Why Are Some People Rich While Other People Are Poor

Often times we think some people are created rich while others poor. How wrong! Why then are some people rich and others wealthy? Neither destiny nor luck have anything to do with it. Some people are rich because they are always looking for ways to either save money or to make money. People who don’t have that drive usually remain poor.

The rich work smart, make the most efficient choices, see opportunities and maximize them, while the poor do not.

1. The poor eat their seed, whereas rich people sow or invest their seed. The rich understands the act of multiplication and compound interest. Compound interest is man’s greatest invention as quoted by Albert Einstein.

2. Poverty comes, in part, from a lack of savings and investments; whereas the rich practice patience and invest in themselves by putting their spare money into savings and investments with a high ROI (Return on Investments) like real estate.

3. The poor want to live like the rich, so they spend their money on luxuries. The rich, however, never spend; they multiply their money by reinvesting their assets then live off the overflow.

4. The rich know how to identify opportunities by taking well calculated risk but the poor do not see opportunities. Rather, they
Pass
Over
Opportunities
Repeatedly

5. The rich have the “can do” mindset, but the poor rely on miracle and luck. This can also be attributed to lazy thinking.

6. Poverty is not a state of purse or pocket, but a state of mind. The difference between the poor and the rich is intelligence.

7. The poor lacks management skills (time, finance, people etc) whereas the rich work to manage and maximize their resources.

8. Poverty comes by inability, lack of self-discipline and unwillingness to confront hardship. People who are poor are usually afraid of failure.  And because of that, they don’t put their ideas into action.  “If you Fail To Plan, you are Planning To Fail.”

The future rich, however, take risks and ask “Why not?”

I believe if you diligently follow the success formula which does not require you to reinvent the wheel, rather do what other successful people did, you will get the result other successful people got.

BP Gulf Oil Spill: Massive Plume of Crude Oil and Chemicals

It has been 4 months since the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded and sank into the Gulf of Mexico. This caused the largest marine oil spill, in the history of the petroleum industry. 4 months later, we have lots of lies and very few answers. We also have very little progress. Despite the lack of progress, BP is still in charge of operations. Luckily for them, they have been able to sink and hide most of the oil. For most of the general public, this oil is out of sight and out of mind.

Even though we cannot see most of the oil that is in the Gulf, a new scientific study proves that it is most definitely there. This study proves that the oil is hovering about a kilometer below the water surface. It also confirms that is about 200 meters high, 2 kilometers wide and reaches approximately 35 kilometers from the original spill site. The worst part? This is not just oil. The composition of the hovering plume, is a toxic mix of crude oil and chemicals. The Corexit dispersant is the lingering chemical that is forcing the oil under the surface, where it is not visible.

Here is the research that supports the data above: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/science.1195223

$2.7 Million Disappears in Orphan Earmark for Atlanta

The year is 1991, it’s the George H. W. Bush administration. The place: Atlanta, Georgia. There is excitement in the city and across the country for the major event that will happen 5 years later – the 1996 Olympic Games.

The excitement is joined with the need for preparation. The city and the region has to prepare – food, safety, shelter, transportation, conveniences, utilities, and infrastructure all have to be ready for the influx of tourists, fans, and athletes that will be arriving.

The federal government, fully aware that how the world would see Atlanta was a reflection of how they also saw the nation, came to their assistance that year in many ways, one of which was an earmark for $58.1 million “for various transportation improvements in connection with the 1996 Olympics, including the city of Atlanta advanced traffic management system (IVHS).”1

The rules laid out in the bill for this money was simple:

  • State of Georgia was to use it for “innovative techniques in highway construction or finance.”
  • The money came from the Highway Trust Fund, and would be used from 1992 to 1997.
  • The money could only be applied to 80% of the project (so the state had some skin in the game).
  • The funds earmarked “shall remain available until expended.”

So what’s the problem? Why are we discussing a twenty year old earmark?

The answer is simple: Because of the language in this bill (can only be used from 1992 – 1997 but funds will remain available until expended), there is $2.7 million being held by the Secretary of Transportation that can only legally be spent… 13 years ago.

How is this possible? This is an example of what is called an ‘orphan earmark’ and nicknamed a ‘disappearmark.’ While it is great that money was not spent when not necessary here, regardless of what congress tried to force upon the recipients, this money still exists but is not included in any real meaningful budgetary numbers.

To make it worse, since this was allocated to the state for a highway project, this money is taken out of the state’s share of federal gas tax revenue!

So let’s get this straight:

  • Georgia doesn’t spend all of the taxpayers money on this project
  • The state is rewarded by losing $2.7 million  from their share of revenue
  • This money is still held by the Department of Transportation
  • No one can use it – so the money just remains with no where to go

There have been several noble attempts by legislators to ‘sunset’ earmarks – if they haven’t been used by a certain time, if recipients can no longer fulfill eligibility requirements, etc. But they continually get squashed.

And I can’t figure it out… but then again, it’s the federal government. They don’t want us to figure it out.

$2.7 Million in today’s dollars = $4.4 Million

*Based on appropriations affect on federal debt over the last 20 years

1. “Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991” HR 2950 ENR, Section 1107 – Innovative Projects. 102nd Congress.

Strong Cross Between Victor Hugo Morales and Magdalena Ruiz Guinazu

Strong cross between Victor Hugo Morales and Magdalena Ruiz Guinazu

As part of a series of interviews with presidential candidates performed together at Radio Continental, Magdalena Ruiz Guinazu and Victor Hugo Morales had a strong cross over journalism.

After a conversation about the media close to the government, Ruiz Guinazu suggested that the name of Victor Hugo’s program on Channel 9, Down-line, reflecting the relationship of the journalist with the Casa Rosada.

-Magdalena Ruiz Guinazu: What do you call your program on Channel 9?

– Victor Hugo Morales:  Slope of line

– MRG:  Slope of line, of course …

– VHM: That I underline, not that I lower it to me …

– MRG: I think so … Anyone who sees your program on Channel 9 or listens to Radio Continental, you know … and you’re defending your right to defend your ideas, but do not come to say that the Government does not intervene … Let the audience questions …

– VHM: No way there will be questions you want here as I hold someone down line on my TV because Bajada line call. Did you think that I fall line, Magdalena?

– MRG: I think so.

– VHM: Who the government?

– MRG: I do not know who, but certainly the government. You defend him permanently. In addition you qualify here the general press and colleagues say they’re a bunch of crap.

– VHM: Never say a word, I would not say that for radio.

– MRG: Yes, and I apply it to me too.

– VHM I did not know … but when? Do you have a record of such an accusation?

– MRG: I do not usually use espionage others do, I have no recording, we were all in the studio here.

“From the nose”. Then Ricardo Alfonsín entered the discussion, when Morales said that “the opposition is led by the nostrils in the mainstream media.”

“Why is so aggressive, Victor Hugo? That is an attitude that is not democratic. I have many more media credentials to oppose the Government: the party, my father [former President Raul Alfonsin], my values. Why do I have to be led by the nose? “interrupted the candidate of the Union for Social Development (UDESA). “I take that word, is a way of signaling that they always mark what is spoken and what was discussed,” continued the driver.

By this he meant the beginning of the crossing, when focused on the complaint to the Secretary of Internal Trade, Guillermo Moreno, about his alleged violent incident against an official of the militant Pro “I want to know what we got when we got in the allegations of media companies have now a real mafia, as reported by a hidden camera we know these days, led by [the CEO of Grupo Clarin, Hector] Magnetto, mafia who feel threatened because newsprint is for them a very painful subject, and the man who is facing Newsprint Moreno “.

“What evidence do you have to say that what Newsprint is a mafia? That the decision of the Court, Victor Hugo. Why are you required to say something else when such rigorous testing as the government says something, you are not requires such rigorous testing? “questioned the candidate. “I have the moral conviction that it is a mafia,” said Victor Hugo, to which Alfonsin said: “I have many convictions, but I can from my convictions to say what happens to me. That’s what the Justice. I have many beliefs, many certainties, and many things that happen in the private sector and the media do not like but it is much more serious when these things are done by the State, the State must argue that these things do not happen ” .

Then, Alfonsin stressed the multiplication of media close to the government in recent times, backed by Ruiz Guinazu. “In a few countries, a government must have many means at its favor,” said presidential candidate and spoke of “media patronage” in the media inside, driven from government advertising.

Modern Warfare Three

Modern Warfare 3 is getting quickscope back in the game (thank you Infinity Ward). Things is what sniper will be the quickscope sniper,not unlike mw2 were the intervention fmj was the one to go for.It is suggested that the m28 or more commonly known as the barret .50cal will be the sniper of choice holding 10 rounds in a clip.It also has a rate of fire from 60 to 70 rounds per minute,making it a good choice.Problem is that all other snipers in the game will have 20 rounds per clip.For example the m14 ebr is suposed to be in the game.It has a 20 round clip and fires 1400 rounds per minute,making it an efficient sniper for killing oportunities in many situations of the game.

This is just an opinion of what i think should be the sniper of choice,but its up to you to make your quickscoping tactics and to make sure u pick the one thats right for the style.

This is,(Fuze)ShadowReaver signing off,till next time.

The Impact of Industrialization and Urbanization on Indian Tribals

On of the main problems which the Indian tribes face is industrialization of backward areas and consequent urbanization.The government policy of industrializing remote areas has led to the emergence of high-tech industries in tribal belts.The impact of such industrialization is manifold:

Development in terms of economic prosperity might mean doom to the tribal identity.The first and major impact which tribal population faces is in the shape of loss of tribal identity through the establishment of industries.With major tribal tracts being depopulated and herded to new settlements to give space for establishment of factories,tribals are ill-ease in the new environments.Their customs and traditions come under pressure.Due to contact with the town- culture that industrialization brings,and consequent urbanization a revolutionary change in the attitude of tribals can be seen.

Tribal religion is mocked at in the light of more organized religions like Chrisitianity and Hinduism.Magical cures which tribals practicsed have become out of date and look down upon.

Social problems devastate tribals through urbanization.Urban conditions which the industry ushers into the tribal areas will mean introduction of completely alien way of social contact to the population.

Economically the urban culture is highly materialistic.Tribal economic systems will disintegrate in the industrialised environment.With more and more tribal youth adopting to factory culture and skilled labour espousing new avenues to eke out living, tribal modes of cultivation and crafts are steadily declinning.

The benefits of urbanization and industrialization should also  be taken into account.Tribals who were used to depend upon shifting cultivation and lived liked nomads are now settling down.Their children are exposed to better living conditions including education and health care services.Better sanitation means better health to the community.

The ABCs of GMOs

And it seems as though no conclusive answers to our questions are in sight. The best any layman can do is learn what is known thus far and decide for oneself.

GMOs are genetically modified organisms – they’ve had their genomes altered through genetic engineering. In a lab, DNA from one organism is modified and then transferred into the DNA of another organism in order to produce desired traits. Used mostly in plants such as corn, soybeans, canola and wheat, two desired traits that are of particular value are drought tolerance and pest resistance. These desired traits help produce crops that are at less risk from the elements and require less care.

Two examples of genetically modified foods include:

  • The Flavr Savr tomato. This more rot resistant tomato was made by a California company, Calgene.
  • Roundup Ready soybeans were engineered to resist the weed killer, Roundup. When fields are sprayed, everything but the soybeans died.The controversies surrounding genetically modified foods focus on both human and environmental safety, and on labeling so people can have choice. No matter which side of the GMO issue you fall on, one has to admit that the ability to isolate a specific gene for a single trait is pretty cool science, at least.

Pro GMO

While producing genetically modified foods sounds unnatural, science has continually led us to ongoing positive medical advancements that have helped people lead longer and healthier lives. Some of the current and future accomplishments in favor of genetically modified foods include being able to develop foods that have added nutrients, foods that contain vaccines, and faster growing foods. With growing world population and hunger still a global issue, the ability to feed the planet is key.

Con GMO

Because this is a relatively new science, there has not been thorough testing over time on both the human and environmental impact of genetically modified foods. Some of the worries include the unknown impact on other organisms such as soil, or in cross-pollination. Political issues include the worry that developing nations will become increasingly dependent on richer nations and large dominating companies. And one of the biggest dilemmas is of how to label these foods.

It is obvious that careful monitoring of the genetically modified food supply is needed to document both the positive and negative side effects, for there is the potential that GMOs can have much to offer in the future.

Outcomes From Reaching Your Goals

Reprinted from the Huffington Post

In life and work, success begins with a goal. It could be losing weight, asking for a raise, quitting smoking or starting your own business. Big or small, goals give us purpose and, like a compass, keep us headed in the right direction. Of course, it then takes lots of hard work and determination to reach your destination.

Writing over 2,000 years ago, Aristotle described the process this way: “First, have a definite, clear, practical ideal; a goal, an objective. Second, have the necessary means to achieve your ends: wisdom, money, materials, and methods. Third, adjust all your means to that end.”

Unfortunately, many of us remain stuck at the goal stage. We start out with good intentions and perhaps a plan, but then we can’t seem to make it happen.

