Chinese Immigration Research Project

Who were the hardest workers on the Transcontinental Railroad? The Irish? The former slaves? No, it was the Chinese immigrants. Without Chinese Immigration, It would have taken many more years to complete. Although at first hated, Chinese immigrants grew to be respected by their many contributions to American society. The Chinese endured a hard voyage from China only to find backbreaking work. The immigrants started coming in the mid 1800’s and were treated horribly until the 1940’s. Even though they experienced anything from racist laws to anti-Chinese riots, the Chinese immigrants still managed to accomplish astonishing feats.

In China, There were two types of people: the very wealthy and the very poor. Rich people owned big houses. They had many servants, maids, and butlers. They practiced many beauty methods. The most painful was the binding of little girls’ feet. Small feet, called “lily feet”, were considered a mark of feminine beauty. It literally turned the girls into cripples. The poor people had nothing close to the life of a rich person. Many were rice farmers. At least they had something to eat. Those even poorer went hungry for days and had to resort to stealing from the farmers. The poor made up the majority of the Chinese population. Those people brought their hopes and dreams to America.

Beliefs made up an enormous part of life in China. The three main religions were Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Buddhism originated in India. Many people didn’t worship Confucianism, but still acknowledged it. The majority of the people worshiped Confucianism. These beliefs were started by Kong Fu Zi, who is better known by his Latin name, Confucius. Family honor also played an enormous role in China. Parents believed that children owed a debt to the parents for raising them. This “debt” could be repaid in many ways. One way would be to take care of their parents when they grew old. Another way was to send money to their parents, which many immigrants did. This was an essential part of Chinese lifestyle.

All men in China had to wear the same hairstyle. They shaved their forehead, and wore a long braid on the back of the head. The braids were called a queue. All men were required to wear them from the 1600’s to 1911. In the 1600’s, the Manchu Empire captured China. Queues symbolized loyalty to the Manchu rulers. Those who didn’t comply were committing treason and either imprisoned or executed. Without their queues, Chinese immigrants could not return to China. If it was cut off, they would have to grow a new one, which could take many years. After the overthrow of the Manchu government, in 1911, many Chinese people, in both China and America, cut off their queues in celebration of freedom.

The Opium Wars were a crucial element in immigration from China. China wanted to stop importing opium to China. The opium was turning many people in to mindless wanderers. When the British refused, the Chinese attacked merchant ships. The British retaliated by sending an armada. China was defeated and opium trade continued. China was no longer a closed nation. People could immigrate to other countries. Chinese immigrants flooded into California and the West Coast.

The immigration station most Chinese immigrants went to was Angel Island. It was like Ellis Island for the West Coast. However, immigrants could be detained for years. To express their sadness, immigrants carved poetry onto the walls. In the 1800’s and early 1900’s, the poems were dismissed as graffiti. The conditions were much worse than Ellis Island. Angel Island is no longer an immigration station and is now a national monument.

There were not many jobs available to Chinese immigrants that came in the mid 1800’s. The immigrants either became miners, laundrymen, or opened restaurants. Most of the miners came because the Gold Rush of 1949. They heard rumors of “Gold Mountain”, a land where gold could be picked up off the ground. Most of the miners lived in San Francisco. Unlike the white miners, the Chinese miners didn’t argue and fight. They were cooperative and pooled their money together to buy new mines. Miners lived in conditions that were usually very dirty. Being a laundryman was worse than being a miner in some ways. Laundrymen worked over 14 hours a day. It was comparable to being a slave. Laundries popped up all over the west coast. Miners and laundrymen needed food, so immigrants opened restaurants. The Asian food is still eaten today.

In America, Chinese immigrants settled in areas that became known as Chinatowns. The biggest one was in San Francisco. It attracted every Chinese person in California. New immigrants could often meet relatives or friend in Chinatowns. People went there because it was like their old life. People spoke Chinese, wore Chinese clothes, kept Chinese customs, and ate the same food. The food was much healthier than the American food. It consisted of many fruits and vegetables. They boiled their tea (killing any germs in the water). Many parts of the Chinatown were filthy. People crammed in rooms to save money. The conditions were like this until the Earthquake of 1906. It destroyed the San Francisco Chinatown. This played a crucial role in Chinese immigration. Not only did the new Chinatown was much more hygienic, but also the immigration records were destroyed. Chinese immigrants claimed they were born here. This might not seem important, but it played a part in Chinese immigration.

