in the shape; some were shaped like a star and thrown with spin, yet others were needlelike and thrown like a throwing dagger. These daggers couldn’t penetrate armor, but the ninjas, who used them, usually didn’t fight armored opponents. Venom was normally used with the shuriken.

  5. Caltrop


    The Caltrop is a weapon made up of two or more sharp spikes or spines arranged so that one of them points upward from a stable base. Caltrops serve to slow down the proceeding of horses, war elephants, and human troops. It was said to be particularly effective against the soft feet of camels. These were very painful if stepped on and were spread all throughout battle fields. They also were deadly because if stepped on it would cause a bad infection that would cause a slow agonizing death. They also have been used in modern times. In the Vietnam War the Vietcong put them into booby traps. If an American soldier was punctured by one he died from infection almost 90% of the time.

  6. Crossbow Pistol


    This 17th Century Crossbow was way ahead of its time and is very cool. This crossbows look like an early form of a pistol and was very powerful. This hand held crossbow was both accurate and effective but it just was too hard to reload. Because of this it was not used very often in battle and was used more for target practice. Another problem with this weapon was making the arrows which was to time consuming especially if they were just going to get lost in battle. Overall this weapon was still badass and really shows what type of technology and ideas the 17th Century had.

  7. Trebuchet


    A trebuchet is basically a high powered catapult and had many uses in ancient times. Mainly used as a weapon it had enough power to break through castles and destroy towns. It was first used in the 16th Century. Rocks, dead horses, dead people, and dead animals were all used as ammo. In the 16th and 17th Century when plagues and diseases were looming over civilizations plagued bodies were thrown by the trebuchet into enemy territory. The bodies decomposed passing the plague to the enemies slowly killing them. This is one of the first forms of biological warfare.]

  8. Ancient Rocket Launcher


    In the 14th century, the Chinese invented rocket-launchers. These were weapons which shot arrows with rockets attached near the tip into the air toward the enemy. Also in the 14th century, multi-stage rockets were made. When the rockets near the front of the device burnt out, they lit fuses for the second-stage rockets at the back. The bombs the Chinese used in the 17th century were made of gunpowder wrapped in paper and had a fuse covered in gunpowder.

  9. Ancient Flame-Thrower


    The Chinese invented the continuous flame-thrower in the tenth century. In the picture above we see the tank standing on four legs, with the pump and device above it. Because the Chinese invention of a double-acting Piston-bellows was used with this device, a continuous stream of flame could be emitted. The metal used was brass. The Flame-Thrower was used in naval or boat combat and allowed the Chinese to easily set enemy ships on fire and sink them on the spot. It was a great technology and has been used ever since.

Christopher Columbus and the Genocide of the Taino Nation

Obsessed with finding a sea rout to Asia and the Far East, Columbus set out on his ‘Enterprise of the Indies’ in 1492, backed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.  However, instead of finding a rout to the rich trade in the East, Columbus and his crew discovered the New World, and soon set about subjugating and murdering the local population and removing the vast wealth from the land.

Columbus discovering the New World.  Image Source

A small colony was established in Hispaniola consisting of thirty-nine of his crew, the rest returned to Spain with Columbus along with gold, spices and natives taken as slaves to be given as gifts for his royal patrons.

The following year, he led a second expedition comprising of seventeen large ships and one and half thousand new colonists, arriving in the Americas a month later.  By the time he got back to Hispaniola, his men there had been slaughtered by the locals and a second colony was founded.

Columbus punished the local tribe, known as the Taino, severely.  He enslaved many and executed many more; according to Ward Churchill, former professor of ethnic studies at the University of Colorado, by 1496, the population had been reduced from as many as eight million to around three million.

On his third expedition, he explored the region before returning to Hispaniola in 1498 where he had left his brothers in charge, Diego and Bartholomew.  Conditions there were in decline so he stepped up the terror campaign against the Taino, ruling with an iron hand causing resentment from the colonists and local chiefs alike.  Complaints of his brutality got back to the Spanish monarchs and in 1500 they sent a Chief Justice to bring him and his brothers back to Spain in chains.

Columbus in chains.  Image Source

However he was released on his arrival and allowed a fourth and final expedition, which he conducted with the same brutality as previous ones.  By the time he finally left in 1504, the Taino had been reduced to around 100,000 people arguably making Columbus a war criminal by today’s standards and  guilty of committing some of the worst atrocities against another race in history.

Some were killed directly as punishments for ‘crimes’ such as not paying tribute to the invaders.  Many who could not or would not pay had their hands cut off and were left to bleed to death.  Columbus and his men are documented by the chronicles of Las Casas, know as Brev’sima relaci-n,  to have partaken in mass hangings, roasting people on spits, burnings at the stake and even hacking young children to death and feeding them to dogs as punishment for the most minor of crimes. The Spanish masters massacred the natives, sometimes hundreds at a time for sport, making bets on who could split a man in two, or cut a head off in one blow.