There are countless reasons that this occurs — busyness, impatience, fear and negative social pressures are some of the usual culprits — so how do we respond to these challenges and move in the direction of our goal?

Seeing Is Believing

Before we can believe in a goal, we first must have an idea of what it looks like. To paraphrase the old adage: we must see it before we can believe it.

This is where visualization comes in, which is simply a technique for creating a mental image of a future event. When we visualize our desired outcome, we begin to “see” the possibility of achieving it. Through visualization, we catch a glimpse of what is, in the words of one writer, our “preferred future.” When this happens, we are motivated and prepared to pursue our goal.

Visualization should not be confused with the “think it and you will be it” advice peddled by popular self-help gurus. It is not a gimmick, nor does it involve dreaming or hoping for a better future. Rather, visualization is a well-developed method of performance improvement supported by substantial scientific evidence and used by successful people across a range of fields.

Take athletes, for example. Studies show that visualization increases athletic performance by improving motivation, coordination and concentration. It also aids in relaxation and helps reduce fear and anxiety. In the words of one researcher, “visualization helps the athlete just do it and do it with confidence, poise, and perfection.”

Former NBA great Jerry West is a great example of how this works. Known for hitting shots at the buzzer, he acquired the nickname “Mr. Clutch.” When asked what accounted for his ability to make the big shots, West explained that he had rehearsed making those same shots countless times in his mind. Other sports legends like Michael Jordan, Larry Bird, Tiger Woods and pitcher Roy Halladay have also used visualization to improve their performance and achieve their personal best.

Why Visualization Works

According to research using brain imagery, visualization works because neurons in our brains, those electrically excitable cells that transmit information, interpret imagery as equivalent to a real-life action. When we visualize an act, the brain generates an impulse that tells our neurons to “perform” the movement. This creates a new neural pathway — clusters of cells in our brain that work together to create memories or learned behaviors — that primes our body to act in a way consistent to what we imagined. All of this occurs without actually performing the physical activity, yet it achieves a similar result.

Putting It All Together

Remember, you don’t have to be an elite athlete to benefit from visualization. Whether you’re a student, businessperson, parent or spouse, visualization will keep you tethered to your goal and increase your chances of achieving it. The power of visualization is available to all people.

There are two types of visualization, each of which serves a distinct purpose, but for greatest effect, they should be used together. The first method is outcome visualization and involves envisioning yourself achieving your goal. To do this, create a detailed mental image of the desired outcome using all of your senses.

For example, if your goal is to run your first marathon, visualize yourself crossing the finish line in the time you desire. Hold that mental image as long as possible. What does it feel like to pass under the finishing banner, looking at your watch, the cool air on your overheated body? Who is there to greet you as you finish? Your family? Friends? Other runners? Imagine the excitement, satisfaction, and thrill you will experience as you walk off the lactic acid and fall exhausted into their arms.

Some people find it useful to write their goal down, and then, in as much detail as possible, translate it into a visual representation. It could be a hand-drawn picture, a photograph or a diagram. The media doesn’t matter, just as long as it helps you create a vivid mental image and stay motivated.

The second type of visualization is process visualization. It involves envisioning each of the actions necessary to achieve the outcome you want. Focus on completing each of the steps you need to achieve your goal, but not on the overall goal itself.

Back to the marathon example: Before the race, visualize yourself running well — legs pumping like pistons, arms relaxed, breathing controlled. In your mind, break the course into sections and visualize how you will run each part, thinking about your pace, gait and split time. Imagine what it will feel like when you hit “the wall,” that point in the race where your body wants to stop, and more importantly, what you must do to break through it.

You may never run a marathon. However, you can use the same principles to achieve any goal — create a vivid mental picture of yourself succeeding, envision what you must do during each step of the process and, like a runner pushing through “the wall,” use positive mental imagery to stay focused and motivated when you experience obstacles or setbacks.

Visualization does not guarantee success. It also does not replace hard work and practice. But when combined with diligent effort (and, I would add, a strong support network), it is a powerful way to achieve positive, behavioral change and create the life you desire.

Follow Frank Niles, Ph.D. on Twitter: www.twitter.com/@frankniles

Will The World End in 2012 Yes or No?

Will the world end in 2012 yes or no?

Just how actually must you consider the discuss regarding an end of the world 2012 doomsday?

Generally there are a multitude of Dec 21 2012 predictions concerning the end of the world, earth as all of us know it. Some point out that upon an old Mayan calendar 2012 points to the end of the world: these people choose December 21 2012 as the exact day simply because this is when the actual calendar finishes. Other people talk about a Nostradamus 2012 end of the world prediction.

A few 2012 end of the world prophecies tend to be related to each other well, some aren’t. It has got to the level in which the concept associated with a 2012 end of the world doomsday is actually freaking many persons out. Should anyone indeed be freaked? We do not think so. To begin with, provided previous doomsday estimations and prophecies in regards to the end of the world, the planet should certainly have finished by today! Considering that the earth is even now here, it might be reasonable to state then that, up to now, every end of the world prophecies as well as intutions regarding the end of the world failed!

Even so, a word of caution! Simply due to the fact the earth has survived numerous end of the world prophecies up to now, doesn’t assure it’ll still be here within the year 2012, or even tomorrow for instance. Just about any regarded threat needs to be considered seriously. We really are a somewhat insecure planet. The “Greenies” have great points concerning the susceptability of our ecosystem. Even though we all don’t consider any kind of end of the world 2012 prophecies will occur, we are aware of that there are plenty of foolish, power hungry people that increase the risk for earth in order to become vulnerable to a doomsday. However, not a 2012 end of the world!

It is actually a well known truth that we now have sufficient nuclear weapons in order to eliminate the entire world… quite a few times over! And they are saying we are improving. developing! Will the end of the world occur on Dec 21 2012 for this reason ? All it would need is just one lunatic to press the button! Outcome: end of the world by way of nuclear war. Yet is this one really an end of the world 2012 prediction ?

In case you put all these known details besides and neglect them as it were, could it be really likely that a couple of end of the world 2012 prediction can wipe out the world? The year 2012 is merely about upon us all. Today constitutes a moment in order to ask if there are actually any kind of 2012 end of the world prophecies that one can really consider?

One particular element is for sure: previous prophecies concerning the end of the world that don’t appear to be true are no assurance that some other 2012 estimations won’t come true – however will anything occur to bring about a 2012 end of the world for this planet, on Dec. 21 2012? While we do not believe that, it is still not bad to question this.

Hot Actors Over 40 Feat. Johnny Depp, Robert Downey Jr., Paul Rudd, Gerard Butler & More

This is a sequel to my Hot Actors over 50 article. This article is dedicated to the handsome actors who are between the ages 40 & 49. Most of them require no introduction.

The order is random. I might have forgotten some actors, so feel free to remind me your favorites. Guys are welcome to suggest Hot Actresses over 40.

Johnny Depp – 1963

Johnny Depp is one of those rare actors who is loved by both men and women, since he possesses great looks and even a greater talent. My favorite Johnny Depp movies are  The Tourist, What’s Eating Gilbert Grape, Public Enemies, Benny & Joon, Nick of Time, Chocolat, Pirates of the Caribbean The Curse of the Black Pearl, Once Upon a Time in Mexico, Finding Neverland.

Timothy Olyphant – 1968

JUSTIFIED: Episode 6: When the Guns Come Out (Airs February 21, 10:00 pm e/p). Pictured: Timothy Olyphant. CR: Prashant Gupta / FX

Recommended Timothy Olyphant:

TV Series: Justified, Deadwood, Damages Season 2
Movies: A Perfect Getaway, Hitman, Live Free or Die Hard 4, Catch and Release, Bill, The Girl Next Door.

Tom Cruise – 1962

05/17/2010 – Tom Cruise – Jerry Bruckheimer Hand and Footprint Ceremony at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre – Grauman’s Chinese Theatre – Hollywood, CA, USA – Keywords: – 0 – – Photo Credit: Bob Charlotte / PR Photos – Contact (1-866-551-7827)

Recommended:  Mission Impossible 2, Far & Away, Minority Report, Top Gun, Knight and Day, Jerry Maguire, The Firm,  Lions for Lambs, The Last Samurai, Rain Man, Born on The Fourth of July, Taps

Gerard Butler – 1969

Recommended: Law Abiding Citizen, Gamer, Nim’s Island, Please!, Butterfly on a Wheel, Dear Frankie, The Ugly Truth

Clive Owen – 1964

Recommended: Shoot ‘Em Up, Beyond Borders, Elizabeth: The Golden Age, Duplicity, The Boys are Back, The International

Robert Downey Jr. – Born 1964 

Recommended: Air America, Iron Man 2, Sherlock Holmes

Jeffrey Dean Morgan – Born 1966

Recommended:

Watchmen – co-starring Patrick Wilson, Matthew Goode, Malin Akerman, Billy Crudup; P.S. I Love You – starring Gerard Butler, Hillary Swank
TV: Grey’s Anatomy Season 2

Paul Rudd – Born 1969

I know it is hard to believe, since Paul Rudd barely looks 30. But he was born in 1969.
Recommended Paul Rudd: I Could Never Be Your Woman – co-starring Michelle Pfeiffer and Clueless– starring Alicia Silverstone, Forgetting Sarah Marshall– starring Jason Segel, Kristen Bell, Mila Kunis and I Love You Man– co-starring Jason Segel.

Obstacles to Development

Currently there are two major groups of countries: developed and developing countries. They represent two totally different worlds, one with all the conditions of well-being the other with bad and often degrading living conditions. But what is the origin of this inequality?

The Colonial Past

A major cause is related to the colonial past of many countries. The colonizing countries (Europeans) exploited the natural wealth of these countries in benefit of Europe. So, they developed further, leaving the colonized countries with no evolution. Almost all African countries achieved independence after World War II,  in the 60s. This ultimately led to dictatorships and political instability. Today, armed conflict still dominate in this countries which reduces their possibilities of development.

Natural Hazards

Photo Marco Dormino/ The United Nations

In general, developing countries are more vulnerable to natural hazards because the financial and technical resources available to carry out disaster prevention, saving lives and rebuilding infrastructure are lower than those of developed countries. That is why hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and droughts, very common in developing countries, have a great impact on its economy.

A good example is what happened in Haiti and Chile. A strong earthquake in Chile resulted in less than a thousand victims. In Haiti, the death rate was more than two hundred thousand.

Population Growth

Developing countries are primarily responsible for the population explosion in the world and, in general, still have high rates of natural increase due to high birth rate. Due to this rapid growth of population, we are witnessing the worsening of problems such as poverty, the growth of slums and rising of crime, violence and social instability, malnutrition, difficult access to education and lack of health care.

The Democratic Deficit

There are still many countries with single-party regimes (military or dictatorial). It’s common the disregard for human rights and press freedom, the corruption, the misuse of capital and the enrichment of the ruling classes. This triggers political and social instability, which ultimately harms their development.

Armed Conflicts

Developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East and South Asia, continue to be heavily affected by wars. Destruction of infrastructure, refugees and casualties, expenditure on armaments and recruitment of child soldiers are some of the consequences.

International Trade

Most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa and the Middle East are still very dependent on the export of agricultural or mineral products. In 38 of these countries, a single product contributes half of the value of the exports. Unfortunately, there was a general fall in commodity prices between 1974 and 2004. Many of these countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, depend on a small range of agricultural products and, therefore, the general fall of prices led them to double exports to maintain income levels constant and counter the deterioration of terms of trade. However, more offer eventually mean new lower prices and thus aggravated the terms of trade.

Transnational Corporations

The objectives of the transnational corporations are easy to summarize: lower production costs, gain more market and increase profits. But they are accused of lack of loyalty to workers and to the countries that host them, when they close its subsidiaries and move it to other countries, where production costs are lower. Many cause serious environmental damage, exploiting the raw materials and the labor-cheap population of developing countries, as their profits are repatriated almost entirely to developed countries.

In many developing countries, governments are very vulnerable to the interests of transnational corporations, yielding to corruption and allowing over-exploitation of resources of their own country.

Rakhi Sawant Hot Blue Film Kamasutra

Rakhi Sawant is the first Bollywood actress who get awarded for her bold role in blue film scandal called Indian Kamasutra.

Rakhi Sawant rolling stones item girl and hot Bollywood actress were in a hot blue film Kamasutra scandal for 13 years. It was still her husband David and Rakhi Sawant married Indian actor Johnny Liver. They David and Rakhi met when the latter played in the video Kamasutra as a bold actress and position maker in 1999.

About her their written a book about her biography and flexography including all her fakes and real scandals including her hidden tape scandal by American biographical author Jenny Paul.

The book is called Rakhi Sawant affairs: The True Story. Paul has spent six years researching past Rakhi Sawant and says he has found several previously unknown secretes of her, including her first entry in Bollywood scandals through a without clothes photo session by a local blue film director. Video Rolling Stones with Rakhi Sawant in the lead can be seen below it is probably not augment fragile.