Anyone born in this country is a citizen. The law states that any citizen of the U.S. can bring their offspring into the U.S. Many of the new “citizens” brought “paper sons” to America. Paper sons were usually the son of the immigrant’s friend. The paper sons had to be interrogated about their “father”. The immigrant and the paper son agreed on answers. The interrogation could last for hours. If he failed the test, he would be deported and sent back the China. Many Chinese boys came to America this way. “Hoping to catch a paper son in a lie, immigration officers asked specific questions, like `how many steps were in your father’s house?’.” The only reason for all the deceit is only because of the Chinese Exclusion Act.

In 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed. It was the first time an immigration limitation was passed on a certain group. It was signed by President Chester Arthur. It was ended in 1942, when China and the U.S. were allies in WWII. The wife of a Chinese general came to the U.S. She promoted the war. She also asked for the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act and it was repealed.

Many Americans hated the Chinese immigrants. There were many reasons why Americans hated them. Some hated the Chinese because they were more successful than some Americans. On the other hand, others hated the Chinese because they looked so different. Some participated in anti-Chinese riots. Many Chinese immigrants were lynched. Others were severely injured. The worst riot lasted three days. The National Guard was called in, but even that wasn’t enough. Eventually, the Navy was called in, and the riot was broken up. These weren’t the only bigoted acts. Racist laws were passed to give the Chinese a hard time. The Sidewalk Ordinance prevented people from carrying poles with baskets on the ends. It was deliberately aimed at the Chinese. The Cubic Air Ordinance required every adult in San Francisco to have 500 cubic feet of living space. In addition, the Foreign Miners Act taxed all foreign miners if they owned gold mines. This deterred some miners from buying mines. Perhaps the most ruthless law was the Scott Act. It added to the Chinese Exclusion Act. It announced that all Chinese immigrants outside of the U.S. couldn’t come back in. At this time, about 20,000 immigrants were in China visiting their family.

Many people changed their attitudes towards the Chinese during WWII. WWII united China and the U.S; they had a common enemy: Japan. Many Chinese-Americans joined the military. Because at first they experienced racial prejudice, most of the Chinese-Americans were cooks. The few that actually fought were respected in the Army. Some even made it to be the Squad Leader. Because the Chinese were allies with the U.S. and the Japanese were its enemies, many stereotypical thoughts emerged. Chinese faces were said to be “kindly and honest”, and Japanese faces were said to be “cruel and arrogant”. This began an era of equality to the Chinese.

Chinese-Americans achieved great accomplishments. There were many important people. Michael Chang is a former professional tennis player. He was the youngest person to win a Grand Slam. He was also the first American to win the French Open in 34 years. Another important Chinese-American is Yo Yo Ma. He is a exceptional cellist who went to Juilliard School of Music. In addition, another Chinese-American is I. M. Pei. He is a renowned architect. He has designed the glass pyramid in from of the Louvre museum in Paris. Other buildings designed by him include the National Gallery of Art and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio. Furthermore, Jerry Yang founded Yahoo!. It is now a leading Internet brand. There are countless more significant people, but it is too many to list on paper.

Chinese Americans have made an enormous impact on American society. Like many of the immigrants from other countries, the Chinese immigrants were mostly poor. However when they got here, many were detained fro years at Angel Island. Those who did manage to get to the mainland received hate and prejudice from Americans. When the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed, Chinese immigration was restricted. Some Chinese immigrants lied to the government, and said they were born in the U.S. That way, they brought their children or “paper sons” here. Even so, the children had to pass a difficult interrogation. The Chinese finally proved themselves in WWII, when they fought with the U.S. Life would be very different without the impact of Chinese-Americans.

How to do Extreme Minimalist Living

a minimalist picture of a lone man

Minimalism is all the rage these days as we, as a society, are learning not to hoard materialistic possessions. This is a great thing that will eventually repay our debt to mother earth. Consumerism is a thorn in everyone’s side, whether they know it or don’t. To live like a minimalist, you should know what is useful and what isn’t. It’s more about cutting out unnecessary things rather than torturing yourself by “fasting”. I’ll explain the philosophy of minimalism, and give you tips on how to maximize how minimalist you are.

