Benefits of Reclining Chairs

When it comes to benefits of reclining chairs, technology has seen to it that even our basic furniture has received an upgrade to enhance comfort. Comfort is not the only concern that is improved in furniture, but we can now acclaim numerous health and aesthetic benefits to furniture.

The first piece of furniture that automatically comes to mind when speaking of living space is the chair. The seat has transformed from any standard chair to the rocking chair, to recliner chairs that offer more in resting, not only the body but the mind too. Recliner chairs are not restricted to the living space but can also be found in commercial airplanes to offer comfort while traveling and reduce jet lag.

Why get a Recliner Chair?

It may be ill thought that recliner chairs are only for comfort while watching your favorite television show or game matches, and that they are only for the wealthy. These type of chairs can be used across the board by a variety of people for various benefits. Below are some of the benefits of reclining chairs;

Eases Pregnancy Complications

massage-chairs-safe-duringOne of the most difficult thing to do when expectant is finding the perfect position to sit or lie down. The associated body swelling and difficulty in blood circulation nursury-recliner-chair4makes it more annoying to find a comfortable way to distribute the weight while in a resting position. A recliner chair comes in handy as it is flexible and can be adjusted into various positions until a mother finds the best posture to accommodate her in different stages of her pregnancy.

Buying a recliner chair with an adjustable leg and headrest is one of the best investment any mother can make. Playing around with the angles to find the best lumbar position to ease back pains and allow for proper blood circulation may reduce visits to the doctor. It also reducing the joint swelling.

The chair is not only handy during pregnancy, but can become very vital when nursing and during those sleepless nights when baby needs holding (but mommy still needs to nap).

Recline Back to Ease the Day’s Stress

Anyone who wakes up early for their job can attest to the stress relating to the daily grind and the traffic that usually comes with it. When you get home, you just want to rest. Resting while relieving your stress in a reclining chair may be a good idea. Some recliner chairs come with a vibrating feature that allows you to get massaged while increasing blood circulation to vital organs. This allows for faster detoxing while relaxing the mind for the next day’s hustles, giving you the luxury of waking up feeling refreshed and ready to go.

Recline In Comfort

man-resting-in-reclinerEveryone enjoys sitting comfortably while either catching up with family, on favorite shows or while just lazing about. The different angles and features that recliner chairs come with allows you to sit back and relax while putting your legs up. The side pockets can accommodate the remote controls to eliminate the search for the remotes. Some come with trays that can extend out and back for putting the popcorn bowl. What more can one ask for to enjoy their personal time while being comfortable?

Despite the mentioned benefits, it is worth noting that these chairs come in various types for different uses. Making prior inquiries and consulting your doctor before purchasing one may come in handy to suit your unique needs, especially if the chair is for medical reasons. Getting one that blends in with your already acquired furniture is also a point to note.

For a great selection on recliners, visit Lane Furniture Store today.

4 Basic Wardrobe Must-Haves For All Seasons

Every fashion conscious lady knows that there are timeless pieces that never go off season, and should therefore always exist in their closets. Timeless pieces may include a designer pair of shoe or handbag, that gorgeous choker that may choke other ladies with envy or that stylish scarf that accentuates your long neck.

Below are four basic wardrobe must-haves for all seasons, including are a few suggestions of how to dress them up, or down depending on occasion or list of errands on any given day.

A Well-Fitting Blazer

well-fitted-blazerThis is a staple in any lady’s wardrobe. A well-fitting blazer accentuates your figure, giving shape to your waistline and draws attention to the flow of any outfit. In case you are a little bulky around the waistline, it will draw attention away from the waistline and on to your shoulders, giving you a look of being well put. Today’s blazers come in all forms, and an adventurous soul will play around with bright colors, kitenge, khanga, stripes, texture, and length, so as to fit any occasion.

Well-fitting blazers can be paired with A-line dresses or skirts, a pair of jeans or shorts for a fun day out, a pencil skirt for that office meeting or interview, or a pair of tights with heels for a fun night out. Don’t be afraid to try out the boyish look by wearing a bow-tie or tie with your blazer to break out the monotony once in a while.

If you don’t already have this with you, then get out there and buy or get a custom made one from a creative designer.

A Wallet To Die For

henri-bendel-walletWallets, of course, contains the money and credit cards we intend to spend at the market or mall, and at the nail and beauty parlor. Investing in an exquisite wallet is one of the soundest decisions any lady can make, whether young or old. There are various types, sizes, and designs of wallets, but a practical girl would want to have two types of wallets;

a) A small wallet that can hold all your cash and cards

b) A big statement wallet that can fit in your handbag, but also act as an all-purpose clutch bag that can be carried on its own. This may be in a neutral color to match almost any of your outfits, although you can have several.

Good pair of shoes

chunk-heelsA good pair of shoes in any lady’s closet will be the source of joy and comfort for days on, giving off an air of self-confidence and that bounce that makes you the envy of many. A comfortable, classic black single sole heel that matches almost any outfit including flared or skinny jeans, pants or skirt suits for office meetings or interviews is a must have.

A pair of flat doll shoes that also go well with almost all outfits is ideal for walks to the bus station or a trip to the mall in shorts or a fitting mini dress or skirt. These are available in different colors and designs ranging in peep toe, round toe or pointed; classic sneakers are ideal for the walk in a park, or around the neighborhood, and can be worn with a denim mini skirt, a pair of shorts or jeans, or a skater dress or skirt; a lovely pair of flip flops or open shoes are ideal for hot days and when you want to show off your well-done pedicure and may be paired with long or short dresses, pants or shorts.

Ladies who love comfort or experience backaches should consult a doctor first before acquiring the ideal shoe that can be customized to be comfy, fashionable and stylish.

The Forever Stylish Black and White Two-Piece Outfit

black-and-whiteOwning a white blouse and black pants or a black pencil skirt has never failed any fashionista. This pair has worked wonders for many over the years, and if a little imagination is added, it is the best look ever invented.

A plain, but fitting white long-sleeved blouse; blouse with ruffles; high-collar blouse; oversized boyfriend shirt; or a back buttoned blouse can all pass for a stylish choice of wear paired with black bottoms.

The bottoms can be a fitting pencil skirt, high-waist pants or skirt, ankle-length pants, wide-legged pants, fitting shorts paired with heels, or black tights that can be worn with an oversized blouse and a cinch belt to tie up the entire look.

On top of these options, having neutral colors in the closet always come in handy when you want to tone down any look and blend in professionally or in a cocktail.

This four basic wardrobe must-haves for all seasons will always remain relevant. Today’s woman needs comfort and style, and a busy schedule doesn’t equal a dull look. So with these few tips for starters, we recommend going forth and dazzling with your favorite pieces that never go out.

Five Tips to Ace that Interview

Verbal interviews may be the only or last platform where you can sell your attributes to the prospective employer and make the best first impression that will land you that dream job. Interviews are nerve-wracking and may sometimes be the final nail in the coffin, making you miss the grand opportunity of getting a job.

Sometimes luck and the right connections can play a part in landing that dream opportunity, but if these two don’t feature in your quest to land a job, then perhaps you need to have these five tips to ace that interview;

1. Once you get that call to appear before the interviewer, begin carrying out a simple research on the company. The internet is a resourceful well of information and many corporations own websites nowadays, making it easy to get basic information on the enterprise. This will benefit you in getting to know what the company advocates for, give you an idea on the perks available, and give you an advantage of being knowledgeable and not be caught flat-footed.

2. Being confident starts by proper preparation. Apart from carrying out research on the firm, finding the perfect attire for the interview is key. Laying it out before the said day will alert you of any missing buttons or stains and save you time on the D-day, allowing you to be punctual.

Avoid too much makeup and accessories as this may be off-putting and give a false perception of your character, especially if the job pertains to the corporate world.

3. Punctuality will come in handy because you get enough time to ease into the mood and prepare yourself psychologically while being in the actual interview environment. It also gives your future employer the impression that you value and respect.

4. Carry with you a copy of your resume and testimonials, alongside any other documents that you think you may require. Trust me; the extra load may just earn you points with the interview panel, showing that you always prepare for any outcomes.

5. Once inside the interview room, break the ice by greeting the panel and ask if you can be seated. Maintain eye contact with the person asking the questions. When asked a question that you may not have a ready answer for, try to have them ask it again to buy a few seconds to search your brain. Stay calm, remain conscious of the panel, stay true to yourself and try to be as honest as possible in your responses. Always highlight your strengths and try as much as possible to avoid any negative responses that begin with “I don’t” and badmouthing your previous employer.

If given a chance to ask a question but you have none, ask how soon you can expect any feedback on if you made it through or not.

With these few tips, please try to maintain a positive attitude, thank the interviewers for the opportunity and time, and always smile. Keep in mind that the interviewers may have once in their lives, been in your position and may understand if you have the occasional stammer due to nerves.

Above all, try to remember to sit up straight, switch off your phone and stay relaxed and keep in mind that failing one interview may be the practice you need that will lead to your passing the next one.

Simple Tips for the Best Banana Pancakes

Pancakes are one of the easiest and quickest solutions to having a great breakfast. They are light, require little preparation and their resulting aroma can make any late riser wake up early to a magnificent breakfast spread.  If you have left over, almost over-ripe bananas, and are looking to spice up your signature pancakes, giving them a nutritional boost, here are a few simple tips for the best banana pancakes.  I find having the pancakes with a hot cup of ginger tea or cold milk most comforting and a better way to start my day.

These suggestions are not at all restrictive. You can go ahead and add a pinch of cinnamon in the mix, or sprinkle cinnamon on the hot pancakes before serving for maximum taste bud arousal. Go ahead, try out these tips and become a banana pancake fan-club member.