Taino people being tortured by the Spanish.   Image Source

Defenders of Columbus argue that a large amount of the victims were killed by disease however they fail to recognize that most of these diseases were caused by poor living conditions in forced labour camps.  Deprived of their crops and fields, many fell prey to dysentery and typhus, were worked to death or were left to starve to death.

After his death his terrible legacy would live on, by 1514, a census showed only 22,000 Taino remained alive.  By 1542 there were only 200 remaining and after they were considered extinct, as was becoming more and more the case throughout the Caribbean basin.

In around fifty years Columbus and those that followed him had all but eliminated a population of around fifteen million people.  This process was just the start and an estimated 100 million people were wiped out by Europeans in the so called ‘civilisation’ of the Western Hemisphere making the discovery of the New World the start of what was arguably the worst case of mass genocide in history.

Weapons of World War I

Explain the new weapons that changed warfare in World War I.

 Poison gas was a deadly new weapon used in World War I. France was the first country to start using gas, but Germany is the one who perfected its use. The killing capacity of gas was limited – only 3% of combat deaths were due to gas – however, the proportion of non-fatal casualties was high, and gas remained one of the soldiers’ greatest fears. Because it was impossible to develop effective countermeasures to gas attacks, it was unlike most other weapons of the period. The first gas that was used in 1914 was called tear gas. This gas contained the chemical lachrymatory. The French put tear gas in their grenades. The tear gas made the soldiers eyes itch continuously which made them less valuable. Then Germany started using chlorine in their artillery. The gas was a greenish cloud and had a strong odor which made it very easy to detect fast. The effect would destroy tissue of the lungs, which is why the soldiers often coughed a lot. Then in late 1915, Victor Grinard made a new chemical gas called phosgene. It was difficult to detect, making it a very effective weapon. It killed a lot faster and was a lot better than chlorine. The most widely reported and perhaps, the most effective gas of the First World War was mustard gas. It often didn’t kill the person instantly, but made the victim cough up his lungs in the last two months of his life. This was the worst gas used in the war. It killed or wounded an estimated 1 million people. The only counter action that could be taken against any gas was a gas mask. The gas mask had to be on before the gas was breathed in full force. This means that someone would have to detect it very fast. Gas was a very deadly weapon used in World War I. It made people suffer very badly. Luckily countries chose not to use gas in other future wars.

The Airplane

Airplanes were only invented about 10 years before the war started, so they weren’t very advanced yet. The top speed was only about 100 mph. The planes was mostly made of wood and consisted of two wings with the cockpit and engine in the middle. These planes often were very small and only had room for a pilot and a gunner. The gunner had a machine gun at the back of the plane. Bombers were also used. They had a little door at the bottom of the plane that could be opened and very small bombs would fall out. First, planes were only used for spying purposes and weren’t strong enough for battle. Then, the countries started to make planes with machine guns and make bomb doors. The plane really went far in this war. It started out with a one-engine spy plane that went about 70 mph to four-engine bombers. After World War I the plane upgraded a lot and used a great deal in World War II.

Halberstadt D 11 – it replaced the fading Fokker Eindekker from early 1916 and held the ring till the superior Albatros fighter started entering service late that year. Richthofen flew one in early 1917 when his Albatros suffered a cracked wing spar.

The Tank

Tanks were created because of the trench war. The Allies wanted a vehicle to break through the lines easier. They also wanted something that could cross the trenches and troops on the ground. From these ideas were born the new weapon of tanks. The first tanks were built from armored cars. They first protected the driver by adding a great deal of armor on the outside of the tank. Then they removed the tires and started adding tracks. Tracks made them able to go over trenches, which meant that they could pass the trenches and capture key territory. After they had armor and the tracks, they added weapons. Most of them had machine guns, but a few of them had flame throwers. The tank is the one weapon that ended trench warfare. If the tank hadn’t been invented, the war would have lasted a lot longer with no winner. The Allies broke through the lines in the Second Battle of the Mame because of the French tanks.

Anarchism: The First Great Terror

The Propaganda of the Deed.

At a time when we are often warned of the heightened threat of global terrorism and of the drastic measures required to combat it, it is worth remembering that the use of terror to achieve political ends is not a recent phenomena. At the turn of the 19th century there was a political ideology that perceived murder and assassination, not as the means to an end, but as a path to salvation. Anarchists would make their mark on political history through propaganda by deed. Here I highlight just a few of the most notorious deeds, of what was to be the first great terror.

1)  I March, 1881, Tsar Alexander II of Russia is blown apart by a bomb thrown by Ignacy Hrnywiecki (see related article) of Narodnya i Volya (The People’s Will).

2) 11March, 1892, the French anarchist Ravachol (related article) bombs the Lobau Barracks in Paris.

3) 10 December, 1893, Auguste Vailant throws a bomb into the French Chamber of Deputies injuring 20 in revenge for the execution of Ravachol.

4) 12 February, 1894, Emile Henry (related article) blows up the the Cafe Terminus in Paris killing 2 and maiming many others in revenge for the execution of Vailant.