Besides all these scandals and entertaining news about Rakhi it is so clear that she will leave the Indian film industry very soon because she is taking a high interest in making her own art academy in Delhi. You can watch and enjoy this b-grade actress movie and video clips on any free video sharing website for free of cost.

Pakistani Girls Desi MMS Mobile Clips

Pakistan is a third world country where more than 70 present of population is illiterate and living a hand to mouth life. People hardly earn to get meal of one or two times and unable to pay gas and electricity bills. Girls are highly restricted to get education and higher education is a dream of every girl there. Only girls living in cities and having a rich background can freely get education from school o university level. This is a one side face of Pakistani people.

If you make a look at other side, you may surprised to get notice that stage drama halls that showing vulgar dance shows and cinema halls are fully crowded with men and young boys. People are wasting a lot of money on weddings, private functions, and outdoor parties.  Mostly this money is spent on dancer girls imported from red areas of big cities like Lahore and Karachi. Every young boy or girl must have a mobile phone, even if they are school students or job workers.

The most common use of these mobile phones is to call their unknown girlfriends that they got through wrong mobile calls. After long distance calling and trusted developed relation young couples set their date meetings in some café or hotel rooms. Mostly guys did some sexual activities with these mobile girls and capture their shamed activities on their phones.

Later these mobile mms video clips are upload on sever websites on the Internet. These video clips are called Desi hot mobile clips. Some girls do suicide after watching these shameful clips on the Internet.

Cutting Edge Weapons: 10 Unusual Knives, Swords and Blades

By C. Jordan

In this age when we think of weapons, we tend to think of aircraft, electronic guidance systems, bombs and missiles. Sophisticated star wars systems may come to mind or huge warships and aircraft carriers or even chemical or nuclear weapons.

Of course that has not always been the case.

From man’s earliest days the blade has been the basic form of weapon whether for hunting, defence or warfare. For close combat and ceremonial occasions it is still in use today: the dress sword of the mounted officer or the bayonet of the infantry. If you are lucky enough to be Knighted you may even get a tap on the shoulders by the British Queen with a ceremonial sword.

I would like to make it clear at this point, that this article takes no stance on the use of weaponry.

My own beliefs and convictions are not included here. This is a look at some of the non standard, more interesting and curious forms that blades have taken, with historical, geographic and cultural differences. I use the term blade because some of the forms shown cannot be described as knives or swords.

  1. The Kukri

    Some readers may be surprised to find that the image shown is actually modern British army issue. It is issued to one of the most feared units in the British army: the Gurkhas.

    It is their weapon of choice in close combat, rather than the bayonet.

    The story of the Gurkhas is a long and historically complicated one.

    Succinctly: Gurkhas hail from Nepal which was part of India. In its Empire building days, Britain made India one of its colonies. The Gurkhas were seen as brave and heroic fighters who were recruited into the colonial Indian army as a “Martial Race”, a term which meant that they were not classed as mercenaries.

    With the independence of India in 1947 four regiments became part of the British army. Prior to this they have fought in both World Wars and latterly were part of the forces that in the 1980’s defeated the Argentine army in the Falklands and also served in the Middle East.

    The Kukri shown above is the standard army issue with karda and chakmak.

    Traditionally the blade is 12-15 inches (30-38cm) long. The karda is a small accessory blade used for many tasks. The chakmak is unsharpened and is used to burnish the blade. It can also be used to start a fire with flint.

  2. The Shamshir

    The Shamshir is a sabre that is part of the scimitar group of swords.

    Originating in Persia in the 16th century, it was the weapon of the Persian cavalry.

    Somewhat unwieldy and inaccurate in a thrusting stabbing motion, its strength was in its slashing ability. The curved blade which made it unwieldy for thrusting made it dynamic for a downward slashing movement, normally against un-armoured foot opponents. One writer said that “bright shamshirs which fell on the head cleft men to the waist.”

  3. The Khanda

    The Khanda is a straight, heavy double edged Indian sword

    This example clearly shows that the weapon is broader towards the tip than half way down the blade, complete with spike at the base of the handle. Because of its size and weight, this again was a weapon that was more useful for slashing and hacking rather than a stabbing movement.

    It is mainly associated with the Sikhs, Marathas and other clans of the Kshatriya warrior class of India. It is also used in Sikh martial arts.

  4. The Quoit

    The quoit, surely this is a ring of rope used by passengers on luxury liners in days gone by in deck games, or perhaps the ring used in Hoopla on the funfair?

    These pastimes of idling away time do not have much to do with reality.

    The reality was that the quoit was a solid razor sharp ring of thin steel used by the Sikhs of India. (The example above is actually inlaid with gold

    Image sourceSikhs with chakrams, 1844

    The quoit also known as a Chakram measured anything between 5-12 inches (13-30cm)

    This weapon was thrown at the enemy. It was released either vertically in an underarm throw to fall under it own weight on the heads of opponents, or would be twirled around the index finger raised above the head and released.

    It is said that in the right hands it could kill a man at 80 paces.

  5. The Kora

    A somewhat rare and fierce weapon, the Kora served as part axe and part sword.

    This Indo/Nepal weapon was used for fighting and for sacrifice.

  6. The Tang

    A tang on a knife or sword is that part that will be enclosed by the handle.

    This is probably how the weapon got its name. At first glance it appears as if the pointed part is like the tang waiting to have the handle fitted with the parts to right and left being hand guards.

    The tang shown is actually 58cm long and 65 cm wide (23 and 26 inches)

    This is actually a “pole arm”. A shaft fits into the opening in the bottom left.

    It derives from China in the 19th century and consists of a 13cm (5 inch) spear type point with two 33cm (13 inch) blades either side.

    This type of weapon was used by police forces or others who needed to keep crowds in order.

  7. The Ayda Katti

    The Ayda Katti is the national sword of the Coorg of Malabar, the South West coastal area of India.

    It is one of the rarest swords in the Indian arsenal and of a very peculiar shape. It is single edged and is reminiscent of a scythe or other farming agricultural tool. However it is a real weapon and a deadly one in experienced hands.

    The blade of this one is 38cm (15 inches) long and 10cm (4 inches) wide at its widest point with a massive steel bolster.

  8. The Katar

    The Katar, shown in the introduction, is a short punching sword from India. The hand fitted into the grip so that the blade was above the knuckles. It was a weapon used by the Rajput, referred to as “the most valiant warriors of the Indian sub continent.”

    Used in close combat the blades were said to be able to punch through armour.

    The fascinating example above incorporates two small pistols alongside the hand grip. this was used by the Maharatti cavalry. An earlier example of this pistol weapon did not have triggers but was fired by squeezing together the two “swallow tails” at the back, which was attached to the firing mechanism.

  9. The Badek

    The Badek (or Badik) is a knife from Java, Indonesia. It is characterized by its single edge blade with straight back and up-curving edge, and the pistol grip shape handle.

    It measures from 20 to 40 cm in length (8-16 inches)

    It sometimes features in Silat Melayu – martial arts from the countries around the Malay Archipelago.

  10. The Kris

    The Kris or Keris is a dagger that originates from Indonesia and Malaysia.

    The Glenbow museum describes them “Kris knives with decorative scabbards are used throughout Indonesia as weapons and ritual objects, and are part of men’s ceremonial attire. The wavy iron blade of the knife represents a snake in movement and is thought to have power to protect its owner.”

    In the past disputes were settled with this double edged dagger. The more people it killed the more valuable it became.

    There was a superstition that it should not be drawn in the presence of the person who gave it to the owner.

    The kris was also supposed to have a spirit that could be good or bad. The same weapon may be bad for one person but good for another.

Ancient Symbols – The Swastika

(Photo above: Anglo-Saxon cinerary urn with swastika motifs, created between 5th and 6th century, from North Elmham, Norfolk.)

The Swastika is an ancient sacred symbol – upon first glance, the words “Sacred” and “Swastika” seem to contradict each other……we are all painfully aware of the negative Nazi association with this symbol, BUT, we should not forget that this symbol is ancient, it did not start with the Nazi’s and it would be a shame to let it end there, when potentially, analysis could provide a startling insight into human history.

The swastika has been used by many cultures and religions

The Swastika has been attributed with many meanings over time.

Many believe that the symbol originated in the ancient Sumerian civilisation (the cradle of civilisation) 5300 – 1940BC located in modern Southern Iraq – the Swastika symbol has been found on some of the earliest Sumerian pottery ……. but, the earliest discovered use of the Swastika was in and around India during the Neolithic era – the new stone age – 9500 years ago!

The word Swastika is derived from the Sanskrit language – svastika – meaning well being or lucky.
Source

In 1925, Coca Cola launched a brass Swastika shaped lucky watch fob promotion.

It’s possible that the key fob was distributed in Germany just before the 1936 Olympics. The Coca Cola corporation appeared to be one of the sponsors of Hitler’s Third Reich propaganda.

A town in Ontario was named Swastika in 1911 because of a lucky gold strike.
Source


In Great Britain the common name given to the Swastika from Anglo-Saxon times … was Fylfot, said to have been derived from the Anglo-Saxon “fower fot”, meaning four-footed, or many-footed. SWASTIKA STONE ILKLEY – YORKSHIRE

This carved stone on Woodhouse Crag, Ilkley Moor, Yorkshire, England – the carving is thought to date back to the bronze age (2700 – 700 BC).

You may see the swastika symbol regularly – hidden in plain sight – The Microsoft Swastika
Source

The US Navy base in San Diego was required to spend $ 600,000.00 to alter the design of their building in the wake of numerous complaints following the launch of the aerial visualisation tool – Google Earth. From The Daily Kos.

Buddha in Tanzhe Temple in Bejing, China has a swastika on his chest – “A seal on Buddha’s heart”. In the Buddhist tradition, the Swastika was used to mark the beginning of sacred texts. Source

Villa Romana de Tejada in village of Quintanilla de la Cueza, in the province of (Palencia), Spain.

Mosaic floor showing the symbol of a swastica in the Roman City of Sabratha, Libya

Many scholars have attributed the symbol to be a representation of the sun – However, every time I look at a swastika – I see a spinning, spiral armed galaxy – but given the history of this symbol – how could our ancient ancestors know of or have seen a distant galaxy?

Hot Pakistani Girls

How many of you recognize this American-born Bollywood actress?  She is India’s newest rising film star and recently she has been seen in some new music videos. Here are two of my favorite photos, the second one from her Instagram account.

Nargis Fakhri
Nargis-Fakhri

Now a day the most in fashion in Pakistani girls are wearing jeans and skirts and they totally ignoring their past trend of wearing colorful shalwar kameez with stylish embroidery on the front of their shirts. Turquoise is very famous and is also known as purple color in Pakistan.

The other new trend follows by Pakistani babes is to adding their profile, describing their selves and what they’re looking for in a partner. They upload their photos with their profiles to get twenty times more attention to their profiles. They add these profiles to various single and partner looking websites. Mostly they are looking for guy living in abroad like UK, USA, and Dubai etc.

The other hot issue in Pak news is about Miss Pakistan World is a beauty competition for Pakistani girls from the planet earth. Which was started in 2002 by an American resident Sonia Ahmed, Miss Pakistan World attracted Pakistani girls from the England, America and Canada.

The other main issue with Pakistani girls is cell phone. Every second girl in Pakistan who has mobile is suffering from some kind of trouble from the wrong callers. Majority wrong callers are of guys searching for girl’s cell phone numbers. The interesting thing is that not only boys doing this but on the other hand certain types of girls are doing such things at a large number. In most cases the girls are asking for mobile cards to make a friendship with fool boys.

Henrikas Daktaras: Mafia Lord of Lithuania

Dr. Henry (alias – Henytė) – one of the most famous criminals of all time in Lithuania, the Lithuanian media is often referred to as the criminal authority.

Dr. Henry (alias – Henytė) – one of the most famous criminals of all time Lithuania, the Lithuanian media is often referred to as the criminal authority.

Convicted twice. He alleged a number of crimes for extortion, bodily harm, murder. Anticipated that it may be killing his cousin and he put together his protected gang members.

Dr. Henry is convicted for extortion and witness the impact .

1997, February 13, the day of the Vilnius district court granted Dr. Henry 8year prison sentence for mediation redemption cars threats and former Head of the Protection of Ancient Agora (now the Court of the former Criminal Police Office of the Deputy Head) Yuri Milevsko, if that, witness the court recognizes Dari Mačianską which the kidnap of his car .

In October 2001 from Dr H. Vilnius 2 nd amendment to the strict regime colony was released into the freedom for good behavior, completing a three-quarters of the punishment.

What Really Happens During a Recession?

Everywhere on the media we get news about the financial crisis and recession. It’s not a single country problem but most of the developed world is in a recession now. The situation has also been called “The Great Recession”.

Some people are also using the term ‘depression’ but that is not what economists would use, not yet.

Difference Between Recession and Depression

What then is the difference between a recession and a depression? Dictionary.com defines recession as “a period of an economic contraction, sometimes limited in scope or duration.” Economists usually define a depression as a decline in real GDP of more than 10% over three or four years. A very old joke tells us “a recession is when your neighbour loses his job, a depression is when you lose yours”.

