Anthropology is concerned with all peoples everywhere, from those alive today back to those who lived in the distant past. It is concerned with many aspects of life, from the shapes of their teeth; how they found and produced their food, built their settlements, and how they reared and educated their children.
The study of the entire human species and its evolutionary history is an undertaking. No single anthropologist can sit on the top of the whole field, particularly our time, when data are accumulating almost continually. Within the field, therefore, specialized disciplines have emerged, each with its own particular emphasis, approach, and method. They are:
- Physical Anthropology: The study of physical evolution of Homo Sapiens and of physical variations in contemporary human populations.
- Archeology: Sometimes referred to as “pick and shovel” historians Anthropologist study culture and the processes of Cultural evolution, using the material remains of societies.
- Cultural Anthropology: The study of variations among Human cultures of the present and the recent past.
- Linguistic Anthropology: Is the study of how human language were structured and used, and how they were developed.
- Ethnology: This concentrates on the diverse cultures of the present. It also analyses the structure and functioning of humans, and studies the role of the individual in society including the development of his personalty in relation to cultural traditions. Similarities and differences between cultures are also investigated and explained in ethnology.