5) 24 June, 1894, the Italian anarchist Sante Jeronimo Caserio, assassinates the French President Marie-Francoise Sade Carnot.

6) 8 August, 1897, Michele Angiolillo assassinates the Spanish Prime Minister Antonio Canovas.

7) 10 September, 1898, Luigi Lucheni stabs to death with a needle file the Empress Elisabeth of Austria-Hungary.

Anarchism: The First Great Terror
Gaetano Bresci

Gaetano Bresci

29 July, 1900, Gaetano Bresci shoots dead King Umberto I of Italy.

9) 6 September, 1901, Leon Czolgosc shoots the United States President William H McKinlay, he dies later.

10) 2 September, 1902, Gennaro Rubino attempts to murder King Leopold II of Belgium.

11) Between 25 July and 2 August, 1909, during La Tragica Semana (The Tragic Week) 120 people are killed and many hundreds of others wounded as anarchists battle the police and army on the streets of Barcelona.

12) 14 September, 1911, Dmitri Bogrov shoots dead the Russian Prime Minister Piotr Stolypin at the theatre, as the Tsar sits nearby.

13) 12 November, 1912, Manuel Padrinas kills the Spanish Prime Minister Jose Canalejas.

14) 10 March, 1913, Alexander Schinas assassinates King George I of Greece.

15) 22 July, 1916, a bomb explodes during the San Francisco Preparadeness Day Parade killing 10 And injuring 40.

16) March, 1918, the anarchist revoutionary Nestor Makhno (related article) leads his Insurrectionary Army of the Ukraine to victory over the forces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Tsarist White Russian Army.

17) 16 September, 1920, the Wall Street bombing leaves 38 dead and injures more than 400 others.

The often uncoordinated, spontaneous nature of anarchist attacks made them particularly difficult to combat. The fact they seemed to be committed by individuals on their own initiative to right perceived wrongs as they saw them terrified the political elite of Europe and beyond. The quite astonishing number of the ruling class who fell victim to this propaganda by deed explains why. As a ratio of their intended targets the anarchists can claim to be the most successful terror campaign in history, but the absence of an organisation, a strategy, or indeed murder with an end in mind, doomed it to ultimate failure.

The ACT vs SAT

Taking the SAT or ACT is a rite of passage for high school students who are preparing for college. Students may take one or the other—or both, depending on their college prospects. But what are the major differences between the SAT and the ACT? What are the advantages to taking one over another? And which test might be a better fit for you?

Staying on subject

“Well-rounded” is one of those terms that gets tossed around in admissions brochures and by college recruiters; it essentially means that they’re looking for students with broad interests and strengths in more than one subject. But for students who’ve already chosen a major, a test that showcases their talent in a particular subject might be best. The SAT has three major sections: math, critical reasoning, and writing. The ACT, on the other hand, has five sections: math, English, reading, science and writing. Because the ACT includes science and English sections, future science and liberal arts students might want to take the ACT, although the SAT’s math and critical reasoning sections can serve the same purpose.

Beating the clock

It seems a little unfair that the SAT has three sections and a three-hour, forty-five minute time limit, while the ACT gives you just under three hours to complete five sections. But the devil is in the details: guessing is discouraged for SAT takers, with a penalty of a quarter-point for wrong answers. There is no penalty, however, for wrong answers on the ACT. And while both tests have an essay section, it’s optional—which means students can save time by simply skipping the essay section. Finally, the math section—feared by future English majors everywhere—generally has easier problems on the SAT, but there are fewer, more difficult problems on the ACT.

So, which test should you take, and how do you get your best score? First, find out which tests are preferred by the colleges and universities to which you are applying. Some students take both tests more than once because they hope to improve their chances for a higher score.

No matter which test you decide to take, using study guides, trying new ways to study, and using a vocabulary list can help you with both tests. Both the ACT and the SAT are just exams to demonstrate your readiness for college subjects; doing your best can improve your chances of getting into your dream school.

Written on behalf of American InterContinental University.

How to Have a Sex Life When You are a Virgin

You might be thinking that it is impossible to have a sex life if you are a virgin, but think again! Just because you are not having sex- either by choice or not, does not mean that you cannot experience the wonders of love making and all that surrounds it.

There is more to sex than just… well sex!

    • If you have a partner and you are either choosing to wait for the right time- such as marriage, or you are both too scared then it is time to experiment with each other. Just because you are not ready for sex, does not mean that you cannot enjoy yourselves and learn what each other enjoys. The power of touch is an amazing thing, try touching each other at the same time- run your hands all over your partner’s body to make the skin tingle and excite the senses. Use your lips to accentuate the pleasure by planting tiny kisses on your partner’s lips, neck, chest and inner thighs and if you are feeling really brave then why not try oral? This can be very pleasurable for both men and women and it is a great way for getting intimate with your partner, without actually having penetrative sex.