Events in a Recession

  • Production decreases – People buy less and companies produce less because they can’t sell.
  • Stocks fall – As companies make less profits confidence in the company’s ability to grow and make profits comes down. This lowers share prices.
  • Politicians and company directors start denying – Any early signs of recession are promptly denied as usual market fluctuations or blamed on previous government policies.
  • More people are unemployed – Companies earn less and cut costs by firing people. Labour is usually the largest expense of a company and thus the greatest savings comes from cutting labour costs.
  • People start spending less – People are scared of losing their jobs or incomes and start saving so that they can live off savings if they lose their incomes.
  • Interest rates fall – Governments and Central Banks lower interest rates to make money cheaper so that it is easier for companies to borrow and increase their productivity.
  • Governments adopt expansionary policies – Taxes are cut and public sector spending is raised to boost confidence and increase spending power of consumers.
  • Confidence in the financial institutions suffers – Governments put astronomical sums of taxpayer money to save financial institutions like banks and pension funds to maintain confidence in the financial system.
  • Gloom mongers are in full swing – The same politicians and directors who denied early signs of recession start competing to paint blacker than black pictures of the state of the economy so that taxpayer money can be used to bail out ailing companies or industries and politicians would be seen as saviours.
  • Stricter laws about financial instruments – Governments or central authorities try to introduce stricter methods of controlling financial instruments and systems. Some high profile scapegoats are found. After some time innovative operators succeed in going around control mechanisms resulting in new misuses.
  • Many companies go bankrupt – Companies, which are not agile enough to react to the crisis or able to pressure the governments into bailing them out go bankrupt. Usually the taxpayer is left with the costs of the bankruptcies.
  • Care industry grows – Demand for services grow due to unemployment, early retirement, health problems and mental health issues.
  • Cosmetic industry booms – People defer making large purchases like homes, cars and foreign vacations but buy relatively lower cost cosmetic products to feel good quickly.
  • Reading, communal activities and spending time with family and friends increases – With less money being spent on entertainment, hobbies, travel and devices, activities, which require less money become more popular.
  • Less babies are born in affluent countries – Measured by lower number of searches for baby related products, Heather Hopkins of Hitwise claims that less babies are being made now due to the recession.
  • Developing economies suffer more – If developing economies have to borrow to invest in new kinds of production, their debt burden increases. The developing world already spends $13 on debt repayment for every $1 it receives in grants.

The History of St. Patrick’s Day Parades

How did a Christian observance for the Patron Saint of Ireland turn into the St. Patrick’s Day parades we see every year? Read on to learn some of the history behind the festivities.

“May you live to be a hundred, with one extra year to repent!” goes a well-known Irish saying. And may you be able-bodied enough to enjoy St. Patrick’s Day every year of your life. One of the ways Americans enjoy it in cities across the nation is with annual parades. On March 17th it seems everyone has a wee bit o’the green in him, for they turn out in droves, line the streets early, bring their grills and their picnic baskets, and settle in for a day of pure enjoyment.

Lonely Irish immigrants in Boston in 1737 held the first recorded St. Patrick’s Day celebration in America. It is likely that they continued to celebrate together every year, just as they had in their home country, but the next one recorded in history was in 1762. Irish soldiers stationed there with the English military held a parade in the New York City streets, much to the delight of a growing Irish immigrant community. It was such a success that in 1766 New York declared it an annual event, and so it has been ever since.

The protestant, largely middle-class immigrants formed several ‘Irish Aid’ societies in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s, like the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, to assist each other and new immigrants that were pouring in. They were hard-working, upright people who helped their own and anybody else who needed it. And their celebrations – St. Patrick’s Day being the main one – were boisterous, happy, fun, and open to anybody who wanted to join in. As a result, they were well received by all. Local groups turned out with bagpipes and drums, the churches opened up with bazaars and games, and residents vied with each other to produce the best ethnic dishes and desserts.

In 1845 the Great Potato Famine in Ireland drove scores starving immigrants to American shores, and public opinion changed somewhat. These immigrants – almost a million of them – tended to be poor, uneducated, and Catholic. They had difficulty finding even menial work and were often met with contempt by Americans. Protestant middle class Irish scorned them as well. For years many of them had a rough go in their new country. But the Irish are durable, and find ways to weather storms. Eventually they began to recognize their power as a voting block, and to organize what was called the ‘green machine’. Their power was in their sheer numbers, and political candidates began to woo them determinedly for the swing vote they represented. By this time many cities were hosting parades on March 17, the largest being in New York City. Irishmen must have danced with glee in 1948 when then-President Harry Truman attended the New York City parade, giving his seal of approval to the practice and creating public acceptance across the nation.

St. Patrick’s Day was not an officially recognized holiday until 1976, but most large cities were already hosting their own brand of parades in honor of the day. However, it was increasingly recognized as a secular holiday, not a Christian one, with the emphasis on pure fun. While there is nothing wrong with that, the outlandish customs that Americans seem to love have become offensive to some devout Irish, who would never dream of wearing a “kiss me, I’m Irish” button. Also drinking to excess is now a given for many folks on this holiday, something the true Irish did not tolerate.

In Ireland, businesses were closed on St. Patrick’s Day, including the pubs. The day began by attending church services to honor their patron saint. Men wore a sprig of shamrocks on the hats or jackets, women wore green ribbons in their hair, and children wore green, white and orange badges – the colors of the flag. The rest of the day was devoted to family, friends, and festivities. Games, crafts, and contests were held, and copious quantities of dark Irish beer and traditional Irish dishes were consumed, but drinkers stayed close to home and knew their limits.

It wasn’t until the 1970’s that the Irish parliament repealed the law keeping pubs closed. In 1995 a national campaign began to attract tourism to the war-torn country, and to showcase the beautiful Emerald Isle. A national St. Patrick’s celebration now takes place in Dublin every year, lasting several days. In addition to a huge parade, there are fireworks, concerts, theater productions, and treasure hunts. Close to a million attend every year.

St. Patrick’s Day parades are springing up in other countries as well. Canada, Russia, Singapore, and Japan boast of parades, among others. It just goes to show that, indeed, there may be a little leprechaun in all of us. This is certainly true in America, where the Census Bureau estimates over 34 million Americans can trace some Irish blood in their ancestry.

With this year’s celebration just around the corner, many establishments are already gearing up for the coming festivities. In university towns this often includes neighbors boarding up their windows against a night of frivolity and heavy drinking. But less troublesome celebrations will be everywhere, so be sure to freshen up your green jacket and buff up your dancing shoes! And as the evening wears on and you are ready to end your day, be sure and bless your hosts with a traditional Irish blessing: “May your neighbors respect you, troubles neglect you, the angels protect you, and Heaven accept you.”

Moving on After Loss

It still really hurts, but it does get better…

Growing up in a secure household where there was never a need for any thought to be given to the insecurity that tomorrow may bring, I had the love of my parents and I grew up with the wonderful companionship of my sister and a house with plenty.

As children we were shielded from the adverse things of life, by never having to face them, although we were made to understand how very fortunate we were and not to ever take anything for granted.

Years have rolled on ever since, and my vision is clouded by the unexpected terminal illness to which I lost my Mum nearly ten years back. It seemed unfair not only because she was young, and so was I, but also we were at that stage in our lives together where we were getting closer and closer and the need to share with her had become almost a necessity. I am a great believer in the the words, ‘Time heals everything,’ and although it seemed impossible at the time, I have overcome my deep sorrow to remember the good days with her, the times we laughed together and the bundle of energy that she was!

In times of grief, people often console you, telling you not to cry, that it will al be alright, and I had all that as well- a close knit extended family and wonderful friends. But the need to grieve is essential and only by allowing myself to feel the pain and on some days get up with the thought that I am not going to make it, did I actually manage to live with the sadness.

There are still days when I miss her so much that my heart physically aches and I am overwhelmed by the fact that my children will never know her, but yet I know she is watching us. If I can be anything like she was as a mother, to my daughters, I will consider myself a real success. She gives me strength to be a better person and I know that if time allows one to get through a personal tragedy and come out on the other side, there is believe strength and resilience in the human spirit. Let not anyone tell you otherwise.

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Introduction

Introduction

Journal, the root word of journalism, came from the Latin word diurnal, which means daily. In ancient Rome, brief communiqués were called Acta Diurna, which means Daily Events. Others were called Acta Publica, which means Public Events.

Journalism, the art and science of writing for newspapers, periodicals, radio, television, and online publications, enfolds timely and factual reports of unusual or unexpected events, opinions, or situations that affect man and his environment. These reports are gathered, evaluated, and published, broadcast, or posted on the Web to inform, to entertain, or to influence large number of readers.

The history of journalism started in ancient Egypt when heralds ran to pharaohs with oral reports and when town criers sang important announcements in public places. The first printed newspaper, produced from wood blocks, appeared in Beijing, China in the Seventh and in the Eight Centuries.

When Johan Guttenberg of Mainz, Germany invented the movable printing press in 1450, wider and faster dissemination of news stories were made possible. It also facilitated the exchange of ideas throughout Europe and the spread of the ideas of the Renaissance from 1300 to 1600.

On September 25, 1690, Benjamin Harris, an English refugee, published the Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick, the first American newspaper, in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1783, the Daily Advertisers and the Pennsylvania Evening Post, the first daily American newspapers, were published in Philadelphia.

The Gentleman’s Magazine, published from 1731 to 1907, was the first periodical to use the word magazine that denotes a vehicle of entertaining reading. It contained political essays, poems, stories, and debates and was very influential, serving for example, as the model for the American Magazine of Andrew Bradford and the General Magazine and Historical Chronicle of Benjamin Franklin, the first true American periodicals.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Early Years

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Early Years

The Philippine press, which is committed to the great heritage of libertarianism, is one of the freest, liveliest, and strongest in Asia and in the world. Throughout the ages, it has perpetuated a formidable tradition of service, which is the fortification of our sovereign life.

Its sustainable growth and development provides gratifying and fascinating footnotes of our historical revolutions. It started in 1637 when Tomas Pinpin, the father of Filipino printing, published the Successos Felices, the first Philippine newspaper that antedated Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick for 53 years.

Pinpin, who learned the art of printing from Father Francisco Blancas de San Jose, the parish priest of Abucay, Bataan and founder of the Dominican-owned printing press in Binondo, Manila and in Pila, Laguna, devoted his 14 – page newspaper to the raids of Muslim pirates in the country.

Hojas Volantes, with the title Aviso Al Publico, was distributed for mass readership in the Philippines and acted as town criers of Spain in the country on February 27, 1799. Although it appeared intermittently in the next 50 years, it was only on August 8, 1811 when the Spaniards put out the Del Superior Govierno, the first regularly issued newspaper edited by Governor General Manuel (Mariano?) Fernandez Del Folgueras. It gave news about the Napoleonic invasion in Spain and was a potent weapon in the fight for emancipation. It ceased publication after 15 issues over a six-month period.

Published on March 25, 1821, El Ramillete Patriotico was a liberal and audacious newspaper. It was sarcastic and sometimes unbridled in its speech of degenerating personalities. Another newspaper, El Noticioso Filipino, was published on July 29, 1821.

La Filantropía, a weekly newspaper dealing with current issues from Europe and the arrivals and departures of vessels in Manila, was dedicated to the “welfare of the people in the language that is not offensive to the sane moral of the public.” Printed in papel de arroz (rice paper), it first appeared on September 1, 1821 and ceased publication in 1822. It was followed by El Filantropo, a relatively small newspaper that lasted a year, and the Noticias Compiladas de los Papeles Publicos de la Peninsula both in 1824.

Founded by the Real Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais and edited by Luis Barreto, Jose Azcarraga, Manuel Azcarraga, Marcelo Azcarraga, and Jose Nicolas Irastorza in 1824, the Registro Mercantil de Manila was a monthly newspaper that worked for economic prosperity and political independence, but ceased publication in May 1833 because of lack of financial support and regular subscribers. El Noticiero followed it in 1838.

In 1843, Gregorio Tarrius, the Administrator of Posts, founded the Semanario Filipino that published business news from Asia, Europe, and the Archipelago. It was renamed El Amigo del Pais in 1845, but ceased publication in April 1847. La Estrella, a weekly newspaper founded by Agustin de la Cavada y Mendez de Vigo on October 4, 1846, became a daily newspaper on February 1, 1847, but was suspended in January 1849.

La Esperanza, the first daily newspaper filled with long discussions about religious, scientific, historical, and philosophical subjects, was also founded by Agustin de la Cavada y Mendez de Vigo, was edited by Felipe de la Corte y Ruano Calderon, and was published by Miguel Sanchez on December 1, 1846. It also published official and commercial news and advertisements.

When El Diario de Manila was founded on January 1, 1848, La Estrella and La Esperanza ceased publication and relinquished the monopoly to the Boletin Oficial de Filipinas, the daily government organ from 1852 to 1860. However, when the latter was renamed the Gaceta de Manila by a Royal Order on May 18, 1860, El Diario de Manila reappeared in September 1860.

