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Migration in India

Employment appears to the one of the main reasons for migration of the people. Economic constraint at the native place of the migrants motivates or couples the people to leave their original place in search of livelihood or economic betterment at different destinations in urban zones.

Employment appears to the one of the main reasons for migration of the people. Economic constraint at the native place of the migrants motivates or couples the people to leave their original place in search of livelihood or economic betterment at different destinations in urban zones. A survey of relevant data conducted from time to time revealed that nearly one third of the migrants have arrived in the cities only for seeking employment. It is well known that large proportion of rural villages depends entirely on farm work. These people are unable to sustain themselves, as most of them remain without rest or 5-6 months in a year. This ultimately results in their poverty. Leaving apart a few cases of big landlords, a young son of marginal farmer would never prefer to pursue himself in the profession of farming for obvious reasons. Only a less educated helpless person who can’t do anything else would be a part of it. Secondly, the holdings are also going to be lesser and lesser day by day and the some area of land is now insufficient for generating self employment for landless people.

Above all speedy expansion of house and cities, through continuous acquisition of adjoining agricultural land, is a sword hanging and an impending threat to rural people curtailing the availability of cultivable land to the farmers. Education level is an important parameter for an individual which influences migration motivation and determines mobility pattern to a large extent. Nearly 5% of people migrate for this reason. There is a lack of opportunities for rural youth to acquire sufficient as well as quality of education in the rural sector. They are also devoid of any such facilities which are necessary to lift their personality as schools in the rural areas are comparatively low. In additions, the pattern of education is such that most of the youth are left untrained and are unable to take up any type of self-employment. If one tries to enter into some sort of trade, huge sums of money and risks are involved, which rural people can’t afford. It is also not easy to set up a business in rural areas unless good means of transport and communication are available there.

At present there is limited scope for trade in the rural areas therefore people prefer cities in search of livelihood. The role of education factor in respect of movement of individuals also reflects their urge to seek better employment opportunities. Thus the migration of resourceful and well educated people from rural zones to urban zones is favourable for urban development. As a result rural development is either hampered, remains static or may even deteriorate for want of an effective and forceful forum to raise the voice of the innocent rural people. It is understood from various reports that around one fifth of the migrants come to cities for reasons like political and cultural and also some times due to incidence of natural calamities here. There are numerous other invisible causes for migration which technically don’t seem to be so important yet are reposed by some authors to have played a definite role in this phenomena of migration from rural to urban centers and vice versa or from one region to another

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