 

    • If you are single, then now is the time to learn just what you like and need- this is the perfect opportunity to get to know your own body. If you don’t know how to pleasure yourself, then how are you going to pleasure a future partner? Explore yourself- run your hands all over your body, get to know how your body feels to you and how it responds to touch- learn what you like so that when you do bite the bullet and go all the way, you will know exactly what you want and you will be a bit more prepared.

 

    • Get some toys- this is not advisable if you are a virgin because of religious views, because some sex toys can give the sensation of penetration- but if you want to experiment and get used to how something feels inside of you, before you go all the way- then this is the perfect way of enjoying yourself, as well as teaching yourself new things.

 

    • Go online- if you are scared about having sex for the first time, and you find that you keep putting it off, then go online and chat to people just like you- you are not the only one out there! The worst thing that you can do is build it up into a massive hurdle, and go out looking for someone to do it with- the chances are, the moment you stop stressing, is the moment that it happens! Do some research- sex isn’t that scary!

 

    • Be intimate without the sex- some of the best feelings you can experience is simply being with your partner, kissing and cuddling either dressed or naked can really get your blood pumping and make you hot and tingly all over. You do not have to have sex to enjoy all of the pleasures that it brings, and you do not have to have sex to have a healthy sex life.

 

Hopefully this has helped you to realise that you do not have to be having sex to have a sex life- there are plenty of ways to get all of the pleasure whilst keeping your virginity in tact- and getting you some great pointers along the way! Remember- don’t rush into anything that you are not ready for, and sex is a very special thing so make sure that you have found your special someone before you do anything as intimate as sex. Good luck!

Benefits of Part-time Teaching

After leaving the university, many college graduates face the reality that there are no enough jobs for everyone. Some, especially those holding impressive transcript of records, are tapped by their respective alma maters as part-time instructors.

This group, because they are not regular employees of the school, do not receive the benefits that the other employees get like leave credits, Christmas bonus, 13th month pay, etc.  However, there are other benefits  that part-time teaching gives to fresh graduates. Here are some of them:

1.  Access to school facilities

The library, the museum, the hospital and the dental clinic are some facilities that help us build and improve both our body and our soul.  Most schools extend their services only to those who are connected with the institution. This, is, therefore one huge bonus for those who are no longer students.

2.  Community affiliation

Some schools can really be brutal in the contract they offer to their part-time instructors.  A contract stipulating that “there is no employer-employee relationship between the school and the instructor” is demoralizing to a neophyte.

However, no matter what the contract says, part-time instructors can build friendships with fellow instructors, other employees and students. Hence, they build their own network of friends.  This is a lot better than being jobless and being away from where the real action is happening, i.e., the workplace.

 


3
.  Self-confidence is enhanced

Teachers, always, have a ready audience: their students.  Hence, they make it a point that their students do not lose interest in the classroom activities and in the teachers themselves.

Teachers are performers.  Aside from the endless reading and researching they do, they likewise do public speaking.

Teachers also tell jokes.  And these jokes have to be updated constantly in order not to  bore their students.  In the process, they discover a lot of possibilities within themselves that were unknown to them before.  Teaching, whether regular or full-time, builds a teacher’s confidence.

4.  Resume starts to build up

A job applicant’s teaching experience can be impressive to future employers.  On the other hand, if a part-time teacher decides to stay in the same institution after he/she finishes graduate school, the advantage is hers/his.  Administrators usually go for those who have been with them.  This makes sense.  It’s like the part-time instructor is constantly having a teaching demonstration throughout his/her two-semester or two-year stint as a teacher.  It has been said that teaching is like wine: one gets better through the years.  And school administrators know this.

5.  Part-time teaching gives income 

To become a full-fledged university instructor, one must possess the right qualifications, e.g., a master’s degree.  Most part-time instructors pursue graduate studies while teaching. They send themselves to school by paying for their own tuition fees.

The income they get from part-time teaching may not be very impressive but at least it gives them the chance to be independent from their parents and to improve themselves as persons, as teachers or as future job applicants.

 

Part-time teaching therefore, is valuable in making a person. In general, the status and the money are of less importance compared to the benefits that part-time teaching can give to a young professional.  It may just be the springboard toward a better career.

Ageism: Media Influences and Older Americans

by Brian C. McGuire

Mainstream American society continues to stereotype Older Americans as communicated through the media. This presents itself a developing problem not only for Older Americans but for the mainstream population as well.

Mainstream American society often views the aging population in reference to stereotypes communicated through the media. This form of imagery often distorts our ability to perceive others in the real world. A number of investigators now believe that mass media is responsible for shaping our attitude of older Americans and the aging process (Bazzini, McIntosh, Smith, Cook & Harris, 1997; Bell, 1992; Fillmer, 1984; Fine, Mortimer, & Roberts, 1990; Fisher, 1992; Larson, Kubey, Colletti, 1989).