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Improve Your Vocabulary in Any Foreign Language

Languages

Tested tips for learning to remember new words and phrases in any new language.
You must have wondered how some people learn foreign languages so quickly. It is very nice and useful to learn a new language as it opens many new possibilities. However, many people have difficulties in learning new words, especially in a foreign language.

Remembering these words is even more difficult. Acquired vocabulary is practically useless unless the words learned can be recalled and used. Here are some suggestions for learning new foreign language words and retaining them. These suggestions work for any language.

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Teacher or Trainer: What’s the Difference?

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Why teachers are thought to be different from trainers.

Having served as a teacher and trainer for over twenty-five years, I get different answers from different people engaged in the field of education when I ask them to clarify if they are teachers or trainers.

Teachers are usually found in primary schools, whereas trainers are found in all walks of life, especially commercial ones, they say. A tennis coach (trainer) teaches you new skills and trains you for improving your playing skills. A leadership trainer or coach can teach you new methods of leading people and help you become a better leader. An instructor gives you instructions for learning to do something while a mentor is like a guide, leading you to acquire insights as well as acquire skills.

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Teaching History Through the Movies

Teaching History Through Mo

Often the History Channel makes use of movies to teach history. (historychannel.com ) However, the history channel has an expert panel of historians, who help to distinguish between film making, storytelling, creative license, the factual and true or truer history. Or rather, this is best understanding of these experts and professional historians, since the philosophy and discipline of history is like any other philosophy and discipline that has its best understanding and best theories.

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Effective Pre-K and Kindergarten Classroom Management

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Moving-Clip System: A Chart with Super Day (Happy Face) and Bad Day (Sad Face)

This is a great system to help the students regulate their own behavior. Each time when an individual student is mis-behaved, the teacher will ask him/her to move his/her clip down one level. The wall chart has 4 levels. Each student has his/her own clip with a name on it. They all start the day with the clips being placed on the top of the chart at the Super Day level (Happy Face). When each individual is being asked to move the clip when he/she mis-behaves, the clip goes down one level. They are given 4 chances during the day: from “Super Day” to “Good Day”, then to “OK Day” and the bottom is “Bad Day”.

If they ever move the clip in any given day, they are grounded and won’t be able to trade in the stars for a treasure chest toy even if they reach the 20-star reward level right on that day. But this system starts a brand new day each day, so they will still get the chance to go get a treasure chest toy if they don’t move the clip the following day. It is like your account has to be in good standing in order to receive the reward.

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Using Signals or Sign Language

The teacher has taught the class to use some hand signals for the need to use the bathroom and to go for a sip of water. The sign language of the letter “W” is for water, and “R” is for restroom. This way you can eliminate the students from talking to express their needs. Sometimes when one starts talking, the whole class can end up going out of control fairly quickly. This is an effective way to keep them quiet and yet not to ignore their demand.

Make Every Activity to be Associated with a Song

Create or find a song for clean-up, line-up, etc.  When the play time is finished, students are asked to put away the toys and to clean up the room and they use a clean-up song to engage with this activity. And when they need to line up, they will sing the line up song. In every action they do, they sing altogether and this actually allows them to get the job done quickly and smoothly.  I think music often works the wonder to help the kids to get motivated and to get their attention to follow through the entire process and you will get the end result from what it is needed to be done.

Take Time to Relax and Refresh with Music, So the Students Can Get Their Attention Back to Focus on the Teaching Again

One day I learned from our teacher, Mrs. Fristad, that there are times during the day in the class that you may find some students seem to start loosing their focus. Then you can start leading a song, let the students all stand up to stretch, to move around, jump and sing-along. After a short break like that, you can be sure to get their attention and focus back on track again. I learned a great deal from this. Dealing with young children, they easily loose their focus and their mind may just wander around. Singing together can let their steam out and they can then start to re-focus again. Learning can easily revolve around music. Students and the teacher all have fun together and this will boost up the spirits within the classroom and it goes a long way!

Here is a great example you may want to try:

The ACT vs SAT

students taking a test

Taking the SAT or ACT is a rite of passage for high school students who are preparing for college. Students may take one or the other—or both, depending on their college prospects. But what are the major differences between the SAT and the ACT? What are the advantages to taking one over another? And which test might be a better fit for you?

