Along with Kohler and Koffka, Max Wertheimer is one of the main proponents of Gestalt theory that emphasizes high-level cognitive processes in the midst of behaviorism. The focus of Gestalt theory was the idea of "grouping", ie, characteristics of the stimulus causing us to structure or interpret a visual field or problem in a certain way (Wertheimer, 1922).
The main factors that determine grouping or organizational principles are: (1) proximity – elements tend to be grouped together according to their proximity, (2) similarity – items similar in some ways tend to be grouped together, (3) closure – items are grouped together if they tend to to resolve some of the entities, and (4) simplicity – items will be arranged in a simple figure based on symmetry, regularity, and smoothness. These factors are called the law of the organization and described in the context of perception and problem solving.
Gestalt Learning Theory
Wertheimer is primarily concerned with the problems. Werthiemer (1959) provide Gestalt interpretation of problem solving episodes of famous scientists (eg, Galileo, Einstein) as well as children who presented with math problems.
The essence of successful problem-solving behavior according to Wertheimer is being able to see the overall structure of this problem: An area of particular importance to the field, focused, but it does not become isolated. “A new structure is more in view, from the situation develops, involving changes in the functional sense, grouping, etc. of the item. Directed by what is required by a crucial structure for the situation, one is led to a reasonable prediction, which like other parts of the structure, calls for verification, direct or indirect gain. involved two-way overall, consistent picture and see what the overall structure of the need for the parts
Learning Gestalt theory applies to all aspects of human learning, even though most directly applicable to the perception and problem solving. Gibson is strongly influenced by the work of Gestalt theory. Some examples of gestalt theory can be seen from the application of learning.
Akhmad Sudrajat describe some applications of Gestalt theory in the learning process include:
Experience of insight (insight) that plays an important insight in the behavior. In the process of learning, learners should have the ability to insight: the ability to know the relationship of the elements in an object or event.
Learning meaningful (meaningful learning); meaningfulness related elements will support the formation of insight in the learning process. More clearly the meaning of the relationship of an element will be more effective to learn something. It is very important in problem solving activities, especially in identifying problems and developing alternative solutions. Things that students should have learned the meaning of a clear and logical with life processes.
Purposeful behavior (pusposive behavior); that focus on behavioral goals. Behavior is not only due to stimulus-response relationship, but no association with the objective to be achieved. The learning process will be effective if the students know the objectives to be achieved. Therefore, teachers should realize the goal as a way of teaching activities and assist learners in understanding its purpose.
The principle of living space (life space); that individual behavior is related to the environment in which it resides. Therefore, the material being taught should have relevance to the situation and environmental conditions of life of students.
Transfer in Learning; the displacement patterns of behavior in a particular learning situation to another situation. According to the Gestalt view, transfer of learning occurs by way of releasing the sense of a configuration object in a given situation and then put in a situation of another configuration of the structure right. He stressed the importance of catching the fundamental principles of broad learning and then develop the general provisions (generalization). Transfer of learning will occur if the learner has captured the basic principles of a problem and find a generalization for later use in solving problems in other situations. Therefore, teachers should help learners to master the basic principles of the material he teaches.