For about 6 pancakes you will need;

2 large eggs

11/2 cup sifted all-purpose wheat flour

� cup of fresh milk

A pinch of salt

1 level teaspoon baking powder

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

2 large ripe bananas, blended/mashed

� cup of warmed maple syrup to taste (optional)

Procedure:
– Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water. Dry them and begin work

– Sieve your baking flour into the mixing bowl. Sieving not only removes unwanted particles that sometimes escape into the flour during packaging, it also aerates the flour making it light.

– Add the baking powder to the sieved flour and mix.

– Beat the eggs in a separate bowl. Add the pinch of salt and beat till they whiten.

– Now peel bananas and blend or mash them up to a smooth pulp. Add in the fresh milk and the eggs, then continue blending to a smooth consistency.

Please note that if you choose to mash up the bananas in a bowl, you may need to add and mix the eggs and milk in small quantities to get the desired smooth consistency.

– Carefully pour the banana puree into the mixing bowl and begin mixing with the flour until the mixture is smooth and light. You can now add the vegetable oil into the mixture and continue mixing.

– Preheat the pan and lightly glisten it with a little cooking oil. You can now pour a small portion of the pancake batter onto the pan, on low heat and allow to brown on one side. Turn it over to cook on the other side and repeat this procedure for the rest of the batter till it is complete.

– Serve the hot banana pancakes on a flat plate, with a generous spread of warm maple syrup over them. You can also choose to have the maple syrup on a side dish for those who would find the sugar in the pancakes enough because bananas are already sugary.

stack_of_banana_pancakes

Vegetable Gardening- Tips for the Beginner

Vegetable gardening has been found to be one of the most relaxing and inexpensive ways to relieve stress, work out, bond with nature and grow healthy food. Today, more people are more aware of healthy alternatives and are more willing to eat fresh produce, work out and reduce lifestyle-related illnesses. Everyone can now grow food, whether in an apartment building or in the spacious suburbs regardless of the weather patterns, and be fulfilled in the knowledge that your favorite vegetable will always be in season.

For the beginner who’s been looking to start up, here are some simple tips to getting those vegetables out of the soil and onto your plate;

1. Start small with the simplest vegetables that take the shortest time to grow. Keep in mind that as a beginner, you still have a lot to learn and it is better to carry out the experiment on a small scale than have an epic large scale fail (please note that not all beginners fail, so it depends on luck and how well you follow up on the vegetables)

2. Carry out research and find the best seeds that promise high yields and are disease and weather resistant. In doing so, you guarantee that even if some of the vegetables won’t survive to see you palate, at least you still get some.

In the same space, buy small quantities of seed that will be used all at once instead of having them remain to carry over to the next time you plant. This ensures that their high quality is retained, giving good yields all the time.

3. Once you make the decision to start your vegetable garden, commence soil preparation. It may be a good idea to visit one of the farmer’s stores and consult with the experts on the quality of the soil. Professionals with soil experience are more likely to do soil tests for you and advise you on what soil nutrients to increase and fertilizers to use to add to the soil value, depending on the vegetables you want to grow. They may also advise you on how much water the soil needs for whatever favorite vegetable you hope to grow.

4. Once you get your seeds, fertilizer and soil, consider the ideal location to place your garden, where the vegetables will get sufficient light. Different vegetables need varying lengths and intensity of sunlight. It might be advisable to have a protective tent if the garden is the plot behind your house to cover the vegetable once the sun is too hot, or where you can install lighting in case you need artificial lighting.

If you intend to use pots, buckets, sacks or cut bottles, then consider having them in an area that has drainage to allow excess water to flow, and consider having holes in them where the excess water can drain off.

5. Finally, go ahead and begin your journey to getting an all year round supply of fresh vegetables that guarantee you good roughage, steady supply of vitamins and relaxation as you work on the garden.
vegetable-garden-890625_960
These simple tips are far from being exhaustive and are not only meant for vegetable gardening but can be applied to many crops that are easily planted at home. Any beginner can go ahead and try them out, customize them to suit their surroundings and add onto them to make the experience more successful. Who knows, maybe these tips are what you need to discover that green thumb you always thought you had.

Why Are Some People Rich While Other People Are Poor

Often times we think some people are created rich while others poor. How wrong! Why then are some people rich and others wealthy? Neither destiny nor luck have anything to do with it. Some people are rich because they are always looking for ways to either save money or to make money. People who don’t have that drive usually remain poor.

The rich work smart, make the most efficient choices, see opportunities and maximize them, while the poor do not.

1. The poor eat their seed, whereas rich people sow or invest their seed. The rich understands the act of multiplication and compound interest. Compound interest is man’s greatest invention as quoted by Albert Einstein.

2. Poverty comes, in part, from a lack of savings and investments; whereas the rich practice patience and invest in themselves by putting their spare money into savings and investments with a high ROI (Return on Investments) like real estate.

3. The poor want to live like the rich, so they spend their money on luxuries. The rich, however, never spend; they multiply their money by reinvesting their assets then live off the overflow.

4. The rich know how to identify opportunities by taking well calculated risk but the poor do not see opportunities. Rather, they
Pass
Over
Opportunities
Repeatedly

5. The rich have the “can do” mindset, but the poor rely on miracle and luck. This can also be attributed to lazy thinking.

6. Poverty is not a state of purse or pocket, but a state of mind. The difference between the poor and the rich is intelligence.

7. The poor lacks management skills (time, finance, people etc) whereas the rich work to manage and maximize their resources.

8. Poverty comes by inability, lack of self-discipline and unwillingness to confront hardship. People who are poor are usually afraid of failure.  And because of that, they don’t put their ideas into action.  “If you Fail To Plan, you are Planning To Fail.”

The future rich, however, take risks and ask “Why not?”

I believe if you diligently follow the success formula which does not require you to reinvent the wheel, rather do what other successful people did, you will get the result other successful people got.

BP Gulf Oil Spill: Massive Plume of Crude Oil and Chemicals

It has been 4 months since the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded and sank into the Gulf of Mexico. This caused the largest marine oil spill, in the history of the petroleum industry. 4 months later, we have lots of lies and very few answers. We also have very little progress. Despite the lack of progress, BP is still in charge of operations. Luckily for them, they have been able to sink and hide most of the oil. For most of the general public, this oil is out of sight and out of mind.

Even though we cannot see most of the oil that is in the Gulf, a new scientific study proves that it is most definitely there. This study proves that the oil is hovering about a kilometer below the water surface. It also confirms that is about 200 meters high, 2 kilometers wide and reaches approximately 35 kilometers from the original spill site. The worst part? This is not just oil. The composition of the hovering plume, is a toxic mix of crude oil and chemicals. The Corexit dispersant is the lingering chemical that is forcing the oil under the surface, where it is not visible.

Here is the research that supports the data above: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/science.1195223

$2.7 Million Disappears in Orphan Earmark for Atlanta

The year is 1991, it’s the George H. W. Bush administration. The place: Atlanta, Georgia. There is excitement in the city and across the country for the major event that will happen 5 years later – the 1996 Olympic Games.

The excitement is joined with the need for preparation. The city and the region has to prepare – food, safety, shelter, transportation, conveniences, utilities, and infrastructure all have to be ready for the influx of tourists, fans, and athletes that will be arriving.

The federal government, fully aware that how the world would see Atlanta was a reflection of how they also saw the nation, came to their assistance that year in many ways, one of which was an earmark for $58.1 million “for various transportation improvements in connection with the 1996 Olympics, including the city of Atlanta advanced traffic management system (IVHS).”1

The rules laid out in the bill for this money was simple:

  • State of Georgia was to use it for “innovative techniques in highway construction or finance.”
  • The money came from the Highway Trust Fund, and would be used from 1992 to 1997.
  • The money could only be applied to 80% of the project (so the state had some skin in the game).
  • The funds earmarked “shall remain available until expended.”

So what’s the problem? Why are we discussing a twenty year old earmark?

The answer is simple: Because of the language in this bill (can only be used from 1992 – 1997 but funds will remain available until expended), there is $2.7 million being held by the Secretary of Transportation that can only legally be spent… 13 years ago.

How is this possible? This is an example of what is called an ‘orphan earmark’ and nicknamed a ‘disappearmark.’ While it is great that money was not spent when not necessary here, regardless of what congress tried to force upon the recipients, this money still exists but is not included in any real meaningful budgetary numbers.

To make it worse, since this was allocated to the state for a highway project, this money is taken out of the state’s share of federal gas tax revenue!

So let’s get this straight:

  • Georgia doesn’t spend all of the taxpayers money on this project
  • The state is rewarded by losing $2.7 million  from their share of revenue
  • This money is still held by the Department of Transportation
  • No one can use it – so the money just remains with no where to go

There have been several noble attempts by legislators to ‘sunset’ earmarks – if they haven’t been used by a certain time, if recipients can no longer fulfill eligibility requirements, etc. But they continually get squashed.

And I can’t figure it out… but then again, it’s the federal government. They don’t want us to figure it out.

$2.7 Million in today’s dollars = $4.4 Million

*Based on appropriations affect on federal debt over the last 20 years

1. “Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991” HR 2950 ENR, Section 1107 – Innovative Projects. 102nd Congress.

Strong Cross Between Victor Hugo Morales and Magdalena Ruiz Guinazu

Strong cross between Victor Hugo Morales and Magdalena Ruiz Guinazu

As part of a series of interviews with presidential candidates performed together at Radio Continental, Magdalena Ruiz Guinazu and Victor Hugo Morales had a strong cross over journalism.

After a conversation about the media close to the government, Ruiz Guinazu suggested that the name of Victor Hugo’s program on Channel 9, Down-line, reflecting the relationship of the journalist with the Casa Rosada.

-Magdalena Ruiz Guinazu: What do you call your program on Channel 9?