Edited by José Felipe Del Pan, El Diario de Manila became not only the best-edited newspaper, but also one that had long, prosperous, and continuous circulation until 1899. Its editorial staff included José de la Rosa, Manuel Garrido, Manuel Marzano, Lorenzo Moreno Conde, Francisco Ramos Borguella, Francisco de Paula Martinez, and Antonio Vazquez de Aldana.

El Instructor, 1849; El Despertador, 1849; Diario de Avisos y Noticias, 1850; El Observador Filipino, 1851; Boletin Oficial de Filipinas, 1852, and El Commercio, 1858, followed the Diario. The latter, not an example of correctness, tidiness of language, and civility in reasoning, was an afternoon newspaper edited by Soler Ovejero, an army officer.

A fortnightly that opened a new era in the history of Philippine journalism because it had sustained its reviews, sketches, biographies, news about the country, and literary and scientific sections, the Ilustracion Filipina was published on March 1, 1859 and ceased publication on December 15, 1860.

Published on February 26, 1861, the Gaceta de Manila, a weekly government newspaper that published official documents and announcements, ceased publication on August 8, 1898. It was followed by the Revista de Noticias y Anuncios, 1861, La España Catolica, 1862, and La España Oceánica, 1862.

With the slogan “Religious Unity,” El Catolico Filipino was founded by Father Pedro Pelaez and was published by Father Mariano Sevilla on February 1, 1862. Though it was the first religious newspaper in the country, Fray Agapito Aparicio charged it as a political newspaper masquerading beneath the cloak of religion. El Correo de Filipinas was published in 1863.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Revolutionary Period

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Revolutionary Period

by Alixander Haban Escote

The supreme quest for freedom and independence started in Barcelona, Spain when La Solidaridad, a fortnightly edited by Graciano Lopez-Jaena, financed by Dr Pablo Rianzares, and supported by the Comité de Propaganda, was published on February 15, 1889. With the policy to champion democracy and liberalism, to expose the real plight of the country, and to work peacefully for economic and social reforms, the newspaper published not only news, but also articles and essays about the Philippines and its people.

As editor of the newspaper, Lopez-Jaena did not receive any monetary compensation, but was given free meals, lodging, clothing, and modest pocket money. In 1891, he collected his articles and speeches and incorporated them in his book entitled Discursos y Articulos Varios.

In writing for the newspaper, Filipino reformists used pen names: Antonio Luna, Taga-Ilog; Jose Ma. Panganiban, Jomapa; Domingo Gomez, Romero Franco; Clemente Jose Zulueta, Juan Totoó; Jose Rizal4, Laong Laan and Dimas Alang; Marcelo del Pilar, Kupang, Plaridel, and Maitalaga; Mariano Ponce, Naning, Tikbalang, and Kalipulako, Eduardo Lete, Pedro Paterno, Jose Alejandrino, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Ma Regidor, among others. Ferdinand Blumentritt5, a Bohemian scholar, and Miguel Morayta, a Spanish historian, also worked for the newspaper.

On October 31, 1889, Lopez-Jaena passed the editorship to Marcelo del Pilar, who left his family in the Philippines, went to Spain, and literally gave his life for the newspaper. Del Pilar became the moving spirit of the reform movement and contacted progressive Europeans who would fight side by side with Filipino reformists.

In the next five years, Del Pilar, put out the newspaper despite of affliction, deprivation, and starvation. The newspaper ceased publication in Madrid, Spain on November 15, 1895. Apolinario Mabini had written Del Pilar about the difficulty of raising funds and the added obstacles of getting copies into the Philippines.

Two months and three days later, that was on January 18, 1896, Ang Kalayaan, the official revolutionary newspaper of the Kataastaasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Sons of the People) founded by Andres Bonifacio6 and Emilio Jacinto, was published under the editorship of Pio Valenzuela. Printed with 2 000 copies, it exposed the inhumane and indignities of civil guards and Spanish friars and called for a bloody revolution against Spain. To deceive the Spaniards, the founders and the editor made it appeared that the newspaper was printed in Yokohoma, Japan, that the Japanese were in sympathy with the Filipino people, and that the editor was Marcelo del Pilar, who at that time was in Madrid and at the eve of his death.

The first issue of the newspaper contained a supposed editorial of Del Pilar, which Jacinto actually wrote. It greeted the people and wished them solidarity and independence and offered them his life and all he have for the good of the Filipino people. There was also an article by Jacinto and Valenzuela’s Catuiran, which described the cruelties of the Spanish friars and civil guards of San Francisco del Monte on a helpless village lieutenant. It also contained Bonifacio’s Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa that expressed the oppression of Spain and encourage the Filipino people to liberate their country; and Jacinto’s Manifesto that urged the Filipino people to revolt against Spain and to secure their liberty.

Bonifacio, Jacinto, and Valenzuela wrote under their pen names: Agap-ito Bagumbayan, Dimas-Ilaw and Pinkian, and Madlang-Away, respectively. Jacinto was about to publish the second issue when the Spanish authorities discovered the Katipunan. The newspaper, then, abruptly ceased publication.

On the other hand, Clemente Jose Zulueta, an enterprising writer, disappointed bibliophile, and later official researcher in the archives of Paris, Madrid, and Mexico, edited and published La Libertad on June 20, 1898. However, Gen Emilio Aguinaldo7, ordered the suspension of the newspaper because of not applying for a license through his offices. The July 4, 1898 decree stated, “While abnormal circumstances to the war still prevail, all publications, without permission from the government are strictly prohibited.” Aguinaldo confiscated the printing paraphernalia of the newspaper, which was operated by Asilo de Huérfanos, an Augustian orphanage in Malabon.

Probably the most read, most famous, and most important newspaper of the revolution was La Independencia. Gen Antonio Luna, the Commander in chief of the Army of Liberation of the First Philippine Republic, together with his brother Joaquin and a few friends, founded it. Its first issue appeared on September 3, 1898 and its last issue appeared on November 11, 1900. Like Ang Katipunan, the newspaper also concealed its place of publication and declared that it was published in Manila when it was actually published in Malabon. It used the same printing press that the La Libertad used. It had four pages, with one page devoted to advertisements, and contained news stories, with the foreign articles taken from the newly circulated the Manila Times.

La Independencia editorial staff was composed of highly liberate men and women who, most of them, wrote under their pen names: Antonio Luna, Taga-Ilog, director; Salvador Vivencio del Rosario, X and Juan Tagalo, editor in chief; Jose Abreu, Kaibigan, Cecilio Apostol, Catulo, Mariano del Rosario, Tito-Tato, Clemente Jose Zulueta, M. Kaun, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Fluvio Gil, Rafael Palma8, Hapon and Dapit-Hapon, staff writers; R Regidor, Jose Palma, Rosa Sevilla, Luis Guerrero, Mariano Ponce, Manuel Guerrero, Rianzares Bautista, Apolinario Mabini, Leon Ma. Guerrero, Florentina Arellano, Ferdinand Blumentritt, Epifanio de los Santos, Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, contributors; and Felipe Calderon, proofreader.

La Independencia, which castigated both the Spaniards and the Americans, was published in consonance with the wave of nationalism and with the historical occurrence in Malolos, Bulacan. It had the distinction of surviving the 1896 Philippine Revolution and resisting American imperialism.

On September 15, 1898, La Republica Filipina, the newspaper edited by Pedro Paterno, was published in Mandaluyong, Rizal. Like La Independencia, the newspaper was written in refined style and was an example of editorial direction and excellence. However, it was closed down on January 8, 1899 with the hope that the Filipino people will achieve national unity under a democratic republic. Maj Gen Douglas MacArthur, in his 1901 annual report to the Secretary of War, called it an “official organ of the insurgent government” along with La Independencia.

Periodical El Heraldo de la Revolucion Filipina; El Heraldo de la Revolucion Filipina; El Heraldo de la Revolucion; El Heraldo, the official publication of the revolutionary government founded by Gen Emilio Aguinaldo on July 14, 1898, was first published on September 29, 1898 in Malolos, Bulacan. It was a bilingual, Spanish and Tagalog and Spanish and Ilocano, biweekly newspaper edited by Arsenio Cruz Herrera, who was the director of public instruction in the Malolos government and who also became City Mayor of Manila. In January 1899, it settled on the name Heraldo Filipino; this changed in April 1899 to Indice Oficial; and in May 1899 to Gaceta de Filipinas, which remained until it ceased publication in October 1899.

La Revolution was published in Jaro, Iloilo on December 18, 1898. Small, it explained that “our claims are as great as our strength” and it aimed “to defend the rights that the Filipino people have won.”

Published by young professionals, who belonged to the Club Democratico Independiente, Columnas Volantes was printed in Lipa, Batangas on March 24, 1899. It “looked like a real newspaper because besides recording the events mostly about Lipa, it commented on general politics and military movements.” Its writers included Fidel Reyes, Gregorio Solis, Teodoro Kalaw, and Baldomero Roxas. It had also correspondence in Laguna, Hugo Salazar; and La Union, Diego Gloria and Lorenzo Tinoy.

Edited by Isabelo de los Reyes, Filipinas Ante Europa and El Defensor de Filipinas were the two nationalistic newspapers published in Barcelona, Spain on November 18, 1899.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – American Colonial Period

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – American Colonial Period

by Alixander Haban Escote

Although Gen Emilio Aguinaldo and his revolutionary government proclaimed Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 and established the First Philippine Republic in Malolos, Bulacan on January 23, 1899, President William McKinley and Admiral George Dewey planned to take over the Philippines and forced the surrender of Spanish forces inside Intramuros. With the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898 and the Treaty with Spain on November 7, 1900, the United States of America acquired the sovereignty over the Philippines.

As the Spanish-American War was being fought, La Democracia, the first Filipino newspaper that recognized American sovereignty in the country, urged the Filipino people to accept the new government and to help heal the wounds of war. Edited by Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, it was the official publication of the pro-American Partido Federalista, the first political party organized on December 23, 1900 by 125 Filipino illustrados.

Besides La Independencia and El Heraldo dela Revolucion, other Filipino newspapers were also published as the Americans established their military government in the country. Among these was La Patria, the newspaper that openly championed freedom and independence and directly challenged La Democracia. Published by Pablo Ocampo and edited by Rafael Palma and Aurelio Tolentino, it was closed by Gen Arthur McArthur, the father of Gen Douglas McArthur9.

The closure of La Patria and the assertion of American military rule did not dampen the newspaper industry. Unfazed, Pablo Ocampo published La Libertad and continued to fight for freedom and independence. As a result, the American military authorities banned the newspaper, and its publisher was exiled to Guam for two years.

Meanwhile, Rafael Palma, a lawyer, educator, and social scientist, founded El Nuevo Dia, Cebu’s first daily newspaper, on April 6, 1900. In collaboration with the then Speaker Sergio Osmeña Sr.10 and Commissioner Jaime Carlos de Veyra, Palma criticized American military rule. In the end, the newspaper was severely censored and as a sign of protest, it came out with large blacked-out pages that ostracized the Americans who championed freedom of the press and expression in their country, but censored them in the Philippines.

El Grito del Pueblo and its sister publication in Tagalog, Kapatid ng Bayan, edited by Pascual Poblete, and El Filipino Libre, published by Manuel Xeres Burgos, also cried for freedom and independence and criticized American military rule.

On the other hand, English language newspapers were published to cater the needs of the American reading public: Bounding Billow, published aboard US Olympia;11 Official Gazette, published by the American military government; American Soldier, published for a month with some 20 issues; and Soldier’s Letter, published by the 18th Minnesota Volunteers in the US Army. These newspapers had common point of view: “These islands were rich untapped sources of American wealth and capital. The natives, half-devil and half-child, insist on playing government: a group of warlike tribes who will devour each other the moment American troops leave.”

On October 11, 1898, Thomas Gowan, an Englishman rather than an American, edited and published the Manila Times, the first continually published English language daily newspaper in the country. In 1899, George Seliner joined the Manila Times as business manager and later bought the newspaper from Gowan. Seliner sold it in 1902, reacquired it in 1905, and sold it again in 1907.

The then Senate President Manuel Quezon12 bought the Manila Times in 1917. During his ownership, the newspaper was generally staffed by Filipinos, a pattern followed by Governor General Francis Burton Harrison13 in Filipinizing the government. In 1921, Quezon, who found out that politics and journalism are like oil and water that could never be mixed well, sold the newspaper to George Fairchild, a Hawaiian senator engaged in the sugar industry. Politically speaking, the newspaper became the mouthpiece of American politicians and businessmen and was intensely pro-American and anti-Filipino. In 1926, Fairchild sold the newspaper to Jacob Rosenthal, a businessmen engaged in the shoe industry.

Alejandro Roces Sr., the father of modern journalism in the Philippines, bought the Manila Times in 1927. At that time, he was also the owner of the TVT chain of newspapers: Taliba, La Vanguardia, and Manila Tribune. Roces founded the latter on April 1, 1925 when he failed to purchase the Philippine Herald.