The persuasive capabilities of the media are powerful. Scientific reports and a growing body of literature suggest that American society learns to form negative associations of older persons through the use of media forms (Bazzini, McIntosh, Smith, Cook & Harris, 1997; Bell, 1992; Fillmer, 1984; Fine, Mortimer, & Roberts, 1990; Fisher, 1992; Larson, Kubey, Colletti, 1989). Bazzini, et al. (1997) analyzed the way in which motion pictures portray older Americans. They discovered that older people were portrayed more negatively than younger people. Moreover, older women were subject to age discrimination more so than men (Bazzini, et al., 1997; Harrison, 1991). Fisher (1992) designed an intersession course to help future sociologists analyze popular commercial images of older people (Fisher, 1992).

Fisher’s results were promising: combining commercial films with related reading materials such as The Aging Family; Elderly Parents, Grandparents and Siblings proved beneficial in helping his students to make distinctions between media biases and true behavior patterns of older Americans. In recent years, the media have projected more positive images toward older Americans. Bell (1992) examined five prime-time television programs in which older people were cast as central characters.

These television shows included The Golden Girls, Murder She Wrote, In the Heat of the Night, Matlock, and Jake and the Fatman. According to Bell, previous media portrayals of older people appearing “comical, stubborn, eccentric, and foolish” were replaced with more progressive images. These images allow older people to appear “powerful, affluent, active, admired, and sexy.” Although Bell gave favorable reviews on what he hypothesized to be a discourse in aging on television, he cautioned researchers that demographics of older Americans on television were non-representative of the aging population and should be further investigated.

Print media and other visual forms have been found to influence our perception of the aging population (Fillmer, 1984; Nussbaum & Robinson, 1984; Rosenwasser, McBride, Brantley, & Ginsburg, 1986; Starr and Weiner, 1993). Magazines’ portrayal of older persons has reinforced negative biases held by society for many years (Nussbaum & Robinson, 1984). In a pictorial study examining differentiation ability of children, Rosenwasser, McBride, Brantley and Ginsburg (1983) reported well-defined negative bias in children’s attitudes toward older people. Conversely, in a more recent study, Weber et al.(1996) found positive results when exposing children to apperception conditions. In another study, the response pattern of children in grades four through six was measured while exposed to pictures of adults of varying ages (Fillmer, 1984).

Fillmer found ambiguous evidence of age stereotyping among children suggesting the need for additional studies. Finally, in a literature review, Starr and Weiner (1993) clarified some misconceptions in the use of pictorial measurement techniques (e.g., PAAM). They reminded clinical researchers and others of its proven value for training undergraduates and graduates in gerontology courses. The average television viewing time for pre-adolescents is four hours per day (Larson, Kubey, & Colletti, 1989). By the time children reach full adolescence, they will have viewed as much as 22,000 hours of television (Bell, 1992; Fillmer, 1984). With the aging population representing only 4 percent of this media type (in reality, older people make up 15 percent of the total population), investigators feel that the absence of older persons on television combined with a lack of knowledge of aging cause people to form negative associations with older Americans.

Although television’s persuasion capabilities are powerful, visual and other media resources begin to take precedence early in adolescence (Larson, Kubey,& Colletti, 1989). Today, approximately 33 percent of all high school seniors report reading magazines, while another 20 percent report reading non-schoolbooks daily. American children spend more than eight hours a day exposed to some form of social medium, whether its uses are primary or a secondary source of activity. Newspapers, magazines, book readings, pictures and a host of other media forms contribute to the development of ageist behavior.

25 Myths and Facts About Sex

Relationships, especially sexual ones, undoubtedly play a major role with regards to our mood and well being. It is not uncommon to find couples unhappy, over conscious and confused in bed, particularly because of their misconceptions or notions about sex.

Sex, a biological fact, is not much talked about in our societies. When a girl or boy lands up in teens with fascinations, curiosities and hormonal stimulation; he/she does not have much knowledge to bank upon and left with no choice but to consult other immature friends, search web or ask Internet pals. Here is the gist of 25 myths and facts about sex will help fade all confusions hovering since ages.

MYTHS 

1.   Women also ejaculate during sexual intercourse.

2.   Simultaneous orgasms are a must for sexual satisfaction.

3.   Only men have wet dreams.

4.   Wet dreams are sexual disorders.

5.   Venereal disease is cured if the man has sex with a virgin.

6.   Frequent masturbation makes the penis shrink.

7.   Special food and exercise will make the penis grow big.

8.   Masturbation leads to nervous breakdown.

9.   Vasectomy makes a man impotent.

10.   Men have stronger sexual urges than women.

11.   Anal sex is only practised by homosexuals.

12.   A normal man should be able to get an erection whenever he wants it.

13.   A man is not a male if he cannot get a penile erection.

14.   Menopause puts an end to a women’s sex life.

15.   Imparting sex education to youngsters will lead them to promiscuity.

16.   A woman should orgasm with intercourse alone.

17.   A woman must bleed when she has sex for the first time.

18.   Sex during menstruation is unhygienic and unsafe.

19.   A girl cannot get pregnant the first time she has sexual intercourse.

20.   A female cannot get pregnant while she is breastfeeding.

21.   There is an absolutely “safe” period for sexual intercourse during which intercourse cannot cause pregnancy.

22. Having a male withdraw his penis from a female’s vagina before he ejaculates or “comes” (coition) is a good way to prevent pregnancy.