– Victor Hugo Morales:  Slope of line

– MRG:  Slope of line, of course …

– VHM: That I underline, not that I lower it to me …

– MRG: I think so … Anyone who sees your program on Channel 9 or listens to Radio Continental, you know … and you’re defending your right to defend your ideas, but do not come to say that the Government does not intervene … Let the audience questions …

– VHM: No way there will be questions you want here as I hold someone down line on my TV because Bajada line call. Did you think that I fall line, Magdalena?

– MRG: I think so.

– VHM: Who the government?

– MRG: I do not know who, but certainly the government. You defend him permanently. In addition you qualify here the general press and colleagues say they’re a bunch of crap.

– VHM: Never say a word, I would not say that for radio.

– MRG: Yes, and I apply it to me too.

– VHM I did not know … but when? Do you have a record of such an accusation?

– MRG: I do not usually use espionage others do, I have no recording, we were all in the studio here.

“From the nose”. Then Ricardo Alfonsín entered the discussion, when Morales said that “the opposition is led by the nostrils in the mainstream media.”

“Why is so aggressive, Victor Hugo? That is an attitude that is not democratic. I have many more media credentials to oppose the Government: the party, my father [former President Raul Alfonsin], my values. Why do I have to be led by the nose? “interrupted the candidate of the Union for Social Development (UDESA). “I take that word, is a way of signaling that they always mark what is spoken and what was discussed,” continued the driver.

By this he meant the beginning of the crossing, when focused on the complaint to the Secretary of Internal Trade, Guillermo Moreno, about his alleged violent incident against an official of the militant Pro “I want to know what we got when we got in the allegations of media companies have now a real mafia, as reported by a hidden camera we know these days, led by [the CEO of Grupo Clarin, Hector] Magnetto, mafia who feel threatened because newsprint is for them a very painful subject, and the man who is facing Newsprint Moreno “.

“What evidence do you have to say that what Newsprint is a mafia? That the decision of the Court, Victor Hugo. Why are you required to say something else when such rigorous testing as the government says something, you are not requires such rigorous testing? “questioned the candidate. “I have the moral conviction that it is a mafia,” said Victor Hugo, to which Alfonsin said: “I have many convictions, but I can from my convictions to say what happens to me. That’s what the Justice. I have many beliefs, many certainties, and many things that happen in the private sector and the media do not like but it is much more serious when these things are done by the State, the State must argue that these things do not happen ” .

Then, Alfonsin stressed the multiplication of media close to the government in recent times, backed by Ruiz Guinazu. “In a few countries, a government must have many means at its favor,” said presidential candidate and spoke of “media patronage” in the media inside, driven from government advertising.

Modern Warfare Three

Modern Warfare 3 is getting quickscope back in the game (thank you Infinity Ward). Things is what sniper will be the quickscope sniper,not unlike mw2 were the intervention fmj was the one to go for.It is suggested that the m28 or more commonly known as the barret .50cal will be the sniper of choice holding 10 rounds in a clip.It also has a rate of fire from 60 to 70 rounds per minute,making it a good choice.Problem is that all other snipers in the game will have 20 rounds per clip.For example the m14 ebr is suposed to be in the game.It has a 20 round clip and fires 1400 rounds per minute,making it an efficient sniper for killing oportunities in many situations of the game.

This is just an opinion of what i think should be the sniper of choice,but its up to you to make your quickscoping tactics and to make sure u pick the one thats right for the style.

This is,(Fuze)ShadowReaver signing off,till next time.

Dicaprio, The First Who Owns a Fisker Karma | Fisker Karma Was Lauched


The first customer will take possession of model Fisker Karma is Leonardo DiCaprio. In addition, 3,000 clients have already ordered the car, and by early 2012, the company Fisker says it will honor all requests. Some say the waiting list is longer and other personalities such as Al Gore and Colin Powel.Currently, the Valmet factory in Finland produces five cars per week, but by November the rate will increase to 300 units produced per week

Henrik Fisker, the founder has more ambitious plans. After Karma will be retired, Fisker aims to create more new versions, including a shooting and a convertible station wagon, which will be sold in limited series. The shooting break will be launched at the Frankfurt Motor Show this fall.

If all goes as planned in early 2013 Fisker will expose to the public a smaller model designed to rival the BMW 3 series. Currently, its code name is,”Nina Project. Fisker Karma is a vehicle built with aluminum chassis and is equipped with two electric motors, and a propellant gas station, which occupies the central place the battery charging. Are available 260 hp, 2.0-liter engine produced by the turbo.

We do not know if Leonardo DiCaprio him more interested in technical data or design of this machine, but we know that girl in the photos is not included in standard package.

The Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization on Indian Tribals

On of the main problems which the Indian tribes face is industrialization of backward areas and consequent urbanization.The government policy of industrializing remote areas has led to the emergence of high-tech industries in tribal belts.The impact of such industrialization is manifold:

Development in terms of economic prosperity might mean doom to the tribal identity.The first and major impact which tribal population faces is in the shape of loss of tribal identity through the establishment of industries.With major tribal tracts being depopulated and herded to new settlements to give space for establishment of factories,tribals are ill-ease in the new environments.Their customs and traditions come under pressure.Due to contact with the town- culture that industrialization brings,and consequent urbanization a revolutionary change in the attitude of tribals can be seen.

Tribal religion is mocked at in the light of more organized religions like Chrisitianity and Hinduism.Magical cures which tribals practicsed have become out of date and look down upon.

Social problems devastate tribals through urbanization.Urban conditions which the industry ushers into the tribal areas will mean introduction of completely alien way of social contact to the population.

Economically the urban culture is highly materialistic.Tribal economic systems will disintegrate in the industrialised environment.With more and more tribal youth adopting to factory culture and skilled labour espousing new avenues to eke out living, tribal modes of cultivation and crafts are steadily declinning.

The benefits of urbanization and industrialization should also  be taken into account.Tribals who were used to depend upon shifting cultivation and lived liked nomads are now settling down.Their children are exposed to better living conditions including education and health care services.Better sanitation means better health to the community.

The ABCs of GMOs

And it seems as though no conclusive answers to our questions are in sight. The best any layman can do is learn what is known thus far and decide for oneself.

GMOs are genetically modified organisms – they’ve had their genomes altered through genetic engineering. In a lab, DNA from one organism is modified and then transferred into the DNA of another organism in order to produce desired traits. Used mostly in plants such as corn, soybeans, canola and wheat, two desired traits that are of particular value are drought tolerance and pest resistance. These desired traits help produce crops that are at less risk from the elements and require less care.

Two examples of genetically modified foods include:

  • The Flavr Savr tomato. This more rot resistant tomato was made by a California company, Calgene.
  • Roundup Ready soybeans were engineered to resist the weed killer, Roundup. When fields are sprayed, everything but the soybeans died.The controversies surrounding genetically modified foods focus on both human and environmental safety, and on labeling so people can have choice. No matter which side of the GMO issue you fall on, one has to admit that the ability to isolate a specific gene for a single trait is pretty cool science, at least.

Pro GMO

While producing genetically modified foods sounds unnatural, science has continually led us to ongoing positive medical advancements that have helped people lead longer and healthier lives. Some of the current and future accomplishments in favor of genetically modified foods include being able to develop foods that have added nutrients, foods that contain vaccines, and faster growing foods. With growing world population and hunger still a global issue, the ability to feed the planet is key.

Con GMO

Because this is a relatively new science, there has not been thorough testing over time on both the human and environmental impact of genetically modified foods. Some of the worries include the unknown impact on other organisms such as soil, or in cross-pollination. Political issues include the worry that developing nations will become increasingly dependent on richer nations and large dominating companies. And one of the biggest dilemmas is of how to label these foods.

It is obvious that careful monitoring of the genetically modified food supply is needed to document both the positive and negative side effects, for there is the potential that GMOs can have much to offer in the future.

Outcomes From Reaching Your Goals

Reprinted from the Huffington Post

In life and work, success begins with a goal. It could be losing weight, asking for a raise, quitting smoking or starting your own business. Big or small, goals give us purpose and, like a compass, keep us headed in the right direction. Of course, it then takes lots of hard work and determination to reach your destination.

Writing over 2,000 years ago, Aristotle described the process this way: “First, have a definite, clear, practical ideal; a goal, an objective. Second, have the necessary means to achieve your ends: wisdom, money, materials, and methods. Third, adjust all your means to that end.”

Unfortunately, many of us remain stuck at the goal stage. We start out with good intentions and perhaps a plan, but then we can’t seem to make it happen.

There are countless reasons that this occurs — busyness, impatience, fear and negative social pressures are some of the usual culprits — so how do we respond to these challenges and move in the direction of our goal?

Seeing Is Believing

Before we can believe in a goal, we first must have an idea of what it looks like. To paraphrase the old adage: we must see it before we can believe it.

This is where visualization comes in, which is simply a technique for creating a mental image of a future event. When we visualize our desired outcome, we begin to “see” the possibility of achieving it. Through visualization, we catch a glimpse of what is, in the words of one writer, our “preferred future.” When this happens, we are motivated and prepared to pursue our goal.

Visualization should not be confused with the “think it and you will be it” advice peddled by popular self-help gurus. It is not a gimmick, nor does it involve dreaming or hoping for a better future. Rather, visualization is a well-developed method of performance improvement supported by substantial scientific evidence and used by successful people across a range of fields.

Take athletes, for example. Studies show that visualization increases athletic performance by improving motivation, coordination and concentration. It also aids in relaxation and helps reduce fear and anxiety. In the words of one researcher, “visualization helps the athlete just do it and do it with confidence, poise, and perfection.”

Former NBA great Jerry West is a great example of how this works. Known for hitting shots at the buzzer, he acquired the nickname “Mr. Clutch.” When asked what accounted for his ability to make the big shots, West explained that he had rehearsed making those same shots countless times in his mind. Other sports legends like Michael Jordan, Larry Bird, Tiger Woods and pitcher Roy Halladay have also used visualization to improve their performance and achieve their personal best.

