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Factors Affecting Attitude

There are various opinions expressed by psychologists on understanding attitude. World of Psychology will be a little review of what is called the attitude? As said by psychologist Thomas WJ (in Ahmadi, 1999), which imposes limits the level inclination attitudes are positive or negative, which corresponds to the object of psychology. The object of psychology here includes: symbols, words, slogans, people, institutions, ideas and so forth.

There are various opinions expressed by psychologists on understanding attitude. World of Psychology will be a little review of what is called the attitude? As said by psychologist Thomas WJ (in Ahmadi, 1999), which imposes limits the level inclination attitudes are positive or negative, which corresponds to the object of psychology. The object of psychology here includes: symbols, words, slogans, people, institutions, ideas and so forth. 

According to Sarnoff (in Sarwono, 2000) identified the attitude of willingness to respond (disposition to React) is positively (favorably) or negatively (unfavorably) to the object – a specific object. D.Krech and RS Crutchfield (in Sears, 1999) argues that the attitude of the organization is settled from the motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive aspects of individual world. 

Meanwhile, La Pierre (in Anwar, 2003) provides the definition of attitude as a pattern of behavior, tendencies or anticipatory readiness, a predisposition to adapt in social situations, or simply, the attitude is a response to social stimuli that have been conditioned. Further Soetarno (1994) provides a definition is the attitude of the views or feelings that accompanied the tendency to act against a specific object. The attitude is always directed to something that is not there without the attitude object. Attitudes directed towards objects, people, peritiwa, views, institutions, norms, and others. 

Although there are some differences in terms of attitude, but based on the opinions of the above it can be concluded that the attitude of the human condition in a move to act or do in social activities with a certain feeling in a situation or an object in response to conditions in the surrounding environment. In addition also the attitude of readiness to respond to positive or negative nature of the object or situation. 

Social learning process is made up of social interaction. In social interaction, individuals form a pattern of attitudes toward different psychological objects that it faces. Among the various factors that influence the attitude is: 

A. Personal experience. Can be the basis for the formation of attitudes, personal experiences have left a strong impression. Therefore, the attitude will be more easily formed when the personal experience involves emotional factors. In situations involving emotion, appreciation will be more in-depth experience and longer trace. 

2. Culture. B.F. Skinner (in, Anwar 2005) emphasizes the influence of the environment (including culture) in shaping one’s personality. Personality is none other than a consistent pattern of behavior that illustrate the history of reinforcement (reinforcement, rewards) owned. Patterns of reinforcement from the community to attitudes and behavior, rather than for the other attitudes and behaviors. 

3. Others are considered important. In general, the individual being conformist or direction of the attitude of the people whom he considered important. The trend is partly motivated by a desire for affiliation and the desire to avoid conflict with the people that are considered important. 

4. The mass media. As a means of communication, various mass media such as television, radio, had a major influence in shaping people’s opinions and beliefs. New information about something that provides the foundation for the formation of a new cognitive attitude toward it. Suggestive messages that carry information, if strong enough, will give the basic affective perceive and judge things in terms of direction, forming a certain attitude. 

5. Education and Religious Institutions. As a system, educational and religious institutions have a strong influence in shaping attitudes because they laid the foundation of understanding and moral concepts within the individual. Understanding of good and evil, the dividing line between what can and can not be done, derived from educational and religious center and its teachings. 

6. Emotional factors in the self. Not all forms of behavior are determined by environmental circumstances and personal experience. Sometimes, a form of attitude statements that are based on the emotion which serves as a kind of channeling of frustration or alienation of ego defense mechanisms. Such an attitude is temporary and soon passed so frustrating has been lost but can also be an attitude that is more persistent and more durable. for example, form attitudes based on the emotional factor is prejudice. 

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