Because of its substantial editorial pages and wide international coverage, the Manila Tribune, edited by Carlos Romulo,14 the Philippine Herald former editor, and staffed by Mauro Mendez, Benito Sakdalan, Amando Dayritt, Roberto Anselmo, and Fernando Maramag became the most informative and most entertaining newspaper in the 1920s. The Tribune Magazine, its weekly supplement, had a circulation of 40,000 during weekdays and 80,000 during weekends.

On March 15, 1930, Roces stopped the publication of the Manila Times, but continued the publication of the Manila Tribune, which became a morning newspaper, and the Philippine Herald, which became an afternoon newspaper. After World War II, Alejandro Roces Jr. revived the newspaper business that his father founded, but discarded the TVT chain of newspapers. Roces formed The Manila Times Publishing Company, Inc., and published the Sunday Times on May 27, 1945, which became the Manila Times on September 5, 1945.

Established by Carson Taylor, an Illinois public school teacher who came to the country as part of the Colorado First Volunteer National Guard Regiment, the Manila Daily Bulletin made its debut on February 1, 1900 as a shipping gazette devoted to ship arrivals and departures. Its early editors were H G Farris, 1900; George Rice, late 1900; Chas Bond, 1904; William Crozier, 1905; M L Steward, 1913; C R Zeininger, 1918; and Roy Bennet, late 1918.

In 1912, the Manila Daily Bulletin widened its coverage and circulation and marked its entrance into the newspaper industry. By then, the newspaper shifted to a six-column newspaper consisting of eight pages.

In 1918, the Manila Daily Bulletin switched to a standard eight-column newspaper and published foreign news, first obtained as cable flashes from San Francisco and later as wired stories from the Associated Press and the United Press International. It also rose in circulation and became the largest English language daily newspaper in 1925. Robert Kidd, Ford Wilkins, Frank Bennett, and Ralph Hawkins, were among its early bigwigs.

Abram V Hartendorp, a Thomasite who stayed in Samar and in Zambales, founded The Philippine Magazine, formerly The Philippine Teacher, and later The Philippine Education, in 1904. He contributed largely to the development of Filipino writers in the English language such as Manuel Arguilla, Amador Daguio, Jose Garcia Villa, N V M Gonzalez, Edilberto Tiempo, Bienvenido Santos, and Francisco Avellana.

Judge W H Kincaid founded the Philippine Free Press, the first regularly issued English language weekly magazine, in 1907. It was edited by Pat Gallagher and started as English-Spanish weekly. On August 19, 1908, Robert McCulloch Dick, a Scot who came to the country in 1899, bought the one-year-old magazine and paid one peso, approximately fifty cents, for its goodwill, circulation, and equipment. With the aid of F Theo Rogers as general manager, Dick, who was the editor and publisher until his death on September 14, 1960, turned the magazine into the largest circulated publication in the archipelago and the most influential English language weekly magazine in the history of Philippine journalism. Dick lived most of his life in the Philippines, dying here at the age of 80 years.

Before the war, leading Filipino journalist joined the Philippine Free Press editorial staff – Jose Joven, Jose Reyes, Juan Callas, Ramon Navas, Federico Calero, Roberto Anselmo, and Leon Maria Guerrero. A consistent crusader, the magazine contributed much to the social, cultural, political, educational, and economic growth of the country.

El Renacimiento, a Spanish daily newspaper founded by Rafael Palma on September 1, 1900, became very popular because of its vigorous campaign against graft and corruption in the government. On October 30, 1908, the newspaper came out with an editorial written by Fidel Reyes, its city editor, titled Aves de Rapina, Birds of Prey, which denounced an American official for taking advantage his office in exploiting the resources of the country for his personal gains.

Although the editorial did not mention names, Dean C Worcester, the then Secretary of the Interior and former professor at the University of Michigan, felt alluded to in the editorial and filed a libel case against Teodoro Kalaw and Martin Ocampo, editor and publisher, respectively. The entire Spanish and Filipino press supported the newspaper and many Filipinos offered legal, moral, and financial support.

The lower court sentenced Ocampo to 6 months imprisonment and PhP2 000 fine and Kalaw to 12 months imprisonment and PhP3 000 fine and a verdict for moral and punitive damages for PhP25 000. The defendants appealed to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which affirmed the decision of the lower court. The embattled journalists appealed again to the Supreme Court of the United States of America, which sustained the decision of the Philippine tribunals. However, Ocampo and Kalaw did not spend a day in jail because Governor General Francis Burton Harrison pardoned them in 1914.

Today, El Renacimiento is remembered as a proof of American antagonism against Filipino nationalism. And, after it had been closed, several newspapers and periodicals were published and fought for freedom and independence.

On August 8, 1920, the Philippine Herald, the first Filipino-owned English language daily newspaper edited by Conrado Benitez, became the mouthpiece of outraged Filipinos led by the then Senate President Manuel Quezon against conservative Americans led by Governor General Leonard Wood. Later, at the helm of its bankruptcy, Senator Vicente Madrigal, Ramon Fernandez, the Earnshaw brothers, and other Filipino millionaires continued its publication and circulation. Among those who worked for the Philippine Herald were Vicente Bunuan, Gregorio Nieva, Antonio Estrada, Modesto Farolan, and Vicente del Fiero.

Founded in 1922 by Ramon Roces, Liwayway became the most widely read weekly magazine in Tagalog and gave rise to publications of the same type in other Philippine dialects. It first appeared as Photo News on June 15, 1922, and had sections in Tagalog, English, and Spanish. However, the idea did not appeal to the reading public and was dropped after 10 issues over a five-month period. When the publication was revived on November 18, 1929, it became a Tagalog weekly magazine that published romance and fantasy stories that included Mga Kuwento ni Lola Basyang by Severino Reyes, the leading Tagalog fictionist during those days. Among those who served as editors in chief were Jose Esperanza Cruz, 1932-1942; Pedrito Reyes, 1942-1945; Catalino Flores, 1945-1954; Jose Domingo Karasig, 1954-1960; Gervasio Santiago, 1960-1979; Bienvenido Ramos, 1979-1982; and Rodolfo Salandanan, from 1982 to the present.

Ramon Roces also founded the Weekly Graphic, the most widely read weekly magazine in English, on July 15, 1927. It was edited by Vicente Albano Pacis, the Manila Times former editor, and later, by Agustin Fabian. In the 1930s, the Philippine Herald and the Manila Tribune shared the top position in the newspaper industry.

Established by Ramon Roces, Bisaya became the most successful periodical in Cebuano. Its first issue on August 15, 1930 had an initial circulation of 5 000 that rose to 60 000 in the 1960s. Among those who served as editors were Vicente Padriga, 1930-1931; Natalio Bacalso, 1931-1933; Flaviano Boquecosa, 1933-1941; Maximo Bas, 1946-1949; Francisco Candia, 1949-1966; Marcelo Navarra, 1969-1973; Nazario Bas, 1973-1986; and Tiburcio Baguio, its current editor.

In 1933, Senator Vicente Madrigal with the help of Carlos Romulo, who left the Manila Tribune, organized the DMHM chain of newspapers: El Debate, a Spanish morning daily; Mabuhay, a Tagalog morning daily; Philippine Herald, an English afternoon daily; and Monday Mail, an English weekly. In his capacity as the editor in chief of the DMHM chain of newspapers, Romulo won a Pulitzer Prize.

First published regularly in 1934, Ang Bisaya sa Hiligaynon was renamed the Hiligaynon in 1936. With an initial circulation of 5 000 copies, it reached a larger circulation than its sister publication, Bisaya and Bannawag, at its peak. It was published by Ramon Roces and was first edited by Abe Gonzales.

Ramon Roces published Bannawag, the brainchild of Magdaleno Abaya, the Philippine Graphic former staff member, in 1935. It has fostered the growth and maturity of Ilocano literature and has produced creative writers like Leon Pichay, Benjamin Pascual, Godofredo Reyes, and Hermogenes Belen. Considered as the “Bible of the North” that catered the grassroots and intellectual readers, the magazine serves as the major venue for most writings in Ilocano and covers a wide range of writings from fiction, poetry, and comic stories to essays, feature articles, and reportage on local and foreign developments.

After spending at least PhP100 000, Joaquin Elizalde, who rescued the Philippine Herald from Senator Vicente Madrigal, leased the DMHM chain of newspapers to Jorge Araneta, a businessman who wanted a newspaper to bat for a larger market for the Philippine sugar industry in the United States, in 1938. After his death, the chain of newspapers was reverted to the Madrigals.

Before World War II, there were 153 provincial newspapers in the country. Of these, seven were dailies: Cebu City Advertiser, Cebu; Cebu Herald, Cebu; Davao Nichi-Nichi, Davao; El Tiempo, Iloilo; La Nacion, Cebu; La Revolucion, Cebu; and Times, Iloilo.

The oldest newspaper before World War II were Mindanao Herald, which was published in Zamboanga on November 3, 1903, and Ang Manugbantala, which was published in Iloilo on July 7, 1905.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Japanese Imperial Occupation

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Japanese Imperial Occupation

by Alixander Haban Escote

The DMHM chain of newspapers owned by Senator Vicente Madrigal was the first casualty in the field of journalism. It was destroyed when a couple of bombs attacked its editorial offices in Port Area, Manila on December 8, 1941, the Feast of Immaculate Conception.

Within two weeks of Japanese occupation, all publications, except the TVT chain of newspapers of Alejandro Roces Sr. and one of the chain of magazines of Ramon Roces, were closed and their editorial offices were sealed with “By Order of the Japanese Imperial Government.”

On October 12, 1942, Taliba, La Vanguardia, Tribune, and Liwayway were placed under Osaka Mainichi Publishing Company, a group that established the Manila Sinbun-sya Corporation and controlled Shin-Seiki, Bicol Herald, Manila Shimbun, and Davao Nichi-Nichi.

During this period, anyone who wanted to publish newspapers and periodicals must secure a military permit and must submit to military censorship, which, when violated meant severe punishment, if not death.

In a study conducted by Jacqueline Co, Annie Dematera, Rosanna Carreon, Rolando dela Cruz, and Adoracion de Guzman, 27 publications were given permission to operate: The Bicol Herald, a four-page tabloid in English and Bikolano published in Bicol from August 1942 to March 1944; the Panay Times, a twice a week newspaper in English and Ilonggo published in Iloilo from January 1943 to December 1944; the Cebu Times, a four-page daily, except Monday, newspaper in English and Cebuano published in Cebu from March 1944 to March 1945; and the Davao Times, a newspaper in English and Cebuano published in Davao from March 1944 to April 1945.

Other newspapers were Davao, Manila; Filipina, Manila; Leyte-Samar Bulletin, Tacloban; Leyte Shimbun, Tacloban; Liwanag, Manila; New Negros Weekly, Bacolod; Philippine Review Newsette, Davao;Pillars, Cavite; Republic, Manila; Shin-Seiki, Manila; Tagapagturo, Manila; and government bulletins and bibliographies.

On the other hand, guerilla newspapers and periodicals were published to boost people’s morale, to warn against collaboration, and to fight against the Japanese Military Government. Guerilla publications, edited by journalist-guerillas, were usually typewritten or mimeographed on 8.5 X 11-inch bond papers.

In 1942, the HUKBALAHAP (Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon) published Ing Masala, the most powerful guerilla publication in Tarlac and in Pampanga. Pedro de la Llana edited The Flash, the newspaper in Tagalog, English, and Spanish in Iloilo. The latter published news stories about the war and editorial articles denouncing the Japanese Military Government. Ironically, its editor was liquated by uninformed guerillas because he was mistaken as a collaborator.

The Thurderclap, the official publication of the Hunter ROTC (Reserved Officers Training Corps) also came out in 1943. Very often, it changed its place of publication to confuse the Japanese as to its origin. On February 2, 1945, a day before the Americans entered in Manila, it was renamed the Liberty.

Founded and edited by Leon Ty of the Philippine Free Press, The Liberator was one of the most widely read guerilla newspapers in Rizal, Cavite, Manila, and Bulakan. Some of its writers were executed because they were caught circulating it. Luckily, Ty and a few others escaped and were saved from the enemy dragnet.

In Nueva Vizcaya, Col Guillermo Nakar published the Matang Lawin, which reported news stories about the Battle of Bataan.15 It also informed the Filipino people that like the Hawk, the guerillas watch over and look after their welfare and, at the same time, take cognizance of the activity of the spies.

In Panay, Tomas Confessor, Free Panay governor, published Ang Tigbatas, a Hiligaynon-English newspaper that survived the war and later became the principal reading matter of the province. Other newspapers in Panay were the Chronicle, Coordinator, Harbinger, Kalibo War Bulletin, and the Unknown Soldiers.

Juan Frivaldo published The Commentator in Sorsogon while Wenceslao Vinzons popularized The Saber in Bicol and in Laguna. Other guerilla newspapers were The Bugle of Leyte, the Palaso of Manila, and the Kalayaan of Bulakan.