Why Visualization Works

According to research using brain imagery, visualization works because neurons in our brains, those electrically excitable cells that transmit information, interpret imagery as equivalent to a real-life action. When we visualize an act, the brain generates an impulse that tells our neurons to “perform” the movement. This creates a new neural pathway — clusters of cells in our brain that work together to create memories or learned behaviors — that primes our body to act in a way consistent to what we imagined. All of this occurs without actually performing the physical activity, yet it achieves a similar result.

Putting It All Together

Remember, you don’t have to be an elite athlete to benefit from visualization. Whether you’re a student, businessperson, parent or spouse, visualization will keep you tethered to your goal and increase your chances of achieving it. The power of visualization is available to all people.

There are two types of visualization, each of which serves a distinct purpose, but for greatest effect, they should be used together. The first method is outcome visualization and involves envisioning yourself achieving your goal. To do this, create a detailed mental image of the desired outcome using all of your senses.

For example, if your goal is to run your first marathon, visualize yourself crossing the finish line in the time you desire. Hold that mental image as long as possible. What does it feel like to pass under the finishing banner, looking at your watch, the cool air on your overheated body? Who is there to greet you as you finish? Your family? Friends? Other runners? Imagine the excitement, satisfaction, and thrill you will experience as you walk off the lactic acid and fall exhausted into their arms.

Some people find it useful to write their goal down, and then, in as much detail as possible, translate it into a visual representation. It could be a hand-drawn picture, a photograph or a diagram. The media doesn’t matter, just as long as it helps you create a vivid mental image and stay motivated.

The second type of visualization is process visualization. It involves envisioning each of the actions necessary to achieve the outcome you want. Focus on completing each of the steps you need to achieve your goal, but not on the overall goal itself.

Back to the marathon example: Before the race, visualize yourself running well — legs pumping like pistons, arms relaxed, breathing controlled. In your mind, break the course into sections and visualize how you will run each part, thinking about your pace, gait and split time. Imagine what it will feel like when you hit “the wall,” that point in the race where your body wants to stop, and more importantly, what you must do to break through it.

You may never run a marathon. However, you can use the same principles to achieve any goal — create a vivid mental picture of yourself succeeding, envision what you must do during each step of the process and, like a runner pushing through “the wall,” use positive mental imagery to stay focused and motivated when you experience obstacles or setbacks.

Visualization does not guarantee success. It also does not replace hard work and practice. But when combined with diligent effort (and, I would add, a strong support network), it is a powerful way to achieve positive, behavioral change and create the life you desire.

Follow Frank Niles, Ph.D. on Twitter: www.twitter.com/@frankniles

Will The World End in 2012 Yes or No?

Will the world end in 2012 yes or no?

Just how actually must you consider the discuss regarding an end of the world 2012 doomsday?

Generally there are a multitude of Dec 21 2012 predictions concerning the end of the world, earth as all of us know it. Some point out that upon an old Mayan calendar 2012 points to the end of the world: these people choose December 21 2012 as the exact day simply because this is when the actual calendar finishes. Other people talk about a Nostradamus 2012 end of the world prediction.

A few 2012 end of the world prophecies tend to be related to each other well, some aren’t. It has got to the level in which the concept associated with a 2012 end of the world doomsday is actually freaking many persons out. Should anyone indeed be freaked? We do not think so. To begin with, provided previous doomsday estimations and prophecies in regards to the end of the world, the planet should certainly have finished by today! Considering that the earth is even now here, it might be reasonable to state then that, up to now, every end of the world prophecies as well as intutions regarding the end of the world failed!

Even so, a word of caution! Simply due to the fact the earth has survived numerous end of the world prophecies up to now, doesn’t assure it’ll still be here within the year 2012, or even tomorrow for instance. Just about any regarded threat needs to be considered seriously. We really are a somewhat insecure planet. The “Greenies” have great points concerning the susceptability of our ecosystem. Even though we all don’t consider any kind of end of the world 2012 prophecies will occur, we are aware of that there are plenty of foolish, power hungry people that increase the risk for earth in order to become vulnerable to a doomsday. However, not a 2012 end of the world!

It is actually a well known truth that we now have sufficient nuclear weapons in order to eliminate the entire world… quite a few times over! And they are saying we are improving. developing! Will the end of the world occur on Dec 21 2012 for this reason ? All it would need is just one lunatic to press the button! Outcome: end of the world by way of nuclear war. Yet is this one really an end of the world 2012 prediction ?

In case you put all these known details besides and neglect them as it were, could it be really likely that a couple of end of the world 2012 prediction can wipe out the world? The year 2012 is merely about upon us all. Today constitutes a moment in order to ask if there are actually any kind of 2012 end of the world prophecies that one can really consider?

One particular element is for sure: previous prophecies concerning the end of the world that don’t appear to be true are no assurance that some other 2012 estimations won’t come true – however will anything occur to bring about a 2012 end of the world for this planet, on Dec. 21 2012? While we do not believe that, it is still not bad to question this.

Hot Actors Over 40 Feat. Johnny Depp, Robert Downey Jr., Paul Rudd, Gerard Butler & More

This is a sequel to my Hot Actors over 50 article. This article is dedicated to the handsome actors who are between the ages 40 & 49. Most of them require no introduction.

The order is random. I might have forgotten some actors, so feel free to remind me your favorites. Guys are welcome to suggest Hot Actresses over 40.

Johnny Depp – 1963

Johnny Depp is one of those rare actors who is loved by both men and women, since he possesses great looks and even a greater talent. My favorite Johnny Depp movies are  The Tourist, What’s Eating Gilbert Grape, Public Enemies, Benny & Joon, Nick of Time, Chocolat, Pirates of the Caribbean The Curse of the Black Pearl, Once Upon a Time in Mexico, Finding Neverland.

Timothy Olyphant – 1968

JUSTIFIED: Episode 6: When the Guns Come Out (Airs February 21, 10:00 pm e/p). Pictured: Timothy Olyphant. CR: Prashant Gupta / FX

Recommended Timothy Olyphant:

TV Series: Justified, Deadwood, Damages Season 2
Movies: A Perfect Getaway, Hitman, Live Free or Die Hard 4, Catch and Release, Bill, The Girl Next Door.

Tom Cruise – 1962

05/17/2010 – Tom Cruise – Jerry Bruckheimer Hand and Footprint Ceremony at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre – Grauman’s Chinese Theatre – Hollywood, CA, USA – Keywords: – 0 – – Photo Credit: Bob Charlotte / PR Photos – Contact (1-866-551-7827)

Recommended:  Mission Impossible 2, Far & Away, Minority Report, Top Gun, Knight and Day, Jerry Maguire, The Firm,  Lions for Lambs, The Last Samurai, Rain Man, Born on The Fourth of July, Taps

Gerard Butler – 1969

Recommended: Law Abiding Citizen, Gamer, Nim’s Island, Please!, Butterfly on a Wheel, Dear Frankie, The Ugly Truth

Clive Owen – 1964

Recommended: Shoot ‘Em Up, Beyond Borders, Elizabeth: The Golden Age, Duplicity, The Boys are Back, The International

Robert Downey Jr. – Born 1964 

Recommended: Air America, Iron Man 2, Sherlock Holmes

Jeffrey Dean Morgan – Born 1966

Recommended:

Watchmen – co-starring Patrick Wilson, Matthew Goode, Malin Akerman, Billy Crudup; P.S. I Love You – starring Gerard Butler, Hillary Swank
TV: Grey’s Anatomy Season 2

Paul Rudd – Born 1969

I know it is hard to believe, since Paul Rudd barely looks 30. But he was born in 1969.
Recommended Paul Rudd: I Could Never Be Your Woman – co-starring Michelle Pfeiffer and Clueless– starring Alicia Silverstone, Forgetting Sarah Marshall– starring Jason Segel, Kristen Bell, Mila Kunis and I Love You Man– co-starring Jason Segel.

Obstacles to Development

Currently there are two major groups of countries: developed and developing countries. They represent two totally different worlds, one with all the conditions of well-being the other with bad and often degrading living conditions. But what is the origin of this inequality?

The Colonial Past

A major cause is related to the colonial past of many countries. The colonizing countries (Europeans) exploited the natural wealth of these countries in benefit of Europe. So, they developed further, leaving the colonized countries with no evolution. Almost all African countries achieved independence after World War II,  in the 60s. This ultimately led to dictatorships and political instability. Today, armed conflict still dominate in this countries which reduces their possibilities of development.

Natural Hazards

Photo Marco Dormino/ The United Nations

In general, developing countries are more vulnerable to natural hazards because the financial and technical resources available to carry out disaster prevention, saving lives and rebuilding infrastructure are lower than those of developed countries. That is why hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and droughts, very common in developing countries, have a great impact on its economy.

A good example is what happened in Haiti and Chile. A strong earthquake in Chile resulted in less than a thousand victims. In Haiti, the death rate was more than two hundred thousand.

Population Growth

Developing countries are primarily responsible for the population explosion in the world and, in general, still have high rates of natural increase due to high birth rate. Due to this rapid growth of population, we are witnessing the worsening of problems such as poverty, the growth of slums and rising of crime, violence and social instability, malnutrition, difficult access to education and lack of health care.

The Democratic Deficit

There are still many countries with single-party regimes (military or dictatorial). It’s common the disregard for human rights and press freedom, the corruption, the misuse of capital and the enrichment of the ruling classes. This triggers political and social instability, which ultimately harms their development.

Armed Conflicts

Developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and South Asia, continue to be heavily affected by wars. Destruction of infrastructure, refugees and casualties, expenditure on armaments and recruitment of child soldiers are some of the consequences.