23. You’re a homosexual if you’ve had sex with, or even had a “sexy” dream about, someone of the same sex.

Healthy Foods That Help the Body Heal Faster

After a broken bone or something as simple as a burn or cut, the body needs time to heal. Skin regrown and cell regeneration can be stimulated by certain foods to help the body heal faster. Science has shown that foods that are high in vitamin C and zinc aid in this healing process. Vitamin C is a primary nutrient that is used in the process of healing anything simple as a paper cut or something more significant such as major surgery or torn ligaments. Zinc is a mineral that boosts the immune system which directly influences the healing process. Some of these foods include meats, fruits, vegetables, and nuts.

Meats

There are many meat products that help the body heal faster because of the amount of zinc each contains. For example: Beef has the highest content of the zinc nutrient. Other leaner meats such as chicken and turkey have lower amounts of zinc, however, are still useful in boosting the immune system. A vegetarian can find similar results in protein packed foods such as peanut butter and almonds.

Fruits

Vitamin C is a key nutrient found in many fruits that helps the body heal faster. Citrus fruits such as oranges, grapefruit, and even papayas and mangos have a higher content of vitamin C. Fruits such as strawberries and various other berries may have a low percentage of vitamin C but are no less beneficial in the fight for the body to heal faster.

Vegetables

Strange-perhaps, however, even certain vegetables contain levels of vitamin C used in the bodies healing process. Many studies show that kelp has one of the highest rates of vitamin C. Peppers such as bell peppers, red peppers, and green peppers also contain large amounts of vitamin C. Other vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower have lower percentages of vitamin C, however, are still no less important. The key is to make sure vegetables are eaten regularly throughout the day to ensure optimal healing of the body.

Nuts

Nuts naturally contain many nutrients and minerals, such as vitamin C and zinc, that aid the body’s healing process. Studies show that nuts have a high content of antioxidants which help strengthen the immune system. Nuts such as almonds, pecans, walnuts, and Brazil nuts are all great choices to aid in a speedy recovery. This is a great option for the on the go individual who may not have time to eat a balanced diet. Just a handle full of nuts a day can go along way.

Many foods such as meats, fruits, vegetables, and nuts contain vital nutrients and minerals, such as vitamin C and zinc, which allow the body to heal. By boosting the immune system and speeding up the cell regeneration process, consuming a higher percentage of zinc and vitamin C help the body heal at a more rapid rate. The key is to make sure to follow specified dietary guidelines to ensure that the proper servings of each food group are eaten daily.

Jovani 31100 Red Prom Dress


This trumpet skirt Jovani 31100 prom dress captures the spirit of old Hollywood glamour. Organza fabric gives it a soft sheen top to bottom, while princess seams provide a glove-like fit. Off-the-shoulder straps fold over the top of the arm, giving way to a sweetheart neckline. The dramatic skirt is fitted at the hip, made up of layered tiers flaring from the knee, stand-out full, with a sweep train and floor length hem.

Used Car Donation – Questions You Need to Ask

Earlier, the only way you could have got rid of your car was by selling it away. But with the passage of time there has emerged a way that can not only help you do away with your useless car but also get you good benefits; benefits in the form of tax deductibles. The simple way that is being referred to here is charity. Car owners who have a junk clunker or a SUV sitting idle in the garage can now consider car donations New Jersey. There are a good number of car donation organization that are non-profitable in nature. Being recognized by the Internal revenue Service or the IRS, these car donations can get you tax deductions once you donate your car to children charity in New Jersey.

Donation of any kind is a good thing. But when you donate a car to charity that is for helping the needy children, you have a good feeling about the entire matter. But as far as car donation New Jersey is concerned, there are certain things that needs to be taken care of.

It is not unlikely that you will come across more than one organization that claims to accept used car donation. But as all that glitters are not gold, so all the organizations will also not be the right one to donate you car to. So, there are certain things the car donor needs to ask or find out about the organization prior to donate the car. So, what are the many things that one should inquire about? Following are the simple queries that one needs to make.

Is it of to donate a car to charity that has not run in many years? Is it fine to donate it still?

Organizations that accept used car donations are not bothered about the condition of the car. So, it really does not matter whether it has run in many years or not.

What is the amount of tax deductible that the car donor can earn?

The amount of tax deduction that a car owner can earn depends a lot on the Fair Market Value of the car or the price at which the car is sold. Whichever is greater, the car owner will be able to claim that.

A Cup Of Green Tea A Day Keeps Cholesterol At Bay

It is quite surprising really how many people are drinking green tea. Worldwide, this particular type of tea is consumed almost as much as water. Green tea was on American grocery shelves years after its initial purpose. First it began as an age long cure for ailments in the Asian culture for digestive conditions and to help stop bleeding. There is a reason that over through the ages, this tasty, soothing liquid has been so effective. Even to aid against lowering cholesterol.