Also based from the study conducted by Co, Carreon, Dematera, Dela Cruz, and De Guzman, 37 guerilla newspapers, which when evaluated carefully, reflected the sentiments of the country. Among these newspapers were Bolos and Bullets, Manila; Bombshells, Manila; Fornightly Publication, Panay; Free Philippines, Manila; Free Sulu News, Sulu; Freedom, Panay; Liberator, Negros Occidental; Patnubay, Manila; Patriot, No Official Address; Press of Freedom, No Official Address; Red, White, and Blue, Manila; Tanauan, Leyte; 34th Anniversary of the Chinese Republic, No Official Address; Thurderbolt, Manila; Tigbatas, Panay; Tingug sang Kalwasan, Cebu or Iloilo; Torch, Cebu; Unknown Soldier, Panay; USAFIP NL Newsletter, No Official Address; Victory News, Negros; Victory News, No Official Address; Victory News, Panay; Vigil of Freedom, Visayas; Voice, No Official Address; Voice of Free Samar, Samar; Voice of Free People, Leyte; Voice of Victory, Tacloban; and Weekly News Bulletin, No Official Address.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Post Liberation Period

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Post Liberation Period

by Alixander Haban Escote

When Manila was freed on February 3, 1945, the press was also liberated, not only from censorship, but also from the notion that newspapers must be a million peso corporations. Vicente Albano Pacis remembered that approximately 250 newspapers and periodicals were published right after the Japanese occupation.

Publishers during this period were the Roxas syndicate – Light, Balita, and Daily News; the Standard Publishing House – Ang Pilipino and Daily Standard; the PSP Publishing – Bagong Buhay, Liberty News, and Voz de Manila; and the Roces chain of newspapers – Liwayway, Evening Post, and Manila Times.

Other post war newspapers were the Chua’s Courier, the Cojuangco’s Manila Tribune, the Del Fierro’s Star Reporter, the Mendez’s Morning Sun, and the Subido’s Manila Post. The US Armed Forces also published the Yank, the Daily Pacifican, and the Star and Stripes and distributed condensed editions of the Times and the Newsweek

The US Army Office of War Information in Leyte published the Manila Free Philippines, the first post-liberation newspaper, on February 9, 1945. It was edited by Frits Marquardt, Philippine Free Press former editor, and was distributed free until March 12, 1945. It ceased publication on September 3, 1945 when privately owned newspapers were published.

On April 23, 1945, Ramon Roces resumed the publication of the Liwayway and its sister publications: Bannawag for the Ilocano speaking provinces of Luzon, Bicolonian for the Bicol speaking provinces of the Bicol region, Bisaya for the Cebuano speaking provinces of the Visayas and Mindanao, and Hiligaynon, for the Ilonggo speaking provinces of Panay and Negros. This group of weekly vernacular magazines formed the Ramon Roces Publication, Inc.

With a capital of PhP6 000 from the Manila Post and the Philippine Tribune rebel staff members, the Manila Chronicle, a hard hitting and politically conscious newspaper published by Manuel Villanueva and edited by Anacleto Benavides and Ernesto del Rosario, started as the People’s Newspaper in April 1945. Later, Eugenio Lopez Sr. acquired the newspaper when he sought congressional support for the sugar industry.

Following the Lopez takeover, the Manila Chronicle acquired a new offset printing press and a fleet of delivery vehicles that increased national circulation by 100 percent. The newspaper came out daily with at least 20 pages that included business section and provincial supplements. Del Rosario continued as associate editor though Pedro Amaguin and Anacleto Benavides were recruited to serve the same position. Before martial law, it had made itself as a newspaper of high quality.

At least 40 newspapermen who met at the Manila Jockey Club founded the Philippine Newspaper Guild on May 4, 1945. Its committee members were Cipriano Cid, chairperson; Renato Constantino, secretary; and Jose Lansang, Vicente Navarro, Amado Hernandez, Roberto Villanueva, and Hermenegildo Atienza, members. Its officers were Cipriano Cid, president; Jose Lansang, executive vice president; Amado Hernandez, first vice president; Ralph Hawkins, second vice president; Eugenio Santos, third vice president; and Roberto Anselmo, secretary-treasurer.

Under the new management of Joaquin Roces and the editorships of Jose Luna Castro and Vicente Guzman, the Manila Times, which had started as a weekly newspaper on May 27, 1945 became a daily tabloid on September 5, 1945. During those times, it had a rotary press with a capacity of 30 000 copies per hour. It started with chairs, tables, typewriters, and electric generators purchased from the US Army.

The Manila Daily Bulletin resumed publication on February 25, 1946. A printing assistance from Ramon Roces and two newsprint quotas from the War Production Board in Washington facilitated its comeback.

On July 4, 1946, President Harry Truman proclaimed, “the United States of America withdraws and surrenders all rights of possession, supervision, jurisdiction, control, or sovereignty now existing and exercised by the United States of America in and over the territory and [the] people of the Philippines.” Truman, in behalf of the United States of America “recognizes the independence of the Philippines as a separate and self-governing nation and acknowledges the authority and control over the same of the government instituted by the people under the constitution now in force.”

In October 1947, the Manila Daily Bulletin underwent modernization and transferred to its new plant in Florentino Torres Street, where its brand new Duplex Unitubular machine with a capacity of 40 000 copies per hour was housed. When Brig Gen Hans Menzi bought the newspaper, it became the unofficial mouthpiece of the Americans in the country after he gave it a Filipino rather than an American orientation.

In February 1948, the Newspaperman announced the death of three militant newspapers because of staffing and financial difficulties. These newspapers were the Manila Post, edited by Abelardo Subido and published by Victorio Santiago; the Manila Chronicle, edited by Vicente Pacis and published by Eduardo Cojuangco; and the Philippine Liberty News, edited by Indalecio Soliongco and published by Manuel Manahan.

In 1948, Ramon Roces revived the Graphic but with a different name, content, and language – Kislap, a movie magazine in Tagalog. In 1951, it became the Kislap-Graphic, a bilingual magazine in Tagalog and English. In 1960, it became the Weekly Graphic in order not to compete circulation with the Liwayway.

The Manila Times Publishing Company, Inc. launched the Daily Mirror on May 2, 1949, less than a year after Ramon Roces sold the News, the newspaper he founded on September 23, 1945, to Lt Cmdr Chick Parsons. On February 11, 1960, Parsons sold the News to the Far East Publishing Company. In 1965, it was taken over by Manuel Elizalde, a business tycoon with substantial holdings in radio and in television

In 1961, the Soriano Group of Companies acquired the Philippine Herald, which resumed publication on July 8, 1949. Other newspapers during this period were the Comet, Liberal, Express, Freedom, Guerilla, Chronicle, Daily Mail, Victory News, Fil-American, Evening Herald, Filipino Observer, Philippine Progress, and the Philippine Liberty News.

In 1952, the National Press Club was founded by the Senate Press Club, Philippine News Service, Manila Police Press Club, Congressional Press Club, Port Writers Association, Manila Overseas Press Club, Political Writers Association, Labor Reporters Association, Philippine Movie Press Club, Malacañang Press Association, Manila Newspaperwomen’s Club, Cartoonist Association of the Philippines, Philippine News Photographers Association, and the Business Writers Association of the Philippines.

On the other hand, the Philippine Press Institute was inaugurated on May 4, 1964 after the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation donated a more than enough fund for its establishment. Its pioneer officers were Hans Menzi, Oscar Lopez, P K Macker, Juan Mercado, Joaquin Roces, and Carlos Romulo.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Period of Nationalism and First Quarter Storm

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Period of Nationalism and First Quarter Storm

by Alixander Haban Escote

During this period, journalism moved the country toward nationalism and independence. It is the period when the country experienced economic turmoil and had a hard time in paying its increasing foreign debts. The Philippine peso flunked against the US dollar and America meddled in the state of economy of the country. As a result, the people felt hardships in life and the press reported the continuing destruction of bureaucracy that shaped the neocolonial outline of our history.

In 1963, Bertrand Russel Foundation published the Progressive Review whose prominent writers included Luis Teodoro, Jose Maria Sison, and Francisco Nemenzo Jr. The Philippine Collegian, the official student publication of the University of the Philippines,16 published essays that mirrored progressive and revolutionary ideas of its editorial staff.

At the University of the Philippines, Jose Maria Sison, also known as Amado Guerrero, founded the Kabataang Makabayan on November 30, 1964. A militant student organization, it removed the unscrupulous masks of feudalism, capitalism, imperialism, and neocolonialism, which, according to Sison, are “the barriers toward the attainment of freedom and independence.”

In November 1965, the then Senate President Ferdinand Marcos,17 Nacionalista Party presidential candidate, who ran against President Diosdado Macapagal, Liberal Party presidential candidate, was elected Sixth President of the Republic of the Philippines, defeating the latter by 67 000 votes. In January 1966, Marcos vowed to be the “leader of the people” and “to make this nation great again.”

After one year, US President Lyndon Johnson sought support for the American involvement in South Vietnam and called for a summit among his allies in the Asia and the Pacific. As a response, Marcos sent an engineering battalion despite popular clamor for non-involvement.

In December 1968, Jose Maria Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) and continued the armed struggle against the government and its foreign tentacles. When Marcos was re-elected for another four-year term in November 1969, CPP formed an alliance with the Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan, formerly the military arm of the Partido ng Komunista ng Pilipinas and later the New People’s Army led by Bernabe Buscayno, also known as Kumander Dante.

In January 1970, series of rallies were launched by radical and moderate student organizations protesting the inclusion of politicians in the 1971 Constitutional Convention and the constitutional provision that would allow Marcos to run for a third term. When militant students overrun the military lines and ram commandeered fire trucks at the gates of the Malacañang Palace, bloody violence erupted.18 This bloody episode began a wave of protest known as the First Quarter Storm.

On August 21, 1971, two hand grenades were thrown at the Plaza Miranda19 killing 8 and injuring 120 persons including Senators Gerardo Roxas, Jovito Salonga, and Sergio Osmeña Jr. who attended the Liberal Party proclamation rally. As a result, Marcos suspended the privilege of writ of habeas corpus20.

In a study conducted by John Lent, there were 26 newspapers and 16 periodicals published during this period. The principal newspapers were the Taliba, Daily Mirror, Evening News, Manila Times, Manila Chronicle, Philippine Herald, and the Manila Daily Bulletin. The principal magazines were the Liwayway, Tagumpay, Weekly Nation, Weekly Graphic, Republic Weekly, Philippine Free Press, Asia Philippines Leader, and the Philippine Free Press sa Filipino,

Militant newspapers during this period included Ang Pasada, Samahan ng mga Makabayang Tsuper; Pagkakaisa, Philippine Peace and Solidarity Council; Bandilang Pula, Samahang Demokratiko ng Kabataan; Ang Kalayaan and Ang Aktibista, Kabataang Makabayan; Taliba ng Bayan and The Liberation, National Democratic Front; and the Sulong, Ang Bayan, and Ang Komunista, Communist Party of the Philippines.

In early September 1972, Senator Benigno Aquino Jr.21 refuted “Oplan Sagitarrius,” the plan to place some parts of the country under martial law.

On the very night before martial law was declared, the convoy of Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile was ambushed. Fourteen years later, while facing uncertain fate at the Camp Emilio Aguinaldo in Quezon City after he broke away from Marcos, Enrile confessed that the “ambush” was staged to help justify the imposition of the emergency rule.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Martial Law Days

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Martial Law Days

by Alixander Haban Escote

On September 21, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos signed Proclamation No. 1081 and “placed the entire country under martial law.” With the guise of rebellion and insurrection against the government, Marcos manipulated events and situations to justify the declaration of martial law.

The imposition of martial law was necessary, Marcos said, “to save the republic and form a new society.” The purposes of the emergency rule were two-sided: (1) eradicating the armed force of the rebellion and ending the anarchy that prevailed; and (2) eliminating the social and economic roots of the rebellion, by causing rapid national development.

Marcos assured the people that the imposition of martial rule was “legal and constitutional…humane, fair, and just as shown in the absence of bloodshed and the almost unanimous acceptance [of emergency measure] by the people.” The autocrat reiterated that martial law was “not a military takeover of civil government functions… but is the ultimate weapon availed of to preserve the people’s life as a nation when threatened.” A war to be waged on two fronts: “On one hand, we have to completely stamp out the communist menace. On the other hand, we have to cut the powers of the oligarchs who have tyrannized the people.”

The following day, Marcos issued Letter of Instruction No. 1 ordering the Press Secretary and the Defense Secretary “to take over and control or cause the taking over and control of the mass media for the duration of the national emergency, or until otherwise ordered by the President or by his duly designated representative.”

In the first few days of military rule, the Public Information Office issued tight censorship guidelines. Department Order No. 1 signed by Francisco Tatad, ordered, “unless otherwise specified, no newspaper, radio, or television program may carry any editorial opinion, commentary, or asides, or any other kind of political, unauthorized, or objectionable advertising. The so-called society page shall not appear in any newspaper and its equivalent shall not be broadcast either by radio or television.”