International Trade

Most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa and the Middle East are still very dependent on the export of agricultural or mineral products. In 38 of these countries, a single product contributes half of the value of the exports. Unfortunately, there was a general fall in commodity prices between 1974 and 2004. Many of these countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, depend on a small range of agricultural products and, therefore, the general fall of prices led them to double exports to maintain income levels constant and counter the deterioration of terms of trade. However, more offer eventually mean new lower prices and thus aggravated the terms of trade.

Transnational Corporations

The objectives of the transnational corporations are easy to summarize: lower production costs, gain more market and increase profits. But they are accused of lack of loyalty to workers and to the countries that host them, when they close its subsidiaries and move it to other countries, where production costs are lower. Many cause serious environmental damage, exploiting the raw materials and the labor-cheap population of developing countries, as their profits are repatriated almost entirely to developed countries.

In many developing countries, governments are very vulnerable to the interests of transnational corporations, yielding to corruption and allowing over-exploitation of resources of their own country.

Rakhi Sawant Hot Blue Film Kamasutra

Rakhi Sawant is the first Bollywood actress who get awarded for her bold role in blue film scandal called Indian Kamasutra.

Rakhi Sawant rolling stones item girl and hot Bollywood actress were in a hot blue film Kamasutra scandal for 13 years. It was still her husband David and Rakhi Sawant married Indian actor Johnny Liver. They David and Rakhi met when the latter played in the video Kamasutra as a bold actress and position maker in 1999.

About her their written a book about her biography and flexography including all her fakes and real scandals including her hidden tape scandal by American biographical author Jenny Paul.

The book is called Rakhi Sawant affairs: The True Story. Paul has spent six years researching past Rakhi Sawant and says he has found several previously unknown secretes of her, including her first entry in Bollywood scandals through a without clothes photo session by a local blue film director. Video Rolling Stones with Rakhi Sawant in the lead can be seen below it is probably not augment fragile.

Besides all these scandals and entertaining news about Rakhi it is so clear that she will leave the Indian film industry very soon because she is taking a high interest in making her own art academy in Delhi. You can watch and enjoy this b-grade actress movie and video clips on any free video sharing website for free of cost.

Best Modern Jet Fighter Aircraft

F-22 Raptor

With the possible exception of the Su-47 Berkut the F-22 is hands down the most advanced jet in the world currently. It’s stealth capabilities and advanced electronics allows it to stalk enemy planes and get in close with out being seen for a kill. It also the only 5th generation fighter jet in service with any air force currently. The jet has good fuel efficiency with it’s “super cruise” which is at Mach 1.8 without after burners. The F-22 gives up speed for aircraft range.

The Su-47-Berkut is on the left.

Su-47 Berkut

Hand’s down the best dogfighting Jet fighter. The Su-47 has extreme maneuverability. A byproduct of it’s forward swept wing design. It is not as stealthy as the F-22 Raptor however it makes that up agility and the ability to carry much more weapons than the F-22 Raptor. The jet uses hard points as well as internal weapon bays.

F-35 Lightning II variant B

The F-35 is a multi-role jet which will replace older US aircraft. The F-35 will have the ability to defend air space and have tactical bombing capabilities. The B variant of the F-35 will have short takeoff and vertical landing capabilities allowing it to land in special places. This stops the need for a runway.

Mig-29 Fulcrum

A well built Mig-29 exceeds or equals the US made F-15. The Mig-29 has great maneuverability and ruggedness. The Mig-29 has newer variants such as the Mig-35 which was developed from the Mig-29M. The Mig-29 had service in Germany as an air superiority fighter in the ’90s.

Dassault Rafale

Is a French multi role fighter that was developed for the French Navy and Airforce. Currently it is the only European fighter aircraft that can be deployed on a carrier. Dassault Rafale is currently only in use by the French. It is aging however however it was the first 4.5th generation fighter. Which makes it unique. It has high tech counter measures designed to make the aircraft extremely survivable.

Pakistani Girls Desi MMS Mobile Clips

Pakistan is a third world country where more than 70 present of population is illiterate and living a hand to mouth life. People hardly earn to get meal of one or two times and unable to pay gas and electricity bills. Girls are highly restricted to get education and higher education is a dream of every girl there. Only girls living in cities and having a rich background can freely get education from school o university level. This is a one side face of Pakistani people.

If you make a look at other side, you may surprised to get notice that stage drama halls that showing vulgar dance shows and cinema halls are fully crowded with men and young boys. People are wasting a lot of money on weddings, private functions, and outdoor parties.  Mostly this money is spent on dancer girls imported from red areas of big cities like Lahore and Karachi. Every young boy or girl must have a mobile phone, even if they are school students or job workers.

The most common use of these mobile phones is to call their unknown girlfriends that they got through wrong mobile calls. After long distance calling and trusted developed relation young couples set their date meetings in some café or hotel rooms. Mostly guys did some sexual activities with these mobile girls and capture their shamed activities on their phones.

Later these mobile mms video clips are upload on sever websites on the Internet. These video clips are called Desi hot mobile clips. Some girls do suicide after watching these shameful clips on the Internet.

Cutting Edge Weapons: 10 Unusual Knives, Swords and Blades

By C. Jordan

In this age when we think of weapons, we tend to think of aircraft, electronic guidance systems, bombs and missiles. Sophisticated star wars systems may come to mind or huge warships and aircraft carriers or even chemical or nuclear weapons.

Of course that has not always been the case.

From man’s earliest days the blade has been the basic form of weapon whether for hunting, defence or warfare. For close combat and ceremonial occasions it is still in use today: the dress sword of the mounted officer or the bayonet of the infantry. If you are lucky enough to be Knighted you may even get a tap on the shoulders by the British Queen with a ceremonial sword.

I would like to make it clear at this point, that this article takes no stance on the use of weaponry.

My own beliefs and convictions are not included here. This is a look at some of the non standard, more interesting and curious forms that blades have taken, with historical, geographic and cultural differences. I use the term blade because some of the forms shown cannot be described as knives or swords.

  1. The Kukri

    Some readers may be surprised to find that the image shown is actually modern British army issue. It is issued to one of the most feared units in the British army: the Gurkhas.

    It is their weapon of choice in close combat, rather than the bayonet.

    The story of the Gurkhas is a long and historically complicated one.

    Succinctly: Gurkhas hail from Nepal which was part of India. In its Empire building days, Britain made India one of its colonies. The Gurkhas were seen as brave and heroic fighters who were recruited into the colonial Indian army as a “Martial Race”, a term which meant that they were not classed as mercenaries.

    With the independence of India in 1947 four regiments became part of the British army. Prior to this they have fought in both World Wars and latterly were part of the forces that in the 1980’s defeated the Argentine army in the Falklands and also served in the Middle East.

    The Kukri shown above is the standard army issue with karda and chakmak.

    Traditionally the blade is 12-15 inches (30-38cm) long. The karda is a small accessory blade used for many tasks. The chakmak is unsharpened and is used to burnish the blade. It can also be used to start a fire with flint.

  2. The Shamshir

    The Shamshir is a sabre that is part of the scimitar group of swords.

    Originating in Persia in the 16th century, it was the weapon of the Persian cavalry.

    Somewhat unwieldy and inaccurate in a thrusting stabbing motion, its strength was in its slashing ability. The curved blade which made it unwieldy for thrusting made it dynamic for a downward slashing movement, normally against un-armoured foot opponents. One writer said that “bright shamshirs which fell on the head cleft men to the waist.”

  3. The Khanda

    The Khanda is a straight, heavy double edged Indian sword

    This example clearly shows that the weapon is broader towards the tip than half way down the blade, complete with spike at the base of the handle. Because of its size and weight, this again was a weapon that was more useful for slashing and hacking rather than a stabbing movement.

    It is mainly associated with the Sikhs, Marathas and other clans of the Kshatriya warrior class of India. It is also used in Sikh martial arts.

  4. The Quoit

    The quoit, surely this is a ring of rope used by passengers on luxury liners in days gone by in deck games, or perhaps the ring used in Hoopla on the funfair?

    These pastimes of idling away time do not have much to do with reality.

    The reality was that the quoit was a solid razor sharp ring of thin steel used by the Sikhs of India. (The example above is actually inlaid with gold

    Image sourceSikhs with chakrams, 1844

    The quoit also known as a Chakram measured anything between 5-12 inches (13-30cm)

    This weapon was thrown at the enemy. It was released either vertically in an underarm throw to fall under it own weight on the heads of opponents, or would be twirled around the index finger raised above the head and released.

    It is said that in the right hands it could kill a man at 80 paces.

  5. The Kora

    A somewhat rare and fierce weapon, the Kora served as part axe and part sword.

    This Indo/Nepal weapon was used for fighting and for sacrifice.

  6. The Tang

    A tang on a knife or sword is that part that will be enclosed by the handle.

    This is probably how the weapon got its name. At first glance it appears as if the pointed part is like the tang waiting to have the handle fitted with the parts to right and left being hand guards.

    The tang shown is actually 58cm long and 65 cm wide (23 and 26 inches)

    This is actually a “pole arm”. A shaft fits into the opening in the bottom left.

    It derives from China in the 19th century and consists of a 13cm (5 inch) spear type point with two 33cm (13 inch) blades either side.

    This type of weapon was used by police forces or others who needed to keep crowds in order.

  7. The Ayda Katti

    The Ayda Katti is the national sword of the Coorg of Malabar, the South West coastal area of India.

    It is one of the rarest swords in the Indian arsenal and of a very peculiar shape. It is single edged and is reminiscent of a scythe or other farming agricultural tool. However it is a real weapon and a deadly one in experienced hands.

    The blade of this one is 38cm (15 inches) long and 10cm (4 inches) wide at its widest point with a massive steel bolster.