Why Green Tea Is So Effective

Green tea is actually different than many of its fellow tea friends. It goes through a different process of leaf fermentation. The tea leaf itself if not fermented nearly as long as many yothers, like black tea or oblong tea. Holding onto the most essential part of the green tea leaves. The antioxidants, which are called Catenins, is the best part. Recent studies how that that they can also be helpful in reducing cholesterol.
Green Tea

How Green Tea Reduces Cholesterol

New research show that drinking green tea is a good start to lower cholesterol in many ways. It can help increase high density lipoproteins while decreasing lipoproteins. Better known as HDL and LDL, good and bad levels of cholesterol found in the body. Recent studies shows that it also aids in preventing the liver from absorbing any unwanted cholesterol.

Your liver, Cholesterol and Green Tea

Let us first understand a bit about what cholesterol actually is before we can understand why its bad for your liver in long fun. Cholesterol is composed of a fat, like material that is found in every part of your body. It is a protein that is in your cells and travels through your blood vessels. Your blood vessels are indeed connected to that liver of yours.

Well , you are in luck. Research further acknowledges that it can increase the receptors of good cholesterol in the liver. It has been found to significantly lower LDL levels. But you can help. You will be impressed at the immense benefit gained from drinking this gentle refreshment.

Now, you need an entire lifestyle change. Think of all the benefits you can gain for eating foods high in antioxidants. You will feel splendid. You will glow with natural health and beauty. Your cholesterol will be under control. All with nature’s power drink by your side.

How To Choose Best Upright Vacuum Cleaner

Choosing the right upright vacuum cleaner is a very important decision to make. Vacuum cleaners are practically like other members of your household. You have to find the perfect match for your space and one that works just fine for you. Homeowners are always faced with the hard choice of picking the right vacuum to suit their cleaning needs. The upright vacuums remain the best when looking to pick lots of dust and cover large floors.

Here are some of the things to consider when choosing these types of vacuum cleaners:

Cord or Cordless

Cordless vacuums are the latest trends in the industry. Cordless vacuums allow you to move freely without being held to the power socket, but they have to be charged. If you own a large to an average home, cordless vacuum cleaners are not the best as they require constant charging. Even the top most brands will require charging after 30 minutes or so. Depending on your needs, you can either choose the cord or cordless vacuum cleaner. The corded vacuum cleaners, on the other hand, are great when you own a large home that needs regular cleaning. They enable you to work continuously without taking breaks to charge. Their only disadvantage is when you choose one with a short cord that requires changing of the power sockets now and again.

Bag or Bagless

Both the bag and bagless vacuum cleaners have their pros and cons. Vacuums with bags tend to be a bit messy requiring a new bag after few months depending on how frequent they are used. Bagless upright vacuum cleaners, on the other hand, are Eco-Friendly, but you have to clean the container and remove the stuck hairs. If you have to choose a bagless model, choose one with a great structural design.

Size and Storage

Think of the place where you will be storing the vacuum cleaner. The place of storage will dictate the type and size of vacuum cleaner you will buy. They usually don’t have the hose section which occupies huge junks of space. Most are quite easy to store, but their rigid structures mean they lack flexibility.

The Vacuum weight

How far from the socket can the vacuum cleaner reach? The weight of the vacuum cleaner and distance the distance they can clean from the socket go a long way in determining the ideal choice for your home.This distance comes into play when tackling a big room. Most upright vacuum cleaners reach around 8.6m. You must look at the distance it will cover when cleaning. This makes it easier for one to clean without swapping the socket from one place to another.

Weight must also be considered if you will be required to clean both the downstairs and upstairs.

Vacuum cleaner wattage

Most people always think that vacuum cleaners with high wattage are the best at getting the job done. However, this is not the case despite manufacturers claiming so. High powered upright vacuum cleaners will only mean you’re using more energy. Less power does not mean low suction as most people think. Most new upright vacuum cleaners in the market have motors of 1,600 watts of energy or less. Buy upright vacuum cleaners with low energy but great at cleaning to cut down the electricity costs.

There are even proposals to have the wattage of all vacuum cleaners reduced to 900 watts before the end of 2017. Check for the energy label as all vacuum cleaners are nowadays required to carry an energy label that rates the model for energy use, dust emission, and cleaning performances.

Dyson

How To Choose Best Upright Vacuum Cleaner
Dyson is considered the Ferrari of vacuum cleaners. While the basic vacuum cleaner hasn’t changed much in the last 50 years, the engineers at Dyson took a much more serious approach and decided to reinvent it. Their most recent invention is a cordless vacuum that actually works as an upright or a hand-held cleaner like a DustBuster. The difference is the suction pulls at over 5,000 RPMs.

Jovani 26947 Prom Dress

This outstanding, sheer, beaded Jovani dress, style 26947, featuring a trumpet skirt, cap sleeves and a crew neckline, is not for the faint of hearted. While it is said that this dress is designed to break hearts and not budgets, it definitely requires a financial commitment from the woman who dares to take it on. But, the rewards are monumental. Please feel free to view the video and if you want more information, please see the size chart and color options at the link above. You will be glad you did.

