Life in Athens for socrates. Socrates and Morality.
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What is morality? …
When I think that morality is a sense of behavioural conduct that differentiates intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good (or right) and bad (or wrong). Socrates wanted to define what was morally right from wrong. This is what derived from Socratic ethic. It was what Socrates considered to be the way a person should live their life. Both piety and justice were classed as virtues in Socratic thought, and the virtues themselves are in one. They were in one individual, and they were all found on some basic moral knowledge. This is a knowledge that is sufficient to ensure correct conduct.
Do you think the moral standards during Socrates time are the same moral standards that we live by in today’s society? …
I think in today’s society we still try to follow what is right and we try to avoid wrongs. If we ever do something wrong then a police officer will very quickly what right from wrong. Based on the moral standards that we have today it has not changed since the past but everyone has their own ideologies when their subjected to unjust laws.
Socrates tried to create moral standards which would become the same for all people. “There is only one goodness it is knowledge” “There is only one evil it is negligence” Socrates said. These are a set two moral standards that Socrates told to others.
Socrates plainly states that, “What is dear to the gods is pious, what is not is impious.” But, he responds with the statement that sometimes even the gods disagree; “the just and the unjust, the beautiful and the ugly, the good and the bad. These are the subjects of difference about which, when we are unable to come to a satisfactory decision, you and I and other men become hostile to each other whenever we do?” Therefore, he maintains, “what all gods hate is impious, and what they all love is pious, and what some gods love, and others hate is neither or both.”
Socrates claimed that he did not teach; however, he insisted on regular education for the Athenian youths. The Athenians came to believe that they have lost control over their children, and that Socrates had taken over their places in the hearts of the young men.
Socrates never set himself up as an authority figure in any matter relating to morality. Socrates believed that poets and philosophers not the parents should be engaged in teaching morals. Socrates recognized that that the only secure construction in education is a construction built on a learner’s own experience. After the defeat of Athens in the long Peloponnesian war Spartan rule was established in the city and Socrates never cooperated and was he was brought in court and charged with replacing the city’s gods with gods of his own and corrupting the young men of the city.
He was protesting openly in public, which is not illegal, but he was accused of a crime. Socrates was tried before a huge jury, and he defended himself against the charges. Socrates lost his case by a small margin and he was
found guilty as charged and sentenced to death. Socrates was condemned to die by drinking poison made from the Hemlock Plant. This punishment was proposed by the prosecution as more appropriate than a fine which he had suggested to pay. While Socrates was waiting for execution Crito bribed the jailer and tried to convince Socrates to escape from Athens; however, Socrates refused and insisted that is was necessary to obey the established law even if he had been convicted unfairly. Even thought his friends were trying to let him escape, he drank from the official cup of hemlock poison. Socrates argued about how moral standards prevented him from escaping.