  8. The Katar

    The Katar, shown in the introduction, is a short punching sword from India. The hand fitted into the grip so that the blade was above the knuckles. It was a weapon used by the Rajput, referred to as “the most valiant warriors of the Indian sub continent.”

    Used in close combat the blades were said to be able to punch through armour.

    The fascinating example above incorporates two small pistols alongside the hand grip. this was used by the Maharatti cavalry. An earlier example of this pistol weapon did not have triggers but was fired by squeezing together the two “swallow tails” at the back, which was attached to the firing mechanism.

  9. The Badek

    The Badek (or Badik) is a knife from Java, Indonesia. It is characterized by its single edge blade with straight back and up-curving edge, and the pistol grip shape handle.

    It measures from 20 to 40 cm in length (8-16 inches)

    It sometimes features in Silat Melayu – martial arts from the countries around the Malay Archipelago.

  10. The Kris

    The Kris or Keris is a dagger that originates from Indonesia and Malaysia.

    The Glenbow museum describes them “Kris knives with decorative scabbards are used throughout Indonesia as weapons and ritual objects, and are part of men’s ceremonial attire. The wavy iron blade of the knife represents a snake in movement and is thought to have power to protect its owner.”

    In the past disputes were settled with this double edged dagger. The more people it killed the more valuable it became.

    There was a superstition that it should not be drawn in the presence of the person who gave it to the owner.

    The kris was also supposed to have a spirit that could be good or bad. The same weapon may be bad for one person but good for another.

Ancient Symbols – The Swastika

(Photo above: Anglo-Saxon cinerary urn with swastika motifs, created between 5th and 6th century, from North Elmham, Norfolk.)

The Swastika is an ancient sacred symbol – upon first glance, the words “Sacred” and “Swastika” seem to contradict each other……we are all painfully aware of the negative Nazi association with this symbol, BUT, we should not forget that this symbol is ancient, it did not start with the Nazi’s and it would be a shame to let it end there, when potentially, analysis could provide a startling insight into human history.

The swastika has been used by many cultures and religions

The Swastika has been attributed with many meanings over time.

Many believe that the symbol originated in the ancient Sumerian civilisation (the cradle of civilisation) 5300 – 1940BC located in modern Southern Iraq – the Swastika symbol has been found on some of the earliest Sumerian pottery ……. but, the earliest discovered use of the Swastika was in and around India during the Neolithic era – the new stone age – 9500 years ago!

The word Swastika is derived from the Sanskrit language – svastika – meaning well being or lucky.
Source

In 1925, Coca Cola launched a brass Swastika shaped lucky watch fob promotion.

It’s possible that the key fob was distributed in Germany just before the 1936 Olympics. The Coca Cola corporation appeared to be one of the sponsors of Hitler’s Third Reich propaganda.

A town in Ontario was named Swastika in 1911 because of a lucky gold strike.
Source


In Great Britain the common name given to the Swastika from Anglo-Saxon times … was Fylfot, said to have been derived from the Anglo-Saxon “fower fot”, meaning four-footed, or many-footed. SWASTIKA STONE ILKLEY – YORKSHIRE

This carved stone on Woodhouse Crag, Ilkley Moor, Yorkshire, England – the carving is thought to date back to the bronze age (2700 – 700 BC).

You may see the swastika symbol regularly – hidden in plain sight – The Microsoft Swastika
Source

The US Navy base in San Diego was required to spend $ 600,000.00 to alter the design of their building in the wake of numerous complaints following the launch of the aerial visualisation tool – Google Earth. From The Daily Kos.

Buddha in Tanzhe Temple in Bejing, China has a swastika on his chest – “A seal on Buddha’s heart”. In the Buddhist tradition, the Swastika was used to mark the beginning of sacred texts. Source

Villa Romana de Tejada in village of Quintanilla de la Cueza, in the province of (Palencia), Spain.

Mosaic floor showing the symbol of a swastica in the Roman City of Sabratha, Libya

Many scholars have attributed the symbol to be a representation of the sun – However, every time I look at a swastika – I see a spinning, spiral armed galaxy – but given the history of this symbol – how could our ancient ancestors know of or have seen a distant galaxy?

Hot Pakistani Girls

How many of you recognize this American-born Bollywood actress?  She is India’s newest rising film star and recently she has been seen in some new music videos. Here are two of my favorite photos, the second one from her Instagram account.

Nargis Fakhri
Nargis-Fakhri

Now a day the most in fashion in Pakistani girls are wearing jeans and skirts and they totally ignoring their past trend of wearing colorful shalwar kameez with stylish embroidery on the front of their shirts. Turquoise is very famous and is also known as purple color in Pakistan.

The other new trend follows by Pakistani babes is to adding their profile, describing their selves and what they’re looking for in a partner. They upload their photos with their profiles to get twenty times more attention to their profiles. They add these profiles to various single and partner looking websites. Mostly they are looking for guy living in abroad like UK, USA, and Dubai etc.

The other hot issue in Pak news is about Miss Pakistan World is a beauty competition for Pakistani girls from the planet earth. Which was started in 2002 by an American resident Sonia Ahmed, Miss Pakistan World attracted Pakistani girls from the England, America and Canada.

The other main issue with Pakistani girls is cell phone. Every second girl in Pakistan who has mobile is suffering from some kind of trouble from the wrong callers. Majority wrong callers are of guys searching for girl’s cell phone numbers. The interesting thing is that not only boys doing this but on the other hand certain types of girls are doing such things at a large number. In most cases the girls are asking for mobile cards to make a friendship with fool boys.

Henrikas Daktaras: Mafia Lord of Lithuania

Dr. Henry (alias – Henytė) – one of the most famous criminals of all time in Lithuania, the Lithuanian media is often referred to as the criminal authority.

Dr. Henry (alias – Henytė) – one of the most famous criminals of all time Lithuania, the Lithuanian media is often referred to as the criminal authority.

Convicted twice. He alleged a number of crimes for extortion, bodily harm, murder. Anticipated that it may be killing his cousin and he put together his protected gang members.

Dr. Henry is convicted for extortion and witness the impact .

1997, February 13, the day of the Vilnius district court granted Dr. Henry 8year prison sentence for mediation redemption cars threats and former Head of the Protection of Ancient Agora (now the Court of the former Criminal Police Office of the Deputy Head) Yuri Milevsko, if that, witness the court recognizes Dari Mačianską which the kidnap of his car .

In October 2001 from Dr H. Vilnius 2 nd amendment to the strict regime colony was released into the freedom for good behavior, completing a three-quarters of the punishment.

What Really Happens During a Recession?

Everywhere on the media we get news about the financial crisis and recession. It’s not a single country problem but most of the developed world is in a recession now. The situation has also been called “The Great Recession”.

Some people are also using the term ‘depression’ but that is not what economists would use, not yet.

Difference Between Recession and Depression

What then is the difference between a recession and a depression? Dictionary.com defines recession as “a period of an economic contraction, sometimes limited in scope or duration.” Economists usually define a depression as a decline in real GDP of more than 10% over three or four years. A very old joke tells us “a recession is when your neighbour loses his job, a depression is when you lose yours”.

Events in a Recession

  • Production decreases – People buy less and companies produce less because they can’t sell.
  • Stocks fall – As companies make less profits confidence in the company’s ability to grow and make profits comes down. This lowers share prices.
  • Politicians and company directors start denying – Any early signs of recession are promptly denied as usual market fluctuations or blamed on previous government policies.
  • More people are unemployed – Companies earn less and cut costs by firing people. Labour is usually the largest expense of a company and thus the greatest savings comes from cutting labour costs.
  • People start spending less – People are scared of losing their jobs or incomes and start saving so that they can live off savings if they lose their incomes.
  • Interest rates fall – Governments and Central Banks lower interest rates to make money cheaper so that it is easier for companies to borrow and increase their productivity.
  • Governments adopt expansionary policies – Taxes are cut and public sector spending is raised to boost confidence and increase spending power of consumers.
  • Confidence in the financial institutions suffers – Governments put astronomical sums of taxpayer money to save financial institutions like banks and pension funds to maintain confidence in the financial system.
  • Gloom mongers are in full swing – The same politicians and directors who denied early signs of recession start competing to paint blacker than black pictures of the state of the economy so that taxpayer money can be used to bail out ailing companies or industries and politicians would be seen as saviours.
  • Stricter laws about financial instruments – Governments or central authorities try to introduce stricter methods of controlling financial instruments and systems. Some high profile scapegoats are found. After some time innovative operators succeed in going around control mechanisms resulting in new misuses.
  • Many companies go bankrupt – Companies, which are not agile enough to react to the crisis or able to pressure the governments into bailing them out go bankrupt. Usually the taxpayer is left with the costs of the bankruptcies.
  • Care industry grows – Demand for services grow due to unemployment, early retirement, health problems and mental health issues.
  • Cosmetic industry booms – People defer making large purchases like homes, cars and foreign vacations but buy relatively lower cost cosmetic products to feel good quickly.
  • Reading, communal activities and spending time with family and friends increases – With less money being spent on entertainment, hobbies, travel and devices, activities, which require less money become more popular.
  • Less babies are born in affluent countries – Measured by lower number of searches for baby related products, Heather Hopkins of Hitwise claims that less babies are being made now due to the recession.
  • Developing economies suffer more – If developing economies have to borrow to invest in new kinds of production, their debt burden increases. The developing world already spends $13 on debt repayment for every $1 it receives in grants.

The History of St. Patrick’s Day Parades

How did a Christian observance for the Patron Saint of Ireland turn into the St. Patrick’s Day parades we see every year? Read on to learn some of the history behind the festivities.

“May you live to be a hundred, with one extra year to repent!” goes a well-known Irish saying. And may you be able-bodied enough to enjoy St. Patrick’s Day every year of your life. One of the ways Americans enjoy it in cities across the nation is with annual parades. On March 17th it seems everyone has a wee bit o’the green in him, for they turn out in droves, line the streets early, bring their grills and their picnic baskets, and settle in for a day of pure enjoyment.