As a result, all newspapers and periodicals were closed down and the Sun, Daily Star, Evening News, Manila Times, Manila Chronicle, and the Philippines Herald were sequestered. The likes of publishers Antonio Araneta, Graphic; Joaquin Roces, Manila Times; Eugenio Lopez Jr., Manila Chronicle; and Teodoro Locsin Sr., Philippine Free Press; were jailed.

Marcos also jailed the following editors and reporters: Rolando Fadul, Taliba; Luis Mauricio, Graphic; Juan Mercado, Dumaguete Times; Rosalinda Galang, Manila Times; Jose Lacaba, Philippine Free Press; Amando Doronilla, Manila Chronicle; and Napoleon Rama, Philippine Free Press.

Dolores Feria, Jose Burgos Jr., Satur Ocampo, Rommel Corro, Armando Malay, Napoleon Rama, Maximo Soliven, Petronillo Daroy, Ernesto Granada, Jo-Ann Maglipon, Ninotchka Rosca, Rodolfo Ordonez, and Antonio Ma Nieva were also jailed.

Philippine Collegian student journalists like Roberto Coloma, Alexander Magno, and Malou Mangahas were also put in jail. Mauro Avena, Jose Burgos Jr., Sheila Coronel, Rommel Corro, Domini Suarez, Armando Malay, Ma Ceres Doyo, Francisco Rodrigo, and Salvador Gonzales faced libel and subversion cases.

Arlene Babst, Mauro Avena, Antonio Ma Nieva, Ninez Cacho Olivarez, and Letty Jimenez-Magsanoc were dismissed as professional journalists. Jacinto Peña, Alex Orcullo, Kenneth Lee, Geoffrey Siao, Henry Romero, Porfirio Doctor, Demy Dingcong, Walter Sisbrenio, Noe Alejandrino, Jacobo Amatong, Florante de Castro, and Antonio Tagamolila offered their lives for journalism.

Women journalists though subjected to military threats, harassments, and intimidations proved to be equally if not more daring than men in their writings. Among them were Ceres Doyo, Arlene Babst, Sheila Coronel, Ninez Olivares, Betty Belmonte, Melinda de Jesus, Eugenia Apostol, Malou Mangahas, Domini Torrevillas, Tina Monzon-Palma, and Letty Jimenez-Magsanoc.

Within weeks, the Philippine Daily Express, published by Juan Perez and owned by Roberto Benedicto, Marcos’s friend and law schoolmate, was allowed to operate and became the unofficial mouthpiece of the administration during the historical martial law proclamation. It was an unabashed propaganda newspaper and eventually came to be known, in the kind of defiant humor popular during the martial law, as the Daily Suppress.

In its December 7, 1972 editorial, the paper praised the imposition of martial law in rather flagrant time:

“President Marcos took the decisive step to realize that Filipino dream when he placed the entire country under martial law to save the republic from foreign-backed communist conspiracy trying to seize state and political power, and to reform a sick society by eradicating the social roots of the rebellion and anarchy. (Italics Mine)

“Proclamation 1081 is not a martial law proclamation but a declaration of emancipation…liberating the Filipino mind, body, and soul from centuries of imprisonment (by social, political, and economic ills and conditions imposed by [the] Spanish, [the] American, and [the] Japanese force[s]) as well as from local tyrants and warlords… and those who took orders from Moscow and lately from the operatives of Chairman Mao” (Italics Mine).

The tightly controlled mass media had few openings for alternative versions of reality to seep through the thick mist of official propaganda. Kerima Polotan-Tuvera published the Focus, a safe but interesting magazine. The daughter of sometime presidential representative Adrian Cristobal published the Review, a short-lived literary magazine.

Only few newspapers and periodicals were given permission to operate: the Evening Post of Kerima Polotan-Tuvera, the Bulletin Today of Gen Hans Menzi, and the Times Journal of Benjamin Romualdez. These newspapers were also known as “crony press” or “establishment press.”

The boldest publication during the martial law period was the Who Magazine of the Bulletin-owned Liwayway Publications, Inc. It was intended to be a personality periodical, but Menzi gave its editorial staff some liberty to write feature stories. It tackled stories about victims of human rights abuses, public sentiments regarding the real state of things, and indigenous communities resisting development programs. Some of its editorial columns were critical of the administration.

Who Magazine editorial staff and contributors were often summoned to explain the merits of their stories. Marcos himself expressed annoyance over the existence of the publication. But, Menzi was fond of the young journalists and that he defended them and the publication. The magazine was finally shut down after he died.

Nationalistic campus newspapers were the Pandayan of the Ateneo de Manila University, Balawis of the Mapua Institute of Technology, the Philippine Collegian of the University of the Philippines, Ang Hasik of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, and Ang Malaya of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – 1986 EDSA Revolution

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – 1986 EDSA Revolution

by Alixander Haban Escote

Three years before the 1986 EDSA Revolution, Mr & Ms, an inexpensive weekly magazine, sensationalized the assassination of Senator Benigno Aquino Jr., paramount political rival of Marcos, at the Manila International Airport on August 21, 1983. Aquino’s assassination ignited a fire of protests particularly in Ugarte Field in Makati and in Liwasang Bonifacio in Manila where the upper and the middle classes marched with the poor, the workers, the unemployed, and the professionals.

The continued publication and circulation of Mr & Ms encouraged Eugenia Apostol and Leticia Jimenez-Magsanoc to publish the Philippine Daily Inquirer, an opposition newspaper edited by Luis Beltran, on December 2, 1985. With the slogan “Balanced News, Fearless Views,” 40 editors, reporters, photographers, correspondents, and other editorial employees put out the newspaper on December 9, 1985. It was one of the two alternative newspapers that chronicled the flight of the Marcoses on February 25, 1986.

Earlier, We Forum, with Jose Burgos Jr. as the editor and publisher and Bonifacio Gillego as the writer, ran series of exposé on the alleged Marcos fake medals. Because of this, Marcos ordered the closure of the newspaper and the arrest of its editor and publisher. However, on December 4, 1981, the newspaper metamorphosed into Malaya, which ceased on December 7, 1982 and reopened on January 17, 1983.

The rampage of the new elite and the abuse of human rights did not only bleed the economy dry but also fueled rallies and demonstrations. The EDSA Revolution that prevailed on February 22-25, 1986 was a peaceful cry for freedom and independence, which, according to Senator Francisco Tatad, was “a beautiful revolution whose combatants include men, women, and children who had fun rather than fear and who thought that what they went through was a religious rather than a political experience.”

On February 25, 1986, Corazon Aquino24 was inaugurated as President of the Republic of the Philippines at the Club Filipino in Greenhills, San Juan before Supreme Court Senior Justice Claudio Teehankee. An hour later, Marcos conducted his own inauguration at the Malacañang Palace. Channels 2, 9, and 13 covered the ceremony, but they were cut off suddenly because their transmitters were taken by reformist troops. Without television, Marcos finally loses control. Marcos called Juan Ponce Enrile to offer him power in a provisional government, but the latter turned him down. Marcos called US Senator Paul Laxalt to ask for advice and he was told: “Mr. President, I think you should cut, and cut cleanly.” Marcos made a final call to Enrile asking for a safe conduct for his family. The Marcoses then packed hurriedly. At 9 p. m., four American helicopters fly the Marcoses from the Malacañang Palace in Manila to the Clark Air Base in Pampanga. The next day, they stop over at Guam, then fly to Hawaii.

Prominent newspapers during this period were the Business Day, the most respected business newspaper; the Malaya, the newspaper that strongly opposed martial law; the Bulletin Today, the newspaper that exists through bad and good times; theManila Times, the newspaper that came back before the snap elections; and the Philippine Daily Inquirer, the most read newspaper even after a few months of circulation.

Included were their Sunday magazines: Panorama, Inquirer Extra, Midday Malaya, Sunday Times Magazine, and Sunday Inquirer Magazine. The weekly newsmagazines were Veritas, We Forum, Veritas Special, and Mr & Ms Special Edition. Also included were News Herald, Manila Chronicle, Ang Pilipino Ngayon, Pilipino Daily Mirror, and the Philippine Tribune.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Contemporary Period

A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Contemporary Period

by Alixander Haban Escote

After the 1986 EDSA Revolution, the press, which plays a potent role in the promotion of truth, justice, and democracy, and of peace, progress, and prosperity, was liberated from dictatorship. During this period, crony newspapers were closed and the National Press Club and the Philippine Press Institute were revived to professionalize mass media in the country.

During this period, significant changes, advances, and developments have taken place in Philippine journalism. Newspapers and periodicals have expanded in pages, sections, coverages, and circulations. They have become venues of sensitive issues like death penalty, charter change, juetengate scandal, and visiting forces agreement, and of diverse issues about the civil society, land reform, human rights, genders issues, and other areas that before the 1986 EDSA Revolution were previously ignored or minimally covered. Some investigative reports have led to further investigations, have enhanced transparency, and have reduced corruption in the judiciary, executive, and legislative branches of the government.

These developments are attributed to the continuing efforts of the newspaper and the periodical industry and their research and academic organizations: the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, which conducts rigorous research in the affairs of the state; the Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility, which upgrades professionalism and responsibility of media practitioners through seminars, workshops, and publications; the Philippine Press Institute, which conducts trainings and sponsors the Annual Community Press Awards that recognizes excellence among provincial newspapers and periodicals; and the Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication, which offers graduate studies in journalism and in communication management and conducts media research, interim training, and policy advocacy.

In 1998, there are 14 daily broadsheets and 19 tabloids published in Metro Manila. Among the broadsheets with the biggest circulations include the Manila Bulletin with a claimed circulation of 280 000 on weekdays and 300 000 on weekends and the Philippine Daily Inquirer with a claimed circulation of 260 000 on weekdays and 280 000 on weekends. Among the tabloids with the biggest circulations include the Abante with a claimed circulation of 417 600 and the People’s Journal with a claimed circulation of 382 000. Out of the 408 provincial newspapers and periodicals, 30 are printed daily, 292 are published weekly, and the rest are circulated either monthly or quarterly.

Today, based from the 2000 Philippine Media Fact Book, there are 559 print publications, 475 broadsheets, 45 magazines, and 39 tabloids and comics; 22 percent are published in the National Capital Region, 12 broadsheets, 17 tabloids, 32 magazines, 39 comics, and 5 Chinese newspapers. Among the broadsheets with the biggest circulations include the Philippine Daily Inquirer with a daily circulation of 257 416, followed by the Philippine Star, 251 000, and the Manila Bulletin, 240 000. Other broadsheets with their daily circulation are as follows: Today, 152 268; Kabayan, 150 000; Malaya, 135 193; Manila Standard, 96 310; Sun Star Manila, 87 000; Philippine Post, 78 218; The Manila Times, 75 000; Business World, 61 283; and The Daily Tribune, 50 000.

Among the tabloids with the biggest circulations include Bulgar with a daily circulation of 448 450, followed by the People’s Journal, 382 200, and the People’s Tonight, 365 811. Other tabloids with their daily circulation are as follows: Remate, 310 000; Abante, 260 000; Bandera, 253 523; Pilipino Star Ngayon, 250 200, People’s Bagong Taliba, 210 000; Balita, 175 725; Tempo, 160 000; Abante Tonight, 150 000; Isyu, 126 835; Saksi Ngayon, 100 000; Remate Tonight, 90 000; Balita sa Hapon, 35 000; and Sun Star Bulilit, 30 000.

Among the Sunday supplements of daily newspapers, Panorama of the Manila Bulletin has the highest number of circulation, 300 000, followed by the Sunday Inquirer Magazine of the Philippine daily Inquirer, 268 575, and the Starweek Magazine of the Philippine Star, 268 000. Among the entertainment magazines, Glitter has the highest number of circulation with 300 000, followed by the Pilipino Reporter News Magazine, 188 192, and the Woman Today, 184 900.

Other magazines with their weekly circulation are as follows: Kislap Magazine, 182 158; Sports Life Magazine, 179 997; Movie Flash Magazine, 177 850; MOD, 176 820; Star Talk Magazine, 163, 565; Moviestar, 153 829; Women’s Journal, 152-825; Woman’s Home Companion, 146 969; Mr and Ms Magazine, 140 665; Philippine Free Press, 138 759; Super Horoscope, 135 933; Chic Magazine, 135 933; Teen Movie Magazine, 133 779; Miscellaneous, 133 000; Mega Star, 130 942; Liwayway, 128 680; Sports Weekly, 126 286; Scoreboard, 102 000; Sports Flash Magazine, 101 164; Hot Copy Magazine, 97 246; Woman, 50 000; Chica-Chica Magazine, 20 000; Super Teen Movie Magazine, 17 000; and Intrigue, 12 000. China Times Magazine, which comes out monthly, has a circulation of 10 000.

Among the provincial press, there are 43 dailies; 3 in Luzon, 19 in the Visayas, and 21 in Mindanao. There are also 315 weeklies, 209 in Luzon, 30 in the Visayas, and 76 in Mindanao.

Next: A History of Journalism in the Philippines – Historical Notes