Review of the Pumice Stone Foot Scrub

One of the natural things you can have in your bathroom is a pumice stone to help you with the removal of dead cells on the skin. Instead of going with artificial exfoliators, the pumice stone can work miracles removing dead skin cells from the feet. The abrasive and porous nature of the stone makes it the perfect exfoliator for the feet.

What is a pumice stone?

Pumice stone from VolcanicareA pumice stone is formed when volcanic lava hardens and forms what we now call the pumice stone. It is a hard volcanic rock that has pores all over. It is abrasive features that make it ideal for scrubbing against your skin and removing the dead cells. Whenever there is a volcanic eruption, the hot lava mixes with water and hardens forming the pumice stone. It is 100% natural with only a few additions like a holder added to make it easier to use.

There are several types of pumice stones in the market with the differences coming in their sizes and shapes. The composition is pretty the same with all been formed from hardening lava.

Using a pumice stone as a foot scrubber

If you take a look at your heels, you will probably find a hard callous layer. This is a layer that requires regular removal to maintain the smooth and beautiful looks of your feet at all times. The pumice stone can come in any shape, but most are designed in a rectangular shape to nicely fit your hand. It is well-sized and one you can easily hold and use with ease.

picture of foot being scrubbed by pumice stoneThe pumice stone is used when one is taking a shower. You can always have it stored in your bathroom as it comes with a string for hanging it on the wall. Make sure your feet are wet and soapy before starting to scrub it with the pumice stone. You can easily see as the dead skin cells are removed away. Rinse your feet with water and clean your pumice stone. You can also soak your feet in warm water before scrubbing it.

You don’t have to scrub to hard as this is something you can do on a daily basis. It is important to clean your stone after use to prevent the growth of molds. Rinse it and hang it on the wall with the rope it comes it. It is quite simple to use to use and remains one of the best natural options that cost cheaper. It is also safer and reliable than most artificial feet scrubbers.

To purchase this specific stone, you may find it here.

Jovani Prom Dresses for Spring 2017

For women who attend special occasions now and again, the Jovani prom dresses are an ideal option to bring out the best in you. Jovani dresses range from the floral print ball gowns to the embellished mermaid dresses. They are the ideal option to turn high school parties into a memorable red carpet experience giving you the attention of boys in the party. The dresses are designed to make you feel special on special occasions taking inspirations from the Paris, Milan and New York catwalks. Jovani has been in the industry for over 35 years now selling some of the best brands in gown proms. They keep on producing more innovative designs each year that appeal to all ages and sizes.

They released their the newest 2017 Jovani prom gowns last month giving consumers something new for Spring 2017. Let’s have a look at some of their new releases;

Jovani 49926 Two-Piece Dress

Jovani 49926
This black two-piece Jovani 49926 dress is a great ensemble from Jovani, featuring an off-the-shoulders bodice with a come-hither look. The top looks like it is hanging off the shoulders but hold firmly and will never come off. The overhanging shoulder parts bring out the mermaid looks nicely with a light net connecting the upper part to the skirt below. The skirt is long and nicely feels the body flaring only at the bottom. It fits your body size and brings out your stunning figure making it a great pick for Spring. This black, off-the-shoulder mermaid silhouette dress from Jovani is a nice choice and one to consider checking out.

Jovani 47075 V-Neck Prom Dress

Jovani 47075
The Jovani 47075 prom dress is an excellent choice when you want to bring out your best looks and show off some skin. It is stunningly beautiful, and brings out the best in women making the perfect prom dress when you want to shine and impress. It nicely fits your body all the way down to just beneath the knees where it starts to flare. It has a plunging V-neckline with a deep V-back with sheer cutouts sides. It is a sleeveless bodice that finishes in a chapel train.

Jovani 48200 Prom Dress

jovani 48200
The Jovani 48200 trumpet skirt prom dress will make you feel like a queen with a flattering look and unique floral ending at the bottom. It is a unique design and one to check out, especially if you love to be a princess. The princess seams gives it that flattering appearance making it a great choice for the 2017 prom. The dress is pulled together by a zipper closure on the semi-open back, but the zipper remains hidden. It is a unique pageant dress that is sleeveless and covers your body well all the way from your chest to the feet.

Jovani 49925 Two-Piece Jumpsuit

jovani 49925 pants suit
Available from sizes 0-28, this Jovani two piece pants suit is another great addition to their line of fashionable evening wear  and one to consider buying for Spring 2017. It is a comfortable two-piece pants suit, with an off-the-shoulder bodice, that fits the body well and gives you the much-needed flexibility in the water. The top nicely hangs off your shoulders with the trouser fitting you all the way up to the abdomen.

Jovani prom dresses are always highly recommended for fit and fabric. It is a coveted brand, and you can order any of their products with confidence knowing you have value for your money.