Lonely Irish immigrants in Boston in 1737 held the first recorded St. Patrick’s Day celebration in America. It is likely that they continued to celebrate together every year, just as they had in their home country, but the next one recorded in history was in 1762. Irish soldiers stationed there with the English military held a parade in the New York City streets, much to the delight of a growing Irish immigrant community. It was such a success that in 1766 New York declared it an annual event, and so it has been ever since.

The protestant, largely middle-class immigrants formed several ‘Irish Aid’ societies in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s, like the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, to assist each other and new immigrants that were pouring in. They were hard-working, upright people who helped their own and anybody else who needed it. And their celebrations – St. Patrick’s Day being the main one – were boisterous, happy, fun, and open to anybody who wanted to join in. As a result, they were well received by all. Local groups turned out with bagpipes and drums, the churches opened up with bazaars and games, and residents vied with each other to produce the best ethnic dishes and desserts.

In 1845 the Great Potato Famine in Ireland drove scores starving immigrants to American shores, and public opinion changed somewhat. These immigrants – almost a million of them – tended to be poor, uneducated, and Catholic. They had difficulty finding even menial work and were often met with contempt by Americans. Protestant middle class Irish scorned them as well. For years many of them had a rough go in their new country. But the Irish are durable, and find ways to weather storms. Eventually they began to recognize their power as a voting block, and to organize what was called the ‘green machine’. Their power was in their sheer numbers, and political candidates began to woo them determinedly for the swing vote they represented. By this time many cities were hosting parades on March 17, the largest being in New York City. Irishmen must have danced with glee in 1948 when then-President Harry Truman attended the New York City parade, giving his seal of approval to the practice and creating public acceptance across the nation.

St. Patrick’s Day was not an officially recognized holiday until 1976, but most large cities were already hosting their own brand of parades in honor of the day. However, it was increasingly recognized as a secular holiday, not a Christian one, with the emphasis on pure fun. While there is nothing wrong with that, the outlandish customs that Americans seem to love have become offensive to some devout Irish, who would never dream of wearing a “kiss me, I’m Irish” button. Also drinking to excess is now a given for many folks on this holiday, something the true Irish did not tolerate.

In Ireland, businesses were closed on St. Patrick’s Day, including the pubs. The day began by attending church services to honor their patron saint. Men wore a sprig of shamrocks on the hats or jackets, women wore green ribbons in their hair, and children wore green, white and orange badges – the colors of the flag. The rest of the day was devoted to family, friends, and festivities. Games, crafts, and contests were held, and copious quantities of dark Irish beer and traditional Irish dishes were consumed, but drinkers stayed close to home and knew their limits.

It wasn’t until the 1970’s that the Irish parliament repealed the law keeping pubs closed. In 1995 a national campaign began to attract tourism to the war-torn country, and to showcase the beautiful Emerald Isle. A national St. Patrick’s celebration now takes place in Dublin every year, lasting several days. In addition to a huge parade, there are fireworks, concerts, theater productions, and treasure hunts. Close to a million attend every year.

St. Patrick’s Day parades are springing up in other countries as well. Canada, Russia, Singapore, and Japan boast of parades, among others. It just goes to show that, indeed, there may be a little leprechaun in all of us. This is certainly true in America, where the Census Bureau estimates over 34 million Americans can trace some Irish blood in their ancestry.

With this year’s celebration just around the corner, many establishments are already gearing up for the coming festivities. In university towns this often includes neighbors boarding up their windows against a night of frivolity and heavy drinking. But less troublesome celebrations will be everywhere, so be sure to freshen up your green jacket and buff up your dancing shoes! And as the evening wears on and you are ready to end your day, be sure and bless your hosts with a traditional Irish blessing: “May your neighbors respect you, troubles neglect you, the angels protect you, and Heaven accept you.”

Moving on After Loss

It still really hurts, but it does get better…

Growing up in a secure household where there was never a need for any thought to be given to the insecurity that tomorrow may bring, I had the love of my parents and I grew up with the wonderful companionship of my sister and a house with plenty.

As children we were shielded from the adverse things of life, by never having to face them, although we were made to understand how very fortunate we were and not to ever take anything for granted.

Years have rolled on ever since, and my vision is clouded by the unexpected terminal illness to which I lost my Mum nearly ten years back. It seemed unfair not only because she was young, and so was I, but also we were at that stage in our lives together where we were getting closer and closer and the need to share with her had become almost a necessity. I am a great believer in the the words, ‘Time heals everything,’ and although it seemed impossible at the time, I have overcome my deep sorrow to remember the good days with her, the times we laughed together and the bundle of energy that she was!

In times of grief, people often console you, telling you not to cry, that it will al be alright, and I had all that as well- a close knit extended family and wonderful friends. But the need to grieve is essential and only by allowing myself to feel the pain and on some days get up with the thought that I am not going to make it, did I actually manage to live with the sadness.

There are still days when I miss her so much that my heart physically aches and I am overwhelmed by the fact that my children will never know her, but yet I know she is watching us. If I can be anything like she was as a mother, to my daughters, I will consider myself a real success. She gives me strength to be a better person and I know that if time allows one to get through a personal tragedy and come out on the other side, there is believe strength and resilience in the human spirit. Let not anyone tell you otherwise.

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Introduction

Introduction

Journal, the root word of journalism, came from the Latin word diurnal, which means daily. In ancient Rome, brief communiqués were called Acta Diurna, which means Daily Events. Others were called Acta Publica, which means Public Events.

Journalism, the art and science of writing for newspapers, periodicals, radio, television, and online publications, enfolds timely and factual reports of unusual or unexpected events, opinions, or situations that affect man and his environment. These reports are gathered, evaluated, and published, broadcast, or posted on the Web to inform, to entertain, or to influence large number of readers.

The history of journalism started in ancient Egypt when heralds ran to pharaohs with oral reports and when town criers sang important announcements in public places. The first printed newspaper, produced from wood blocks, appeared in Beijing, China in the Seventh and in the Eight Centuries.

When Johan Guttenberg of Mainz, Germany invented the movable printing press in 1450, wider and faster dissemination of news stories were made possible. It also facilitated the exchange of ideas throughout Europe and the spread of the ideas of the Renaissance from 1300 to 1600.

On September 25, 1690, Benjamin Harris, an English refugee, published the Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick, the first American newspaper, in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1783, the Daily Advertisers and the Pennsylvania Evening Post, the first daily American newspapers, were published in Philadelphia.

The Gentleman’s Magazine, published from 1731 to 1907, was the first periodical to use the word magazine that denotes a vehicle of entertaining reading. It contained political essays, poems, stories, and debates and was very influential, serving for example, as the model for the American Magazine of Andrew Bradford and the General Magazine and Historical Chronicle of Benjamin Franklin, the first true American periodicals.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Early Years

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Early Years

The Philippine press, which is committed to the great heritage of libertarianism, is one of the freest, liveliest, and strongest in Asia and in the world. Throughout the ages, it has perpetuated a formidable tradition of service, which is the fortification of our sovereign life.

Its sustainable growth and development provides gratifying and fascinating footnotes of our historical revolutions. It started in 1637 when Tomas Pinpin, the father of Filipino printing, published the Successos Felices, the first Philippine newspaper that antedated Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick for 53 years.

Pinpin, who learned the art of printing from Father Francisco Blancas de San Jose, the parish priest of Abucay, Bataan and founder of the Dominican-owned printing press in Binondo, Manila and in Pila, Laguna, devoted his 14 – page newspaper to the raids of Muslim pirates in the country.

Hojas Volantes, with the title Aviso Al Publico, was distributed for mass readership in the Philippines and acted as town criers of Spain in the country on February 27, 1799. Although it appeared intermittently in the next 50 years, it was only on August 8, 1811 when the Spaniards put out the Del Superior Govierno, the first regularly issued newspaper edited by Governor General Manuel (Mariano?) Fernandez Del Folgueras. It gave news about the Napoleonic invasion in Spain and was a potent weapon in the fight for emancipation. It ceased publication after 15 issues over a six-month period.

Published on March 25, 1821, El Ramillete Patriotico was a liberal and audacious newspaper. It was sarcastic and sometimes unbridled in its speech of degenerating personalities. Another newspaper, El Noticioso Filipino, was published on July 29, 1821.

La Filantropía, a weekly newspaper dealing with current issues from Europe and the arrivals and departures of vessels in Manila, was dedicated to the “welfare of the people in the language that is not offensive to the sane moral of the public.” Printed in papel de arroz (rice paper), it first appeared on September 1, 1821 and ceased publication in 1822. It was followed by El Filantropo, a relatively small newspaper that lasted a year, and the Noticias Compiladas de los Papeles Publicos de la Peninsula both in 1824.

Founded by the Real Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais and edited by Luis Barreto, Jose Azcarraga, Manuel Azcarraga, Marcelo Azcarraga, and Jose Nicolas Irastorza in 1824, the Registro Mercantil de Manila was a monthly newspaper that worked for economic prosperity and political independence, but ceased publication in May 1833 because of lack of financial support and regular subscribers. El Noticiero followed it in 1838.

In 1843, Gregorio Tarrius, the Administrator of Posts, founded the Semanario Filipino that published business news from Asia, Europe, and the Archipelago. It was renamed El Amigo del Pais in 1845, but ceased publication in April 1847. La Estrella, a weekly newspaper founded by Agustin de la Cavada y Mendez de Vigo on October 4, 1846, became a daily newspaper on February 1, 1847, but was suspended in January 1849.