Staying on subject

“Well-rounded” is one of those terms that gets tossed around in admissions brochures and by college recruiters; it essentially means that they’re looking for students with broad interests and strengths in more than one subject. But for students who’ve already chosen a major, a test that showcases their talent in a particular subject might be best. The SAT has three major sections: math, critical reasoning, and writing. The ACT, on the other hand, has five sections: math, English, reading, science and writing. Because the ACT includes science and English sections, future science and liberal arts students might want to take the ACT, although the SAT’s math and critical reasoning sections can serve the same purpose.

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Beating the clock

It seems a little unfair that the SAT has three sections and a three-hour, forty-five minute time limit, while the ACT gives you just under three hours to complete five sections. But the devil is in the details: guessing is discouraged for SAT takers, with a penalty of a quarter-point for wrong answers. There is no penalty, however, for wrong answers on the ACT. And while both tests have an essay section, it’s optional—which means students can save time by simply skipping the essay section. Finally, the math section—feared by future English majors everywhere—generally has easier problems on the SAT, but there are fewer, more difficult problems on the ACT.

So, which test should you take, and how do you get your best score? First, find out which tests are preferred by the colleges and universities to which you are applying. Some students take both tests more than once because they hope to improve their chances for a higher score.

No matter which test you decide to take, using study guides, trying new ways to study, and using a vocabulary list can help you with both tests. Both the ACT and the SAT are just exams to demonstrate your readiness for college subjects; doing your best can improve your chances of getting into your dream school.

Written on behalf of American InterContinental University.

Benefits of Part-time Teaching

part time teaching

After leaving the university, many college graduates face the reality that there are no enough jobs for everyone. Some, especially those holding impressive transcript of records, are tapped by their respective alma maters as part-time instructors.

This group, because they are not regular employees of the school, do not receive the benefits that the other employees get like leave credits, Christmas bonus, 13th month pay, etc.  However, there are other benefits  that part-time teaching gives to fresh graduates. Here are some of them:

1.  Access to school facilities

The library, the museum, the hospital and the dental clinic are some facilities that help us build and improve both our body and our soul.  Most schools extend their services only to those who are connected with the institution. This, is, therefore one huge bonus for those who are no longer students.

2.  Community affiliation

Some schools can really be brutal in the contract they offer to their part-time instructors.  A contract stipulating that “there is no employer-employee relationship between the school and the instructor” is demoralizing to a neophyte.

However, no matter what the contract says, part-time instructors can build friendships with fellow instructors, other employees and students. Hence, they build their own network of friends.  This is a lot better than being jobless and being away from where the real action is happening, i.e., the workplace.

 

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.  Self-confidence is enhanced

Teachers, always, have a ready audience: their students.  Hence, they make it a point that their students do not lose interest in the classroom activities and in the teachers themselves.

Teachers are performers.  Aside from the endless reading and researching they do, they likewise do public speaking.

Teachers also tell jokes.  And these jokes have to be updated constantly in order not to  bore their students.  In the process, they discover a lot of possibilities within themselves that were unknown to them before.  Teaching, whether regular or full-time, builds a teacher’s confidence.

4.  Resume starts to build up

A job applicant’s teaching experience can be impressive to future employers.  On the other hand, if a part-time teacher decides to stay in the same institution after he/she finishes graduate school, the advantage is hers/his.  Administrators usually go for those who have been with them.  This makes sense.  It’s like the part-time instructor is constantly having a teaching demonstration throughout his/her two-semester or two-year stint as a teacher.  It has been said that teaching is like wine: one gets better through the years.  And school administrators know this.

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5.  Part-time teaching gives income 

To become a full-fledged university instructor, one must possess the right qualifications, e.g., a master’s degree.  Most part-time instructors pursue graduate studies while teaching. They send themselves to school by paying for their own tuition fees.

The income they get from part-time teaching may not be very impressive but at least it gives them the chance to be independent from their parents and to improve themselves as persons, as teachers or as future job applicants.

 

teacher pointing to imagePart-time teaching therefore, is valuable in making a person. In general, the status and the money are of less importance compared to the benefits that part-time teaching can give to a young professional.  It may just be the springboard toward a better career.