As the latest news is pouring in, our knowledge about Harappan Era India is getting fairer and more accurate. Khirsara, a city located 85 Kms away from Bhuj in the state of Gujrat, is now known as the earliest industrial hub (others as well may be existing and are yet to be discovered) of Harappan India.
Excavators at the Archaeological Survey of India have dug 120 trenches, of 10 * 10 metres (or greater) each, to claim this discovery. According to the leading excavator and history experts at the ASI many of the discovered mud pots are found to be containing in gold beads.
By inducing systematic sessions of excavation, in a term of 3 years and concluding 120 trenches, a factory complex, a warehouse, drainage system, habitation annexes, and massive fortification walls have been excavated in the ASI’s Khisara site.All of these structures are made of sandstone blocks of rather regular sizes in mud mortar.
A staggering number of pottery of various sizes, shapes, and bearing signs and inscribed Harappan script, are found in the Khirsara’s warehouse and other complexes.While the bar seals have only Harappan script, others have carvings of lumpless bulls and uncorn.
The seals, especially the circular ones, are the primary characterstic by which Khisara can be recognized as a rather mature Harappan city. Structures such like the citadel, the factory and the warehouse are the hallmarks that robust the status of the site as a mature Harappan city(belonging to the mature Harappan phase).
The excavators at the Khirsara’s ASI site have found furnace and tandoors. Evidence of copper working and copper ash is also found in the part of the site (in one of the complexes). Along with aforesaid materials they have also found huge quantities of steatite beads and seals made of steatite (soap rock; a type of metamorphic rock). And combining it all the ASI researchers have concluded the complex as a factory.
For the first time in the excavation history of the Harappan civilization, in the Khirsara site the separation fortifications have been found that segregates one complex from the other. The purpose for these fortifications can be accredited to the security of inhabitants and the goods manufactured.
The warehouse found in the excavation site is a massive one, stretching to a dimension of 28 metres by 12 metres. The Citadel was a habitat to elites of the city, which had exquisite houses with floor paved with multicoloured bricks, interconnected rooms, and a rock-cut well.
The citadel was deliberately built adjacent to the warehouse so that the rulers could keep a watch on the manufacturing and trading activities.