La Esperanza, the first daily newspaper filled with long discussions about religious, scientific, historical, and philosophical subjects, was also founded by Agustin de la Cavada y Mendez de Vigo, was edited by Felipe de la Corte y Ruano Calderon, and was published by Miguel Sanchez on December 1, 1846. It also published official and commercial news and advertisements.

When El Diario de Manila was founded on January 1, 1848, La Estrella and La Esperanza ceased publication and relinquished the monopoly to the Boletin Oficial de Filipinas, the daily government organ from 1852 to 1860. However, when the latter was renamed the Gaceta de Manila by a Royal Order on May 18, 1860, El Diario de Manila reappeared in September 1860.

Edited by José Felipe Del Pan, El Diario de Manila became not only the best-edited newspaper, but also one that had long, prosperous, and continuous circulation until 1899. Its editorial staff included José de la Rosa, Manuel Garrido, Manuel Marzano, Lorenzo Moreno Conde, Francisco Ramos Borguella, Francisco de Paula Martinez, and Antonio Vazquez de Aldana.

El Instructor, 1849; El Despertador, 1849; Diario de Avisos y Noticias, 1850; El Observador Filipino, 1851; Boletin Oficial de Filipinas, 1852, and El Commercio, 1858, followed the Diario. The latter, not an example of correctness, tidiness of language, and civility in reasoning, was an afternoon newspaper edited by Soler Ovejero, an army officer.

A fortnightly that opened a new era in the history of Philippine journalism because it had sustained its reviews, sketches, biographies, news about the country, and literary and scientific sections, the Ilustracion Filipina was published on March 1, 1859 and ceased publication on December 15, 1860.

Published on February 26, 1861, the Gaceta de Manila, a weekly government newspaper that published official documents and announcements, ceased publication on August 8, 1898. It was followed by the Revista de Noticias y Anuncios, 1861, La España Catolica, 1862, and La España Oceánica, 1862.

With the slogan “Religious Unity,” El Catolico Filipino was founded by Father Pedro Pelaez and was published by Father Mariano Sevilla on February 1, 1862. Though it was the first religious newspaper in the country, Fray Agapito Aparicio charged it as a political newspaper masquerading beneath the cloak of religion. El Correo de Filipinas was published in 1863.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Revolutionary Period

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Revolutionary Period

by Alixander Haban Escote

The supreme quest for freedom and independence started in Barcelona, Spain when La Solidaridad, a fortnightly edited by Graciano Lopez-Jaena, financed by Dr Pablo Rianzares, and supported by the Comité de Propaganda, was published on February 15, 1889. With the policy to champion democracy and liberalism, to expose the real plight of the country, and to work peacefully for economic and social reforms, the newspaper published not only news, but also articles and essays about the Philippines and its people.

As editor of the newspaper, Lopez-Jaena did not receive any monetary compensation, but was given free meals, lodging, clothing, and modest pocket money. In 1891, he collected his articles and speeches and incorporated them in his book entitled Discursos y Articulos Varios.

In writing for the newspaper, Filipino reformists used pen names: Antonio Luna, Taga-Ilog; Jose Ma. Panganiban, Jomapa; Domingo Gomez, Romero Franco; Clemente Jose Zulueta, Juan Totoó; Jose Rizal4, Laong Laan and Dimas Alang; Marcelo del Pilar, Kupang, Plaridel, and Maitalaga; Mariano Ponce, Naning, Tikbalang, and Kalipulako, Eduardo Lete, Pedro Paterno, Jose Alejandrino, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Ma Regidor, among others. Ferdinand Blumentritt5, a Bohemian scholar, and Miguel Morayta, a Spanish historian, also worked for the newspaper.

On October 31, 1889, Lopez-Jaena passed the editorship to Marcelo del Pilar, who left his family in the Philippines, went to Spain, and literally gave his life for the newspaper. Del Pilar became the moving spirit of the reform movement and contacted progressive Europeans who would fight side by side with Filipino reformists.

In the next five years, Del Pilar, put out the newspaper despite of affliction, deprivation, and starvation. The newspaper ceased publication in Madrid, Spain on November 15, 1895. Apolinario Mabini had written Del Pilar about the difficulty of raising funds and the added obstacles of getting copies into the Philippines.

Two months and three days later, that was on January 18, 1896, Ang Kalayaan, the official revolutionary newspaper of the Kataastaasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Sons of the People) founded by Andres Bonifacio6 and Emilio Jacinto, was published under the editorship of Pio Valenzuela. Printed with 2 000 copies, it exposed the inhumane and indignities of civil guards and Spanish friars and called for a bloody revolution against Spain. To deceive the Spaniards, the founders and the editor made it appeared that the newspaper was printed in Yokohoma, Japan, that the Japanese were in sympathy with the Filipino people, and that the editor was Marcelo del Pilar, who at that time was in Madrid and at the eve of his death.

The first issue of the newspaper contained a supposed editorial of Del Pilar, which Jacinto actually wrote. It greeted the people and wished them solidarity and independence and offered them his life and all he have for the good of the Filipino people. There was also an article by Jacinto and Valenzuela’s Catuiran, which described the cruelties of the Spanish friars and civil guards of San Francisco del Monte on a helpless village lieutenant. It also contained Bonifacio’s Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa that expressed the oppression of Spain and encourage the Filipino people to liberate their country; and Jacinto’s Manifesto that urged the Filipino people to revolt against Spain and to secure their liberty.

Bonifacio, Jacinto, and Valenzuela wrote under their pen names: Agap-ito Bagumbayan, Dimas-Ilaw and Pinkian, and Madlang-Away, respectively. Jacinto was about to publish the second issue when the Spanish authorities discovered the Katipunan. The newspaper, then, abruptly ceased publication.

On the other hand, Clemente Jose Zulueta, an enterprising writer, disappointed bibliophile, and later official researcher in the archives of Paris, Madrid, and Mexico, edited and published La Libertad on June 20, 1898. However, Gen Emilio Aguinaldo7, ordered the suspension of the newspaper because of not applying for a license through his offices. The July 4, 1898 decree stated, “While abnormal circumstances to the war still prevail, all publications, without permission from the government are strictly prohibited.” Aguinaldo confiscated the printing paraphernalia of the newspaper, which was operated by Asilo de Huérfanos, an Augustian orphanage in Malabon.

Probably the most read, most famous, and most important newspaper of the revolution was La Independencia. Gen Antonio Luna, the Commander in chief of the Army of Liberation of the First Philippine Republic, together with his brother Joaquin and a few friends, founded it. Its first issue appeared on September 3, 1898 and its last issue appeared on November 11, 1900. Like Ang Katipunan, the newspaper also concealed its place of publication and declared that it was published in Manila when it was actually published in Malabon. It used the same printing press that the La Libertad used. It had four pages, with one page devoted to advertisements, and contained news stories, with the foreign articles taken from the newly circulated the Manila Times.

La Independencia editorial staff was composed of highly liberate men and women who, most of them, wrote under their pen names: Antonio Luna, Taga-Ilog, director; Salvador Vivencio del Rosario, X and Juan Tagalo, editor in chief; Jose Abreu, Kaibigan, Cecilio Apostol, Catulo, Mariano del Rosario, Tito-Tato, Clemente Jose Zulueta, M. Kaun, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Fluvio Gil, Rafael Palma8, Hapon and Dapit-Hapon, staff writers; R Regidor, Jose Palma, Rosa Sevilla, Luis Guerrero, Mariano Ponce, Manuel Guerrero, Rianzares Bautista, Apolinario Mabini, Leon Ma. Guerrero, Florentina Arellano, Ferdinand Blumentritt, Epifanio de los Santos, Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, contributors; and Felipe Calderon, proofreader.

La Independencia, which castigated both the Spaniards and the Americans, was published in consonance with the wave of nationalism and with the historical occurrence in Malolos, Bulacan. It had the distinction of surviving the 1896 Philippine Revolution and resisting American imperialism.

On September 15, 1898, La Republica Filipina, the newspaper edited by Pedro Paterno, was published in Mandaluyong, Rizal. Like La Independencia, the newspaper was written in refined style and was an example of editorial direction and excellence. However, it was closed down on January 8, 1899 with the hope that the Filipino people will achieve national unity under a democratic republic. Maj Gen Douglas MacArthur, in his 1901 annual report to the Secretary of War, called it an “official organ of the insurgent government” along with La Independencia.

Periodical El Heraldo de la Revolucion Filipina; El Heraldo de la Revolucion Filipina; El Heraldo de la Revolucion; El Heraldo, the official publication of the revolutionary government founded by Gen Emilio Aguinaldo on July 14, 1898, was first published on September 29, 1898 in Malolos, Bulacan. It was a bilingual, Spanish and Tagalog and Spanish and Ilocano, biweekly newspaper edited by Arsenio Cruz Herrera, who was the director of public instruction in the Malolos government and who also became City Mayor of Manila. In January 1899, it settled on the name Heraldo Filipino; this changed in April 1899 to Indice Oficial; and in May 1899 to Gaceta de Filipinas, which remained until it ceased publication in October 1899.

La Revolution was published in Jaro, Iloilo on December 18, 1898. Small, it explained that “our claims are as great as our strength” and it aimed “to defend the rights that the Filipino people have won.”

Published by young professionals, who belonged to the Club Democratico Independiente, Columnas Volantes was printed in Lipa, Batangas on March 24, 1899. It “looked like a real newspaper because besides recording the events mostly about Lipa, it commented on general politics and military movements.” Its writers included Fidel Reyes, Gregorio Solis, Teodoro Kalaw, and Baldomero Roxas. It had also correspondence in Laguna, Hugo Salazar; and La Union, Diego Gloria and Lorenzo Tinoy.

Edited by Isabelo de los Reyes, Filipinas Ante Europa and El Defensor de Filipinas were the two nationalistic newspapers published in Barcelona, Spain on November 18, 1899.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – American Colonial Period